International Science Index

7
10007982
Analytical Formulae for the Approach Velocity Head Coefficient
Abstract:

Critical depth meters, such as abroad crested weir, Venture Flume and combined control flume are standard devices for measuring flow in open channels. The discharge relation for these devices cannot be solved directly, but it needs iteration process to account for the approach velocity head. In this paper, analytical solution was developed to calculate the discharge in a combined critical depth-meter namely, a hump combined with lateral contraction in rectangular channel with subcritical approach flow including energy losses. Also analytical formulae were derived for approach velocity head coefficient for different types of critical depth meters. The solution was derived by solving a standard cubic equation considering energy loss on the base of trigonometric identity. The advantage of this technique is to avoid iteration process adopted in measuring flow by these devices. Numerical examples are chosen for demonstration of the proposed solution.

Paper Detail
157
downloads
6
10005807
A Cognitive Measurement of Complexity and Comprehension for Object-Oriented Code
Abstract:

Inherited complexity is one of the difficult tasks in software engineering field. Further, it is said that there is no physical laws or standard guidelines suit for designing different types of software. Hence, to make the software engineering as a matured engineering discipline like others, it is necessary that it has its own theoretical frameworks and laws. Software designing and development is a human effort which takes a lot of time and considers various parameters for successful completion of the software. The cognitive informatics plays an important role for understanding the essential characteristics of the software. The aim of this work is to consider the fundamental characteristics of the source code of Object-Oriented software i.e. complexity and understandability. The complexity of the programs is analyzed with the help of extracted important attributes of the source code, which is further utilized to evaluate the understandability factor. The aforementioned characteristics are analyzed on the basis of 16 C++ programs by distributing them to forty MCA students. They all tried to understand the source code of the given program and mean time is taken as the actual time needed to understand the program. For validation of this work, Briand’s framework is used and the presented metric is also evaluated comparatively with existing metric which proves its robustness.

Paper Detail
333
downloads
5
9999948
Flood Control Structures in the River Göta Älv to Protect Gothenburg City (Sweden) during the 21st Century - Preliminary Evaluation
Abstract:

Climate change would cause mean sea level to rise +1 m by 2100. To prevent coastal floods resulting from the sea level rising, different flood control structures have been built, with acceptable protection levels. Gothenburg with the River Göta älv located on the southwest coast of Sweden is a vulnerable city to the accelerated rises in mean sea level. We evaluated using a sea barrage in the River Göta älv to protect Gothenburg during this century. The highest sea level was estimated to 2.95 m above the current mean sea level by 2100. To verify flood protection against such high sea levels, both barriers have to be closed. To prevent high water level in the River Göta älv reservoir, the barriers would be open when the sea level is low. The suggested flood control structures would successfully protect the city from flooding events during this century.

Paper Detail
4008
downloads
4
1813
Evolutionary Algorithms for Learning Primitive Fuzzy Behaviors and Behavior Coordination in Multi-Objective Optimization Problems
Abstract:
Evolutionary robotics is concerned with the design of intelligent systems with life-like properties by means of simulated evolution. Approaches in evolutionary robotics can be categorized according to the control structures that represent the behavior and the parameters of the controller that undergo adaptation. The basic idea is to automatically synthesize behaviors that enable the robot to perform useful tasks in complex environments. The evolutionary algorithm searches through the space of parameterized controllers that map sensory perceptions to control actions, thus realizing a specific robotic behavior. Further, the evolutionary algorithm maintains and improves a population of candidate behaviors by means of selection, recombination and mutation. A fitness function evaluates the performance of the resulting behavior according to the robot-s task or mission. In this paper, the focus is in the use of genetic algorithms to solve a multi-objective optimization problem representing robot behaviors; in particular, the A-Compander Law is employed in selecting the weight of each objective during the optimization process. Results using an adaptive fitness function show that this approach can efficiently react to complex tasks under variable environments.
Paper Detail
990
downloads
3
6109
Evaluation of Optimum Performance of Lateral Intakes
Abstract:

In designing river intakes and diversion structures, it is paramount that the sediments entering the intake are minimized or, if possible, completely separated. Due to high water velocity, sediments can significantly damage hydraulic structures especially when mechanical equipment like pumps and turbines are used. This subsequently results in wasting water, electricity and further costs. Therefore, it is prudent to investigate and analyze the performance of lateral intakes affected by sediment control structures. Laboratory experiments, despite their vast potential and benefits, can face certain limitations and challenges. Some of these include: limitations in equipment and facilities, space constraints, equipment errors including lack of adequate precision or mal-operation, and finally, human error. Research has shown that in order to achieve the ultimate goal of intake structure design – which is to design longlasting and proficient structures – the best combination of sediment control structures (such as sill and submerged vanes) along with parameters that increase their performance (such as diversion angle and location) should be determined. Cost, difficulty of execution and environmental impacts should also be included in evaluating the optimal design. This solution can then be applied to similar problems in the future. Subsequently, the model used to arrive at the optimal design requires high level of accuracy and precision in order to avoid improper design and execution of projects. Process of creating and executing the design should be as comprehensive and applicable as possible. Therefore, it is important that influential parameters and vital criteria is fully understood and applied at all stages of choosing the optimal design. In this article, influential parameters on optimal performance of the intake, advantages and disadvantages, and efficiency of a given design are studied. Then, a multi-criterion decision matrix is utilized to choose the optimal model that can be used to determine the proper parameters in constructing the intake.

Paper Detail
1565
downloads
2
9219
Object-Oriented Cognitive-Spatial Complexity Measures
Abstract:
Software maintenance and mainly software comprehension pose the largest costs in the software lifecycle. In order to assess the cost of software comprehension, various complexity measures have been proposed in the literature. This paper proposes new cognitive-spatial complexity measures, which combine the impact of spatial as well as architectural aspect of the software to compute the software complexity. The spatial aspect of the software complexity is taken into account using the lexical distances (in number of lines of code) between different program elements and the architectural aspect of the software complexity is taken into consideration using the cognitive weights of control structures present in control flow of the program. The proposed measures are evaluated using standard axiomatic frameworks and then, the proposed measures are compared with the corresponding existing cognitive complexity measures as well as the spatial complexity measures for object-oriented software. This study establishes that the proposed measures are better indicators of the cognitive effort required for software comprehension than the other existing complexity measures for object-oriented software.
Paper Detail
1361
downloads
1
11564
Underlying Cognitive Complexity Measure Computation with Combinatorial Rules
Abstract:
Measuring the complexity of software has been an insoluble problem in software engineering. Complexity measures can be used to predict critical information about testability, reliability, and maintainability of software systems from automatic analysis of the source code. During the past few years, many complexity measures have been invented based on the emerging Cognitive Informatics discipline. These software complexity measures, including cognitive functional size, lend themselves to the approach of the total cognitive weights of basic control structures such as loops and branches. This paper shows that the current existing calculation method can generate different results that are algebraically equivalence. However, analysis of the combinatorial meanings of this calculation method shows significant flaw of the measure, which also explains why it does not satisfy Weyuker's properties. Based on the findings, improvement directions, such as measures fusion, and cumulative variable counting scheme are suggested to enhance the effectiveness of cognitive complexity measures.
Paper Detail
1245
downloads