International Science Index
Determining G-γ Degradation Curve in Cohesive Soils by Dilatometer and in situ Seismic Tests
This article discusses the possibility of using dilatometer tests (DMT) together with in situ seismic tests (MASW) in order to get the shape of G-g degradation curve in cohesive soils (clay, silty clay, silt, clayey silt and sandy silt). MASW test provides the small soil stiffness (Go from vs) at very small strains and DMT provides the stiffness of the soil at ‘work strains’ (MDMT). At different test locations, dilatometer shear stiffness of the soil has been determined by the theory of elasticity. Dilatometer shear stiffness has been compared with the theoretical G-g degradation curve in order to determine the typical range of shear deformation for different types of cohesive soil. The analysis also includes factors that influence the shape of the degradation curve (G-g) and dilatometer modulus (MDMT), such as the overconsolidation ratio (OCR), plasticity index (IP) and the vertical effective stress in the soil (svo'). Parametric study in this article defines the range of shear strain gDMT and GDMT/Go relation depending on the classification of a cohesive soil (clay, silty clay, clayey silt, silt and sandy silt), function of density (loose, medium dense and dense) and the stiffness of the soil (soft, medium hard and hard). The article illustrates the potential of using MASW and DMT to obtain G-g degradation curve in cohesive soils.
Methodology: A Review in Modelling and Predictability of Embankment in Soft Ground
Transportation network development in the developing country is in rapid pace. The majority of the network belongs to railway and expressway which passes through diverse topography, landform and geological conditions despite the avoidance principle during route selection. Construction of such networks demand many low to high embankment which required improvement in the foundation soil. This paper is mainly focused on the various advanced ground improvement techniques used to improve the soft soil, modelling approach and its predictability for embankments construction. The ground improvement techniques can be broadly classified in to three groups i.e. densification group, drainage and consolidation group and reinforcement group which are discussed with some case studies. Various methods were used in modelling of the embankments from simple 1-dimensional to complex 3-dimensional model using variety of constitutive models. However, the reliability of the predictions is not found systematically improved with the level of sophistication. And sometimes the predictions are deviated more than 60% to the monitored value besides using same level of erudition. This deviation is found mainly due to the selection of constitutive model, assumptions made during different stages, deviation in the selection of model parameters and simplification during physical modelling of the ground condition. This deviation can be reduced by using optimization process, optimization tools and sensitivity analysis of the model parameters which will guide to select the appropriate model parameters.
Behavior of the Foundation of Bridge Reinforced by Rigid and Flexible Inclusions
This article presents a comparative study by numerical analysis of the behavior of reinforcements of clayey soils by flexible columns (stone columns) and rigid columns (piles). The numerical simulation was carried out in 3D for an assembly of foundation, columns and a pile of a bridge. Particular attention has been paid to take into account the installation of the columns. Indeed, in practice, due to the compaction of the column, the soil around it sustains a lateral expansion and the horizontal stresses are increased. This lateral expansion of the column can be simulated numerically. This work represents a comparative study of the interaction between the soil on one side, and the two types of reinforcement on the other side, and their influence on the behavior of the soil and of the pile of a bridge.
Reliability Based Performance Evaluation of Stone Column Improved Soft Ground
The present study considers the effect of variation of different geotechnical random variables in the design of stone column-foundation systems for assessing the bearing capacity and consolidation settlement of highly compressible soil. The soil and stone column properties, spacing, diameter and arrangement of stone columns are considered as the random variables. Probability of failure (Pf) is computed for a target degree of consolidation and a target safe load by Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS). The study shows that the variation in coefficient of radial consolidation (cr) and cohesion of soil (cs) are two most important factors influencing Pf. If the coefficient of variation (COV) of cr exceeds 20%, Pf exceeds 0.001, which is unsafe following the guidelines of US Army Corps of Engineers. The bearing capacity also exceeds its safe value for COV of cs > 30%. It is also observed that as the spacing between the stone column increases, the probability of reaching a target degree of consolidation decreases. Accordingly, design guidelines, considering both consolidation and bearing capacity of improved ground, are proposed for different spacing and diameter of stone columns and geotechnical random variables.
The Behavior of Dam Foundation Reinforced by Stone Columns: Case Study of Kissir Dam-Jijel
This work presents a 2D numerical simulation of an earth dam to assess the behavior of its foundation after a treatment by stone columns. This treatment aims to improve the bearing capacity, to increase the mechanical properties of the soil, to accelerate the consolidation, to reduce the settlements and to eliminate the liquefaction phenomenon in case of seismic excitation. For the evaluation of the pore pressures, the position of the phreatic line and the flow network was defined, and a seepage analysis was performed with the software MIDAS Soil Works. The consolidation calculation is performed through a simulation of the actual construction stages of the dam. These analyzes were performed using the Mohr-Coulomb soil model and the results are compared with the actual measurements of settlement gauges implanted in the dam. An analysis of the bearing capacity was conducted to show the role of stone columns in improving the bearing capacity of the foundation.
Experimental Study on Thermomechanical Properties of New-Generation ODS Alloys
By using a combination of new technologies together with an unconventional use of different types of materials, specific mechanical properties and structures of the material can be achieved. Some possibilities are enabled by a combination of powder metallurgy in the preparation of a metal matrix with dispersed stable particles achieved by mechanical alloying and hot consolidation. This paper explains the thermomechanical properties of new generation of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened alloys (ODS) within three ranges of temperature with specified deformation profiles. The results show that the mechanical properties of new ODS alloys are significantly affected by the thermomechanical treatment.
Influence of the Moisture Content on the Flowability of Fine-Grained Iron Ore Concentrate
The iron content of the ore used is crucial for the productivity and coke consumption rate in blast furnace pig iron production. Therefore, most iron ore deposits are processed in beneficiation plants to increase the iron content and remove impurities. In several comminution stages, the particle size of the ore is reduced to ensure that the iron oxides are physically liberated from the gangue. Subsequently, physical separation processes are applied to concentrate the iron ore. The fine-grained ore concentrates produced need to be transported, stored, and processed. For smooth operation of these processes, the flow properties of the material are crucial. The flowability of powders depends on several properties of the material: grain size, grain size distribution, grain shape, and moisture content of the material. The flowability of powders can be measured using ring shear testers. In this study, the influence of the moisture content on the flowability for the Krivoy Rog magnetite iron ore concentrate was investigated. Dry iron ore concentrate was mixed with varying amounts of water to produce samples with a moisture content in the range of 0.2 to 12.2%. The flowability of the samples was investigated using a Schulze ring shear tester. At all measured values of the normal stress (1.0 kPa – 20 kPa), the flowability decreased significantly from dry ore to a moisture content of approximately 3-5%. At higher moisture contents, the flowability was nearly constant, while at the maximum moisture content the flowability improved for high values of the normal stress only. The results also showed an improving flowability with increasing consolidation stress for all moisture content levels investigated. The wall friction angle of the dust with carbon steel (S235JR), and an ultra-high molecule low-pressure polyethylene (Robalon) was also investigated. The wall friction angle increased significantly from dry ore to a moisture content of approximately 3%. For higher moisture content levels, the wall friction angles were nearly constant. Generally, the wall friction angle was approximately 4° lower at the higher wall normal stress.
Comparative Quantitative Study on Learning Outcomes of Major Study Groups of an Information and Communication Technology Bachelor Educational Program
Higher Education system reforms, especially Finnish system of Universities of Applied Sciences in 2014 are discussed. The new steering model is based on major legislative changes, output-oriented funding and open information. The governmental steering reform, especially the financial model and the resulting institutional level responses, such as a curriculum reforms are discussed, focusing especially in engineering programs. The paper is motivated by management need to establish objective steering-related performance indicators and to apply them consistently across all educational programs. The close relationship to governmental steering and funding model imply that internally derived indicators can be directly applied. Metropolia University of Applied Sciences (MUAS) as a case institution is briefly introduced, focusing on engineering education in Information and Communications Technology (ICT), and its related programs. The reform forced consolidation of previously separate smaller programs into fewer units of student application. New curriculum ICT students have a common first year before they apply for a Major. A framework of parallel and longitudinal comparisons is introduced and used across Majors in two campuses. The new externally introduced performance criteria are applied internally on ICT Majors using data ex-ante and ex-post of program merger. A comparative performance of the Majors after completion of joint first year is established, focusing on previously omitted Majors for completeness of analysis. Some new research questions resulting from transfer of Majors between campuses and quota setting are discussed. Practical orientation identifies best practices to share or targets needing most attention for improvement. This level of analysis is directly applicable at student group and teaching team level, where corrective actions are possible, when identified. The analysis is quantitative and the nature of the corrective actions are not discussed. Causal relationships and factor analysis are omitted, because campuses, their staff and various pedagogical implementation details contain still too many undetermined factors for our limited data. Such qualitative analysis is left for further research. Further study must, however, be guided by the relevance of the observations.
Unconfined Strength of Nano Reactive Silica Sand Powder Concrete
Nowadays, high-strength concrete is an integral element of a variety of high-rise buildings. On the other hand, finding a suitable aggregate size distribution is a great concern; hence, the concrete mix proportion is presented that has no coarse aggregate, which still withstands enough desirable strength. Nano Reactive Silica sand powder concrete (NRSSPC) is a type of concrete with no coarse material in its own composition. In this concrete, the only aggregate found in the mix design is silica sand powder with a size less than 150 mm that is infinitesimally small regarding the normal concrete. The research aim is to find the compressive strength of this particular concrete under the applied different conditions of curing and consolidation to compare the approaches. In this study, the young concrete specimens were compacted with a pressing or vibrating process. It is worthwhile to mention that in order to show the influence of temperature in the curing process, the concrete specimen was cured either in 20 ⁰C lime water or autoclaved in 90 ⁰C oven.
Geotechnical Properties and Compressibility Behavior of Organic Dredged Soils
Sustainable development is one of the most important topics in today's world, and it is also an important research topic for geoenvironmental engineering. Dredging process is performed to expand the river and port channel, flood control and accessing harbors. Every year large amount of sediment are dredged for these purposes. Dredged marine soils can be reused as filling materials, road and foundation embankments, construction materials and wildlife habitat developments. In this study, geotechnical engineering properties and compressibility behavior of dredged soil obtained from the Izmir Bay were investigated. The samples with four different organic matter contents were obtained and particle size distributions, consistency limits, pH and specific gravity tests were performed. The consolidation tests were conducted to examine organic matter content (OMC) effects on compressibility behavior of dredged soil. This study has shown that the OMC has an important effect on the engineering properties of dredged soils. The liquid and plastic limits increased with increasing OMC. The lowest specific gravity belonged to sample which has the maximum OMC. The specific gravity values ranged between 2.76 and 2.52. The maximum void ratio difference belongs to sample with the highest OMC (De11% = 0.38). As the organic matter content of the samples increases, the change in the void ratio has also increased. The compression index increases with increasing OMC.
Effects of the Purpose Expropriation of Land Consolidation to Landholding
In the current expropriation of Turkey, the state acquires necessary lands for its investment without permission of the owners and not searching for alternative solutions, so it is determined that neither processor nor processed is not happy. In this study, interactions of enterprises in Turkey are analysed in case the necessary land for public investments are acquired by expropriation purposed land consolidation. Legal basis, positive and negative sides, financial effects to enterprises of this method is evaluated according to Konya Kadınhanı, Kolukısa avenue which is on the Konya-Ankara High-Speed Train Route.
Numerical Analysis of Rapid Drawdown in Dams Based on Brazilian Standards
Rapid drawdown is one of the cases referred to ground stability study in dam projects. Due to the complexity generated by the combination of loads and the difficulty in determining the parameters, analyses of rapid drawdown are usually performed considering the immediate reduction of water level upstream. The proposal of a simulation, considering the gradual reduction in water level upstream, requires knowledge of parameters about consolidation and those related to unsaturated soil. In this context, the purpose of this study is to understand the methodology of collection and analysis of parameters to simulate a rapid drawdown in dams. Using a numerical tool, the study is complemented with a hypothetical case study that can assist the practical use of data compiled. The referenced dam presents homogeneous section composed of clay soil, a height of 70 meters, a width of 12 meters, and upstream slope with inclination 1V:3H.
The Effect of Treated Waste-Water on Compaction and Compression of Fine Soil
—The main objective of this paper is to study the effect of treated waste-water (TWW) on the compaction and compressibility properties of fine soil. Two types of fine soils (clayey soils) were selected for this study and classified as CH soil and Cl type of soil. Compaction and compressibility properties such as optimum water content, maximum dry unit weight, consolidation index and swell index, maximum past pressure and volume change were evaluated using both tap and treated waste water. It was found that the use of treated waste water affects all of these properties. The maximum dry unit weight increased for both soils and the optimum water content decreased as much as 13.6% for highly plastic soil. The significant effect was observed in swell index and swelling pressure of the soils. The swell indexed decreased by as much as 42% and 33% for highly plastic and low plastic soils, respectively, when TWW is used. Additionally, the swelling pressure decreased by as much as 16% for both soil types. The result of this research pointed out that the use of treated waste water has a positive effect on compaction and compression properties of clay soil and promise for potential use of this water in engineering applications. Keywords—Consolidation, proctor compaction, swell index, treated waste-water, volume change.
Fabrication of Powdery Composites Based Alumina and Its Consolidation by Hot Pressing Method in OXY-GON Furnace
In this work, obtaining methods of ultrafine alumina
powdery composites and high temperature pressing technology of
matrix ceramic composites with different compositions have been
discussed. Alumina was obtained by solution combustion synthesis
and sol-gel methods. Metal carbides containing powdery composites
were obtained by homogenization of finishing powders in nanomills,
as well as by their single-step high temperature synthesis .Different
types of matrix ceramics composites (α-Al2O3-ZrO2-Y2O3, α-Al2O3-
Y2O3-MgO, α-Al2O3-SiC-Y2O3, α-Al2O3-WC-Co-Y2O3, α-Al2O3-
B4C-Y2O3, α-Al2O3- B4C-TiB2 etc.) were obtained by using OXYGON
furnace. Consolidation of powders were carried out at 1550-
1750°C (hold time - 1 h, pressure - 50 MPa). Corundum ceramics
samples have been obtained and characterized by high hardness and
fracture toughness, absence of open porosity, high corrosion
resistance. Their density reaches 99.5-99.6% TD. During the work,
the following devices have been used: High temperature vacuum
furnace OXY-GON Industries Inc (USA), Electronic Scanning
Microscopes Nikon Eclipse LV 150, Optical Microscope NMM-
800TRF, Planetary mill Pulverisette 7 premium line, Shimadzu
Dynamic Ultra Micro Hardness Tester DUH-211S, Analysette 12
Developing a New Relationship between Undrained Shear Strength and Over-Consolidation Ratio
Relationship between undrained shear strength (Su) and over consolidation ratio (OCR) of clay soil (marine clay) is very important in the field of geotechnical engineering to estimate the settlement behaviour of clay and to prepare a small scale physical modelling test. In this study, a relationship between shear strength and OCR parameters was determined using the laboratory vane shear apparatus and the fully automatic consolidated apparatus. The main objective was to establish non-linear correlation formula between shear strength and OCR and comparing it with previous studies. Therefore, in order to achieve this objective, three points were chosen to obtain 18 undisturbed samples which were collected with an increasing depth of 1.0 m to 3.5 m each 0.5 m. Clay samples were prepared under undrained condition for both tests. It was found that the OCR and shear strength are inversely proportional at similar depth and at same undrained conditions. However, a good correlation was obtained from the relationships where the R2 values were very close to 1.0 using polynomial equations. The comparison between the experimental result and previous equation from other researchers produced a non-linear correlation which has a similar pattern with this study.
Analytical Study of Applying the Account Aggregation Approach in E-Banking Services
The advanced information technology is becoming an important factor in the development of financial services industry, especially the banking industry. It has introduced new ways of delivering banking to the customer, such as Internet Banking. Banks began to look at electronic banking (e-banking) as a means to replace some of their traditional branch functions using the Internet as a new distribution channel. Some consumers have at least more than one account, and across banks, and access these accounts using e-banking services. To look at the current net worth position, customers have to login to each of their accounts and get the details and work on consolidation. This not only takes ample time but it is a repetitive activity at a specified frequency. To address this point, an account aggregation concept is added as a solution. E-banking account aggregation, as one of the e-banking types, appeared to build a stronger relationship with customers. Account Aggregation Service generally refers to a service that allows customers to manage their bank accounts maintained in different institutions through a common Internet banking operating a platform, with a high concern to security and privacy. This paper presents an overview of an e-banking account aggregation approach as a new service in the e-banking field.
Bridging the Gap: Living Machine in Educational Nature Preserve Center
Pressure on freshwater systems comes from removing too much water to grow crops; contamination from economic activities, land use practices, and human waste. The paper will be focusing on how water management can influence the design, implementation, and impacts of the ecological principles of biomimicry as sustainable methods in recycling wastewater. At Texas State, United States of America, in particular the lower area of the Trinity River refuge, there is a true example of the diversity to be found in that area, whether when exploring the lands or the waterways. However, as the Trinity River supplies water to the state’s residents, the lower part of the river at Liberty County presents several problem of wastewater discharge in the river. Therefore, conservation efforts are particularly important in the Trinity River basin. Clearly, alternative ways must be considered in order to conserve water to meet future demands. As a result, there should be another system provided rather than the conventional water treatment. Mimicking ecosystem's technologies out of context is not enough, but if we incorporate plants into building architecture, in addition to their beauty, they can filter waste, absorb excess water, and purify air. By providing an architectural proposal center, a living system can be explored through several methods that influence natural resources on the micro-scale in order to impact sustainability on the macro-scale. The center consists of an ecological program of Plant and Water Biomimicry study which becomes a living organism that purifies the river water in a natural way through architecture. Consequently, a rich beautiful nature could be used as an educational destination, observation and adventure, as well as providing unpolluted fresh water to the major cities of Texas. As a result, these facts raise a couple of questions: Why is conservation so rarely practiced by those who must extract a living from the land? Are we sufficiently enlightened to realize that we must now challenge that dogma? Do architects respond to the environment and reflect on it in the correct way through their public projects? The method adopted in this paper consists of general research into careful study of the system of the living machine, in how to integrate it at architectural level, and finally, the consolidation of the all the conclusions formed into design proposal. To summarise, this paper attempts to provide a sustainable alternative perspective in bridging physical and mental interaction with biodiversity to enhance nature by using architecture.
A Simplified Analytical Approach for Coupled Injection Method of Colloidal Silica with Time Dependent Properties
Electro-osmosis in clayey soils and sediments, for
purposes of clay consolidation, dewatering, or cleanup, and electro
injection in porous media is widespread recent decades. It is
experimentally found that the chemical properties of porous media
especially PH change the characteristics of media. Electro-osmotic
conductivity is a function of soil and grout material chemistry,
altering with time. Many numerical approaches exist to simulate the
of electro kinetic flow rate considering chemical changes. This paper
presents a simplified analytical solution for constant flow rate based
on varying electro osmotic conductivity and time dependent viscosity
for injection of colloidal silica.
Long-Term Effect of Breastfeeding in Preschooler’s Psychomotor Development
Background: Breast milk may impact early brain
development, with potentially important biological, medical and
social implications. There is an important discussion on which is the
adequate breastfeeding extension to the development consolidation
and how the children breastfeeding affects their psychomotor
development, in the first year of life, and in following periods as
well. Some special fats (LC PUFA) contained in breast milk play a
key role in the brain’s maturation and cognitive development or
social skills. These capacities created during breastfeeding time
would be unfolded throughout all lifespan. Aim of the study: In our research, we have studied the effect of
breastfeeding in preschooler's psychomotor assessment.
Method: This study was conducted in a sample of 158 preschool
children in Vlorë, Albania. We have measured the psychometric
parameters of preschoolers with ASQ-3 (Age&Stage Questionnaires-
3). The studied sample was divided in three groups according to their
breastfeeding duration (3, 6 and 12 months). Results: Children breastfed for only 3 months have definitely
lower psychometric scores compared to the ones with 6 or more
months of breastfeeding (respectively 217 to 239 ASQ-3 scores). Six
and twelvemonth breastfed children have progressively more odds to
have high levels of psychomotor development comparing to those
with only 3 months of breastfeeding. The most affected psychometric
domains by shortness of breastfeeding are Communication and
Global motor. Conclusion: This leads to conclusion that to ensure high
psychomotor parameters during childhood is necessary breastfeeding
for at least 6 months.
Analysis of Diverse Cluster Ensemble Techniques
Data mining is the procedure of determining interesting patterns from the huge amount of data. With the intention of accessing the data faster the most supporting processes needed is clustering. Clustering is the process of identifying similarity between data according to the individuality present in the data and grouping associated data objects into clusters. Cluster ensemble is the technique to combine various runs of different clustering algorithms to obtain a general partition of the original dataset, aiming for consolidation of outcomes from a collection of individual clustering outcomes. The performances of clustering ensembles are mainly affecting by two principal factors such as diversity and quality. This paper presents the overview about the different cluster ensemble algorithm along with their methods used in cluster ensemble to improve the diversity and quality in the several cluster ensemble related papers and shows the comparative analysis of different cluster ensemble also summarize various cluster ensemble methods. Henceforth this clear analysis will be very useful for the world of clustering experts and also helps in deciding the most appropriate one to determine the problem in hand.
The Impact of Bank Consolidation on the Performance of SMES in Nigeria
This paper seeks to assess the implications of bank
consolidation on the performance of small and medium scale
enterprises in the Nigerian economy. Multiple linear regression
technique and correlation matrix test were employed to measure the
extent to which small and medium scale enterprises asset size,
survival and access to credit were influenced. The result showed that
bank deposit (BD) and bank credit (L or BC) impacted on asset size
and survival of small and medium scale enterprises. None of the
variables had significant impact on SMEs access to credit. There is a
shift of focus by commercial banks away from small and medium
scale enterprises (small customers), which is evidenced by the
significant negative influence of bank credit to both the survival and
asset size of small and medium enterprises. While micro finance
banks work hard at providing funds to small and medium scale
entrepreneurs, their capacity to meet the needs of these entrepreneurs
is constrained. CBN should make policies that will boost micro
finance bank’s capital and also monitor closely the management of
the banks to ensure prudent financing of small and medium scale
The Impact of Bank Consolidation on Lending to SMES in Nigeria
This paper seeks to assess the implications of bank
consolidation on lending, which largely determine the survival and
performance of small and medium scale enterprises and in turn the
development of the Nigerian economy. Ordinary least square
technique, correlation matrix test and Granger –causality test were
employed to measure the extent to which lending to small and
medium scale enterprises were influenced. The result showed that
bank deposit (BD) impacted on lending to small and medium scale
enterprises. Commercial and merchant bank lending rate had
statistically insignificant effect on the dependent variable. There is a
shift of focus by commercial banks from small and medium scale
enterprises (small customers) to major investors (big customers).
While micro finance banks work hard at providing funds to small and
medium scale entrepreneurs, their capacity to meet the needs of these
entrepreneurs is constrained. The capital and deposits of micro
finance bank should be boosted in order to effectively support small
and medium scale enterprises through loans.
Microwave Sintering and Its Application on Cemented Carbides
Cemented carbides, owing to their excellent
mechanical properties, have been of immense interest in the field of
hard materials for the past few decades. A number of processing
techniques have been developed to obtain high quality carbide tools,
with a wide range of grain size depending on the application and
requirements. Microwave sintering is one of the heating processes,
which has been used to prepare a wide range of materials including
ceramics. A deep understanding of microwave sintering and its
contribution towards control of grain growth and on deformation of
the resulting carbide materials requires further studies and attention.
In addition, the effect of binder materials and their behavior during
microwave sintering is another area that requires clear understanding.
This review aims to focus on microwave sintering, providing
information of how the process works and what type of materials it is
best suited for. In addition, a closer look at some microwave sintered
Tungsten Carbide-Cobalt samples will be taken and discussed,
highlighting some of the key issues and challenges faced in this
On-line Control of the Natural and Anthropogenic Safety in Krasnoyarsk Region
This paper presents an approach of on-line control of
the state of technosphere and environment objects based on the
integration of Data Warehouse, OLAP and Expert systems
technologies. It looks at the structure and content of data warehouse
that provides consolidation and storage of monitoring data. There is a
description of OLAP-models that provide a multidimensional
analysis of monitoring data and dynamic analysis of principal
parameters of controlled objects. The authors suggest some criteria of
emergency risk assessment using expert knowledge about danger
levels. It is demonstrated now some of the proposed solutions could
be adopted in territorial decision making support systems.
Operational control allows authorities to detect threat, prevent natural
and anthropogenic emergencies and ensure a comprehensive safety of
A Preliminary Study for Design of Automatic Block Reallocation Algorithm with Genetic Algorithm Method in the Land Consolidation Projects
Land reallocation is one of the most important steps in
land consolidation projects. Many different models were proposed for
land reallocation in the literature such as Fuzzy Logic, block priority
based land reallocation and Spatial Decision Support Systems. A
model including four parts is considered for automatic block
reallocation with genetic algorithm method in land consolidation
projects. These stages are preparing data tables for a project land,
determining conditions and constraints of land reallocation, designing
command steps and logical flow chart of reallocation algorithm and
finally writing program codes of Genetic Algorithm respectively. In
this study, we designed the first three steps of the considered model
comprising four steps.
Tonal Pitch Structure as a Tool of Social Consolidation
This paper proposes that in the course of evolution
pitch structure became a human specific tool of communication the
function of which is to induce emotional states such as uncertainty
and cohesion. By the means of eliciting these emotions during
collective music performance people are able to unconsciously give
cues concerning social acceptance. This is probably one of the
reasons why in all cultures people collectively perform tonal music. It
is also suggested that tonal pitch structure had been invented socially
before it became an evolutionary innovation of hominines. It means
that a predisposition to tonally organize pitches evolved by the means
of ‘Baldwin effect’ – a process in which natural selection transforms
the learned response of an organism into the instinctive response. In
the proposed, hypothetical evolutionary scenario of the emergence of
tonal pitch structure social forces such as a need for closer
cooperation play the crucial role.
Transformation of Aluminum Unstable Oxyhydroxides in Ultrafine α-Al2O3 in Presence of Various Seeds
Ceramic obtained on the base of aluminum oxide has
wide application range, because it has unique properties, for example,
wear-resistance, dielectric characteristics, and exploitation ability at
high temperatures and in corrosive atmosphere. Low temperature
synthesis of α-Al2O3 is energo-economical process and it is topical
for developing technologies of corundum ceramics fabrication. In the present work possibilities of low temperature transformation
of oxyhydroxides in α-Al2O3, during the presence of small amount of
rare–earth elements compounds (also Th, Re), have been discussed.
Aluminum unstable oxyhydroxides have been obtained by hydrolysis
of aluminium isopropoxide, nitrates, sulphate, and chloride in
alkaline environment at 80-90ºC temperatures. β-Al(OH)3 has been
received from aluminum powder by ultrasonic development. Drying
of oxyhydroxide sol has been conducted with presence of various
types seeds, which amount reaches 0,1-0,2% (mas). Neodymium,
holmium, thorium, lanthanum, cerium, gadolinium, disprosium
nitrates and rhenium carbonyls have been used as seeds and they
have been added to the sol specimens in amount of 0.1-0.2% (mas)
calculated on metals. Annealing of obtained gels is carried out at 70–
1100ºC for 2 hrs. The same specimen transforms in α-Al2O3 at
1100ºC. At this temperature in case of presence of lanthanum and
gadolinium transformation takes place by 70-85%. In case of
presence of thorium stabilization of γ-and θ-phases takes place. It is
established, that thorium causes inhibition of α-phase generation at
1100ºC, and at the time when in all other doped specimens α-phase is
generated at lower temperatures (1000-1050ºC). Synthesis of various
type compounds and simultaneous consolidation has developed in the
furnace of OXY-GON. Composite materials containing oxide and
non-oxide components close to theoretical data have been obtained in
this furnace respectively. During the work the following devices have
been used: X-ray diffractometer DRON-3M (Cu-Kα, Ni filter,
2º/min), High temperature vacuum furnace OXY-GON, electronic
scanning microscopes Nikon ECLIPSE LV 150, NMM-800TRF,
planetary mill Pulverisette 7 premium line, SHIMADZU Dynamic
Ultra Micro Hardness Tester, DUH-211S, Analysette 12 Dyna sizer.
The Role of Vibro-Stone Column for Enhancing the Soft Soil Properties
This study investigated the behavior of improved soft soils through the vibro replacement technique by considering their settlements and consolidation rates and the applicability of this technique in various types of soils and settlement and bearing capacity calculations.
The Effect of the Side-Weir Crest Height to Scour in Clay-Sand Mixed Sediments
Experimental studies to investigate the depth of the
scour conducted at a side-weir intersection located at the 1800 curved
flume which located Hydraulic Laboratory of Yıldız Technical
University, Istanbul, Turkey. Side weirs were located at the middle of
the straight part of the main channel. Three different lengths (25, 40
and 50 cm) and three different weir crest height (7, 10 and 12 cm) of
the side weir placed on the side weir station. There is no scour when
the material is only kaolin. Therefore, the cohesive bed was prepared
by properly mixing clay material (kaolin) with 31% sand in all
experiments. Following 24h consolidation time, in order to observe
the effect of flow intensity on the scour depth, experiments were
carried out for five different upstream Froude numbers in the range of
As a result of this study the relation between scour depth and
upstream flow intensity as a function of time have been established.
The longitudinal velocities decreased along the side weir; towards the
downstream due to overflow over the side-weirs. At the beginning,
the scour depth increases rapidly with time and then asymptotically
approached constant values in all experiments for all side weir
dimensions as in non-cohesive sediment. Thus, the scour depth
reached equilibrium conditions. Time to equilibrium depends on the
approach flow intensity and the dimensions of side weirs. For
different heights of the weir crest, dimensionless scour depths
increased with increasing upstream Froude number. Equilibrium
scour depths which formed 7 cm side-weir crest height were obtained
higher than that of the 12 cm side-weir crest height. This means when
side-weir crest height increased equilibrium scour depths decreased.
Although the upstream side of the scour hole is almost vertical, the
downstream side of the hole is inclined.
The Effect of Stone Column (Nailing and Geogrid) on Stability of Expansive Clay
By enhancing the applicatıon of grounds for
establishment and due to the lack of appropriate sites, engineers
attempt to seek out a new method to reduce the weakness of soils. İn
aspect of economic situation, various ways have been used to
decrease the weak grounds. Because of the rapid development of
infrastructural facilities, spreading the construction operation is an
obligation. Furthermore, in various sites with the really bad soil
situation, engineers have considered obvious problems. One of the
most essential ways for developing the weak soils is stone column.
Obviously, the method was introduced in France in 1830 to improve
a native soil initially. Stone columns have an expanding range of
usage in different rough foundation sites all over the world to
increase the bearing capacity, to reduce the whole and differential
settlements, to enhance the rate of consolidation, to stabilize slopes
stability of embankments and to increase the liquefaction resistance
as well. A recent procedure called installing vertical nails along the
round stone columns in order to make better the performance of
considered columns is offered. Moreover, thanks to the enhancing the
nail diameter, number and embedment nail depth, the positive points
of vertical circumferential nails increases. Based on the result of this
study, load caring capacity will be develop with enhancing the length
and the power of reinforcements in vertical encasement stone column
(CESC). In this study, the main purpose is comparing two methods of
stone columns (installed a nail surrounding the stone columns and
using geogrid on clay) for enhancing the bearing capacity, decreasing
the whole and various settlements.