International Science Index
A Study on the Impacts of Computer Aided Design on the Architectural Design Process
Computer-aided design (CAD) tools have been extensively used by the architects for the several decades. It has evolved from being a simple drafting tool to being an intelligent architectural software and a powerful means of communication for architects. CAD plays an essential role in the profession of architecture and is a basic tool for any architectural firm. It is not possible for an architectural firm to compete without taking the advantage of computer software, due to the high demand and competition in the architectural industry. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impacts of CAD on the architectural design process from conceptual level to final product, particularly in architectural practice. It examines the range of benefits of integrating CAD into the industry and discusses the possible defects limiting the architects. Method of this study is qualitatively based on data collected from the professionals’ perspective. The identified benefits and limitations of CAD on the architectural design process will raise the awareness of professionals on the potentials of CAD and proper utilization of that in the industry, which would result in a higher productivity along with a better quality in the architectural offices.
Bio-Inspired Design Approach Analysis: A Case Study of Antoni Gaudi and Santiago Calatrava
Antoni Gaudi and Santiago Calatrava have reputation for designing bio-inspired creative and technical buildings. Even though they have followed different independent approaches towards design, the source of bio-inspiration seems to be common. Taking a closer look at their projects reveals that Calatrava has been influenced by Gaudi in terms of interpreting nature and applying natural principles into the design process. This research firstly discusses the dialogue between Biomimicry and architecture. This review also explores human/nature discourse during the history by focusing on how nature revealed itself to the fine arts. This is explained by introducing naturalism and romantic style in architecture as the outcome of designers’ inclination towards nature. Reviewing the literature, theoretical background and practical illustration of nature have been included. The most dominant practical aspects of imitating nature are form and function. Nature has been reflected in architectural science resulted in shaping different architectural styles such as organic, green, sustainable, bionic, and biomorphic. By defining a set of common aspects of Gaudi and Calatrava‘s design approach and by considering biomimetic design categories (organism, ecosystem, and behaviour as the main division and form, function, process, material, and construction as subdivisions), Gaudi’s and Calatrava’s project have been analysed. This analysis explores if their design approaches are equivalent or different. Based on this analysis, Gaudi’s architecture can be recognised as biomorphic while Calatrava’s projects are literally biomimetic. Referring to these architects, this review suggests a new set of principles by which a bio-inspired project can be determined either biomorphic or biomimetic.
An Investigation into the Use of an Atomistic, Hermeneutic, Holistic Approach in Education Relating to the Architectural Design Process
Within architectural education, students arrive fore-armed with; their life-experience; knowledge gained from subject-based learning; their brains and more specifically their imaginations. The learning-by-doing that they embark on in studio-based/project-based learning calls for supervision that allows the student to proactively undertake research and experimentation with design solution possibilities. The degree to which this supervision includes direction is subject to debate and differing opinion. It can be argued that if the student is to learn-by-doing, then design decision making within the design process needs to be instigated and owned by the student so that they have the ability to personally reflect on and evaluate those decisions. Within this premise lies the problem that the student's endeavours can become unstructured and unfocused as they work their way into a new and complex activity. A resultant weakness can be that the design activity is compartmented and not holistic or comprehensive, and therefore, the student's reflections are consequently impoverished in terms of providing a positive, informative feedback loop. The construct proffered in this paper is that a supportive 'armature' or 'Heuristic-Framework' can be developed that facilitates a holistic approach and reflective learning. The normal explorations of architectural design comprise: Analysing the site and context, reviewing building precedents, assimilating the briefing information. However, the student can still be compromised by 'not knowing what they need to know'. The long-serving triad 'Firmness, Commodity and Delight' provides a broad-brush framework of considerations to explore and integrate into good design. If this were further atomised in subdivision formed from the disparate aspects of architectural design that need to be considered within the design process, then the student could sieve through the facts more methodically and reflectively in terms of considering their interrelationship conflict and alliances. The words facts and sieve hold the acronym of the aspects that form the Heuristic-Framework: Function, Aesthetics, Context, Tectonics, Spatial, Servicing, Infrastructure, Environmental, Value and Ecological issues. The Heuristic could be used as a Hermeneutic Model with each aspect of design being focused on and considered in abstraction and then considered in its relation to other aspect and the design proposal as a whole. Importantly, the heuristic could be used as a method for gathering information and enhancing the design brief. The more poetic, mysterious, intuitive, unconscious processes should still be able to occur for the student. The Heuristic-Framework should not be seen as comprehensive prescriptive formulaic or inhibiting to the wide exploration of possibilities and solutions within the architectural design process.
An Electrically Small Silver Ink Printed FR4 Antenna for RF Transceiver Chip CC1101
An electrically small meander line antenna is designed for impedance matching with RF transceiver chip CC1101. The design provides the flexibility of tuning the reactance of the antenna over a wide range of values: highly capacitive to highly inductive. The antenna was printed with silver ink on FR4 substrate using the screen printing design process. The antenna impedance was perfectly matched to CC1101 at 433 MHz. The measured radiation efficiency of the antenna was 81.3% at resonance. The 3 dB and 10 dB fractional bandwidth of the antenna was 14.5% and 4.78%, respectively. The read range of the antenna was compared with a copper wire monopole antenna over a distance of five meters. The antenna, with a perfect impedance match with RF transceiver chip CC1101, shows improvement in the read range compared to a monopole antenna over the specified distance.
A Simulated Scenario of WikiGIS to Support the Iteration and Traceability Management of the Geodesign Process
Geodesign is an emergent term related to a new and complex process. Hence, it needs to rethink tools, technologies and platforms in order to efficiently achieve its goals. A few tools have emerged since 2010 such as CommunityViz, GeoPlanner, etc. In the era of Web 2.0 and collaboration, WikiGIS has been proposed as a new category of tools. In this paper, we present WikiGIS functionalities dealing mainly with the iteration and traceability management to support the collaboration of the Geodesign process. Actually, WikiGIS is built on GeoWeb 2.0 technologies —and primarily on wiki— and aims at managing the tracking of participants’ editing. This paper focuses on a simplified simulation to illustrate the strength of WikiGIS in the management of traceability and in the access to history in a Geodesign process. Indeed, a cartographic user interface has been implemented, and then a hypothetical use case has been imagined as proof of concept.
The Role of Acoustical Design within Architectural Design in the Early Design Phase
This research responded to anecdotal evidence that suggested inefficiencies within the Architect and Acoustician relationship may lead to ineffective acoustic design decisions. The acoustician spoken to believed that he was approached too late in the design phase. The approached architect valued acoustical qualities, yet, struggled to interpret common measurement parameters. The preliminary investigation of these opinions indicated a gap in the current New Zealand Architectural discourse and currently informs the creation of a 2016 Master of Architecture (Prof) thesis research. Little meaningful information about acoustic intervention in the early design phase could be found from past literature. In the information that was sourced, authors focus on software as an incorporation tool without investigating why the flaws in the relationship originally exist. To further explore this relationship, a survey was designed. It underwent three phases to ensure its consistency, and was delivered to a group of 51 acousticians from one international Acoustics company. The results were then separated between New Zealand and off-shore to identify trends. The survey results suggest that 75% of acousticians meet the architect less than 5 times per project. Instead of regular contact, a mediated method is adopted though a mix of telecommunication and written reports. Acousticians tend to be introduced later into New Zealand building project than the corresponding off-shore building. This delay corresponds to an increase in remedial action for each of the building types in the survey except Auditoria and Office Buildings. 31 participants have had their specifications challenged by an architect. Furthermore, 71% of the acousticians believe that architects do not have the knowledge to understand why the acoustic specifications are in place. The issues raised in this investigation align to the colloquial evidence expressed by the two consultants. It identifies a larger gap in the industry were acoustics is remedially treated rather than identified as a possible design driver. Further research through design is suggested to understand the role of acoustics within architectural design and potential tools for its inclusion during, not after, the design process.
Evaluation of Easy-to-Use Energy Building Design Tools for Solar Access Analysis in Urban Contexts: Comparison of Friendly Simulation Design Tools for Architectural Practice in the Early Design Stage
Current building sector is focused on reduction of energy requirements, on renewable energy generation and on regeneration of existing urban areas. These targets need to be solved with a systemic approach, considering several aspects simultaneously such as climate conditions, lighting conditions, solar radiation, PV potential, etc. The solar access analysis is an already known method to analyze the solar potentials, but in current years, simulation tools have provided more effective opportunities to perform this type of analysis, in particular in the early design stage. Nowadays, the study of the solar access is related to the easiness of the use of simulation tools, in rapid and easy way, during the design process. This study presents a comparison of three simulation tools, from the point of view of the user, with the aim to highlight differences in the easy-to-use of these tools. Using a real urban context as case study, three tools; Ecotect, Townscope and Heliodon, are tested, performing models and simulations and examining the capabilities and output results of solar access analysis. The evaluation of the ease-to-use of these tools is based on some detected parameters and features, such as the types of simulation, requirements of input data, types of results, etc. As a result, a framework is provided in which features and capabilities of each tool are shown. This framework shows the differences among these tools about functions, features and capabilities. The aim of this study is to support users and to improve the integration of simulation tools for solar access with the design process.
Climate Adaptive Building Shells for Plus-Energy-Buildings, Designed on Bionic Principles
Six peculiar architecture designs from the Frankfurt University will be discussed within this paper and their future potential of the adaptable and solar thin-film sheets implemented facades will be shown acting and reacting on climate/solar changes of their specific sites. The different aspects, as well as limitations with regard to technical and functional restrictions, will be named. The design process for a “multi-purpose building”, a “high-rise building refurbishment” and a “biker’s lodge” on the river Rheine valley, has been critically outlined and developed step by step from an international studentship towards an overall energy strategy, that firstly had to push the design to a plus-energy building and secondly had to incorporate bionic aspects into the building skins design. Both main parameters needed to be reviewed and refined during the whole design process. Various basic bionic approaches have been given [e.g. solar ivy TM, flectofin TM or hygroskin TM, which were to experiment with, regarding the use of bendable photovoltaic thin film elements being parts of a hybrid, kinetic façade system.
Optimization of Element Type for FE Model and Verification of Analyses with Physical Tests
In Automotive Industry, sliding door systems that are
also used as body closures are safety members. Extreme product tests
are realized to prevent failures in design process, but these tests
realized experimentally result in high costs. Finite element analysis is
an effective tool used for design process. These analyses are used
before production of prototype for validation of design according to
customer requirement. In result of this, substantial amount of time
and cost is saved. Finite element model is created for geometries that are designed in
3D CAD programs. Different element types as bar, shell and solid,
can be used for creating mesh model. Cheaper model can be created
by selection of element type, but combination of element type that
was used in model, number and geometry of element and degrees of
freedom affects the analysis result. Sliding door system is a good
example which used these methods for this study. Structural analysis
was realized for sliding door mechanism by using FE models. As
well, physical tests that have same boundary conditions with FE
models were realized. Comparison study for these element types,
were done regarding test and analyses results then optimum
combination was achieved.
Ambient Vibration Testing of Existing Buildings in Madinah
The elastic period has a primary role in the seismic
assessment of buildings. Reliable calculations and/or estimates of the
fundamental frequency of a building and its site are essential during
analysis and design process. Various code formulas based on
empirical data are generally used to estimate the fundamental
frequency of a structure. For existing structures, in addition to code
formulas and available analytical tools such as modal analyses,
various methods of testing including ambient and forced vibration
testing procedures may be used to determine dynamic characteristics.
In this study, the dynamic properties of the 32 buildings located in
the Madinah of Saudi Arabia were identified using ambient motions
recorded at several, spatially-distributed locations within each
building. Ambient vibration measurements of buildings have been
analyzed and the fundamental longitudinal and transverse periods for
all tested buildings are presented. The fundamental mode of vibration
has been compared in plots with codes formulae (Saudi Building
Code, EC8, and UBC1997). The results indicate that measured
periods of existing buildings are shorter than that given by most
empirical code formulas. Recommendations are given based on the
common design and construction practice in Madinah city.
Scaling Strategy of a New Experimental Rig for Wheel-Rail Contact
A new small–scale test rig developed for rolling
contact fatigue (RCF) investigations in wheel–rail material. This
paper presents the scaling strategy of the rig based on dimensional
analysis and mechanical modelling. The new experimental rig is
indeed a spinning frame structure with multiple wheel components
over a fixed rail-track ring, capable of simulating continuous wheelrail
contact in a laboratory scale. This paper describes the
dimensional design of the rig, to derive its overall scaling strategy
and to determine the key elements’ specifications. Finite element
(FE) modelling is used to simulate the mechanical behavior of the rig
with two sample scale factors of 1/5 and 1/7. The results of FE
models are compared with the actual railway system to observe the
effectiveness of the chosen scales. The mechanical properties of the
components and variables of the system are finally determined
through the design process.
Improvement of Model for SIMMER Code for SFR Corium Relocation Studies
The in-depth understanding of severe accident propagation in Generation IV of nuclear reactors is important so that appropriate risk management can be undertaken early in their design process. This paper is focused on model improvements in the SIMMER code in order to perform studies of severe accident mitigation of Sodium Fast Reactor. During the design process of the mitigation devices dedicated to extraction of molten fuel from the core region, the molten fuel propagation from the core up to the core catcher has to be studied. In this aim, analytical as well as the complex thermohydraulic simulations with SIMMER-III code are performed. The studies presented in this paper focus on physical phenomena and associated physical models that influence the corium relocation. Firstly, the molten pool heat exchange with surrounding structures is analyzed since it influences directly the instant of rupture of the dedicated tubes favoring the corium relocation for mitigation purpose. After the corium penetration into mitigation tubes, the fuel-coolant interactions result in formation of debris bed. Analyses of debris bed fluidization as well as sinking into a fluid are presented in this paper.
Structural Analysis of Username Segment in E-Mail Addresses of Engineering Institutes of Gujarat State of India
E-mail has become a key mechanism of electronic communication. This is true for professional organizations that like to communicate with their subjects online and are slowly shifting to paper-less office. The current paper focuses specifically on academic institutions offering Engineering course in Gujarat state and attempts for textual analysis of the usernames of the institutional e-mail addresses. We found that the institutions tend to design the username segment of their e-mail addresses by choosing words or combination of words from specific categories. The paper also highlights the use of special characters, digits and random words in designing the usernames. On the sidelines, the paper lists the style of employing department names and designations for the design process. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first formal attempt to analyze the selection of words employed for designing username segment of e-mail addresses of engineering institutions.
Design Channel Non-Persistent CSMA MAC Protocol Model for Complex Wireless Systems Based on SoC
This paper presents Carrier Sense Multiple Access
(CSMA) communication models based on SoC design methodology.
Such a model can be used to support the modeling of the complex
wireless communication systems. Therefore, the use of such
communication model is an important technique in the construction
of high-performance communication. SystemC has been chosen
because it provides a homogeneous design flow for complex designs
(i.e. SoC and IP-based design). We use a swarm system to validate
CSMA designed model and to show how advantages of incorporating
communication early in the design process. The wireless
communication created through the modeling of CSMA protocol that
can be used to achieve communication between all the agents and to
coordinate access to the shared medium (channel).
Supportability Analysis in LCI Environment
Starting from the basic pillars of the supportability
analysis this paper queries its characteristics in LCI (Life Cycle
Integration) environment. The research methodology contents a
review of modern logistics engineering literature with the objective to
collect and synthesize the knowledge relating to standards of
supportability design in e-logistics environment. The results show
that LCI framework has properties which are in fully compatibility
with the requirement of simultaneous logistics support and productservice
bundle design. The proposed approach is a contribution to the
more comprehensive and efficient supportability design process.
Also, contributions are reflected through a greater consistency of
collected data, automated creation of reports suitable for different
analysis, as well as the possibility of their customization according
with customer needs. In addition to this, convenience of this approach
is its practical use in real time. In a broader sense, LCI allows
integration of enterprises on a worldwide basis facilitating electronic
A Concept of Successful Collaborative Design towards Sustainability of Project Development
Development in construction industry is leading to involve complexities in engineering systems; whereas it also required to its sustainability towards social, environmental, and economical aspects. Experts with requisite background and expertise are involved in order to integrate knowledge in achieving whole criteria through design process. Collaborative design is needed in order to attain optimum design through shared solution and goal from experts. This study is conducted to explore issues and approaches development of collaborative design research in construction and its influence to sustainability of the development. Literature review method is used in order to conceptually figure future research direction of collaborative design research. This research is a part of beginning process in doctoral research program, and will be used to support dissertation’s conceptual definition.
Design Process of the Fixing Pipes in the Guide Pipe Anchor System for Cable-Stayed Bridges
For the efficient and safe use of the cable-stayed
bridge, a design based on the detailed local analysis of the cable anchor
system is required. Also, a theoretical design process for the anchor
system should be prepared and reviewed. Generally, the size of the
fixing pipe in the anchor system is decided according to the
specifications prepared by cable-manufacturing companies, and
accordingly, there is difficulty determining the initial inner diameters
of the fixing pipes. As such, there is no choice but to use the products
with the existing sizes. In this study, the existing design process of the
fixing pipe, is a type of guide pipe anchor in the cable anchor system,
is reviewed, a formula determining the thickness of the fixing pipe is
proposed, and the convenience and validity of the suggested equation
is compared with the results of the existing designs to verify its
convenience and validity.
A Visual Educational Modeling Language to Help Teachers in Learning Scenario Design
The success of an e-learning system is highly
dependent on the quality of its educational content and how effective,
complete, and simple the design tool can be for teachers. Educational
modeling languages (EMLs) are proposed as design languages
intended to teachers for modeling diverse teaching-learning
experiences, independently of the pedagogical approach and in
different contexts. However, most existing EMLs are criticized for
being too abstract and too complex to be understood and manipulated
by teachers. In this paper, we present a visual EML that simplifies the
process of designing learning scenarios for teachers with no
programming background. Based on the conceptual framework of the
activity theory, our resulting visual EML focuses on using Domainspecific
modeling techniques to provide a pedagogical level of
abstraction in the design process.
A Novel Design Approach for Mechatronic Systems Based On Multidisciplinary Design Optimization
In this paper, a novel approach for the multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) of complex mechatronic systems. This approach, which is a part of a global project aiming to include the MDO aspect inside an innovative design process. As a first step, the paper considers the MDO as a redesign approach which is limited to the parametric optimization. After defining and introducing the different keywords, the proposed method which is based on the V-Model which is commonly used in mechatronics.
Main Bearing Stiffness Investigation
Simplified coupled engine block-crankshaft models
based on beam theory provide an efficient substitute to engine
simulation in the design process. These models require accurate
definition of the main bearing stiffness. In this paper, an investigation
of this stiffness is presented. The clearance effect is studied using a
smooth bearing model. It is manifested for low shaft displacement.
The hydrodynamic assessment model shows that the oil film has no
stiffness for low loads and it is infinitely rigid for important loads.
The deformation stiffness is determined using a suitable finite
elements model based on real CADs. As a result, a main bearing
behaviour law is proposed. This behaviour law takes into account the
clearance, the hydrodynamic sustention and the deformation stiffness.
It ensures properly the transition from the configuration low rigidity
to the configuration high rigidity.
A Simulation Software for DNA Computing Algorithms Implementation
The capturing of gel electrophoresis image represents
the output of a DNA computing algorithm. Before this image is being
captured, DNA computing involves parallel overlap assembly (POA)
and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that is the main of this
computing algorithm. However, the design of the DNA
oligonucleotides to represent a problem is quite complicated and is
prone to errors. In order to reduce these errors during the design stage
before the actual in-vitro experiment is carried out; a simulation
software capable of simulating the POA and PCR processes is
developed. This simulation software capability is unlimited where
problem of any size and complexity can be simulated, thus saving
cost due to possible errors during the design process. Information
regarding the DNA sequence during the computing process as well as
the computing output can be extracted at the same time using the
Methodology Issues and Design Approach of VLE on Mathematical Concepts Acquisition within Secondary Education in England
This study used positivist quantitative approach to examine the mathematical concepts acquisition of- KS4 (14-16) Special Education Needs (SENs) students within the school sector education in England. The research is based on a pilot study and the design is completely holistic in its approach with mixing methodologies. The study combines the qualitative and quantitative methods of approach in gathering formative data for the design process. Although, the approach could best be described as a mix method, fundamentally with a strong positivist paradigm, hence my earlier understanding of the differentiation of the students, student – teacher body and the various elements of indicators that is being measured which will require an attenuated description of individual research subjects. The design process involves four phases with five key stages which are; literature review and document analysis, the survey, interview, and observation; then finally the analysis of data set. The research identified the need for triangulation with Reid-s phases of data management providing scaffold for the study. The study clearly identified the ideological and philosophical aspects of educational research design for the study of mathematics by the special education needs (SENs) students in England using the virtual learning environment (VLE) platform.
Genetic Algorithm Based Design of Fuzzy Logic Power System Stabilizers in Multimachine Power System
This paper presents an approach for the design of
fuzzy logic power system stabilizers using genetic algorithms. In the
proposed fuzzy expert system, speed deviation and its derivative
have been selected as fuzzy inputs. In this approach the parameters of
the fuzzy logic controllers have been tuned using genetic algorithm.
Incorporation of GA in the design of fuzzy logic power system
stabilizer will add an intelligent dimension to the stabilizer and
significantly reduces computational time in the design process. It is
shown in this paper that the system dynamic performance can be
improved significantly by incorporating a genetic-based searching
mechanism. To demonstrate the robustness of the genetic based
fuzzy logic power system stabilizer (GFLPSS), simulation studies on
multimachine system subjected to small perturbation and three-phase
fault have been carried out. Simulation results show the superiority
and robustness of GA based power system stabilizer as compare to
conventionally tuned controller to enhance system dynamic
performance over a wide range of operating conditions.
Experimental Modal Analysis and Model Validation of Antenna Structures
Numerical design optimization is a powerful tool that
can be used by engineers during any stage of the design process.
There are many different applications for structural optimization. A
specific application that will be discussed in the following paper is
experimental data matching. Data obtained through tests on a physical
structure will be matched with data from a numerical model of that
same structure. The data of interest will be the dynamic characteristics
of an antenna structure focusing on the mode shapes and modal
frequencies. The structure used was a scaled and simplified model of
the Karoo Array Telescope-7 (KAT-7) antenna structure.
This kind of data matching is a complex and difficult task. This
paper discusses how optimization can assist an engineer during the
process of correlating a finite element model with vibration test data.
Energy Efficiency: An Engineering Pathway towards Sustainability
Today global warming, climate change and energy supply are of greater concern as it is widely realized that the planet earth does not provide an infinite capacity for absorbing human industrialization in the 21st century. The aim of this paper is to analyze upstream and downstream electricity production in selected case studies: a coal power plant, a pump system and a microwave oven covering and consumption to explore the position of energy efficiency in engineering sustainability. Collectively, the analysis presents energy efficiency as a major pathway towards sustainability that requires an inclusive and a holistic supply chain response in the engineering design process.
Design of Thermal Control Subsystem for TUSAT Telecommunication Satellite
TUSAT is a prospective Turkish
Communication Satellite designed for providing mainly data
communication and broadcasting services through Ku-Band
and C-Band channels. Thermal control is a vital issue in
satellite design process. Therefore, all satellite subsystems and
equipments should be maintained in the desired temperature
range from launch to end of maneuvering life. The main
function of the thermal control is to keep the equipments and
the satellite structures in a given temperature range for various
phases and operating modes of spacecraft during its lifetime.
This paper describes the thermal control design which uses
passive and active thermal control concepts. The active
thermal control is based on heaters regulated by software via
thermistors. Alternatively passive thermal control composes of
heat pipes, multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets, radiators,
paints and surface finishes maintaining temperature level of
the overall carrier components within an acceptable value.
Thermal control design is supported by thermal analysis using
thermal mathematical models (TMM).
High Level Characterization and Optimization of Switched-Current Sigma-Delta Modulators with VHDL-AMS
Today, design requirements are extending more and
more from electronic (analogue and digital) to multidiscipline design.
These current needs imply implementation of methodologies to make
the CAD product reliable in order to improve time to market, study
costs, reusability and reliability of the design process.
This paper proposes a high level design approach applied for the
characterization and the optimization of Switched-Current Sigma-
Delta Modulators. It uses the new hardware description language
VHDL-AMS to help the designers to optimize the characteristics of
the modulator at a high level with a considerably reduced CPU time
before passing to a transistor level characterization.