During the last few decades, the continuously increasing demand for accurate and reliable magnetic measurements has paved the way for the development of different types of magnetic sensing systems as well as different measurement techniques. Sensor sensitivity and linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, measurement range, cross-talk between sensors in multi-sensor applications are only some of the aspects that have been examined in the past. In this paper, a fully analog closed loop system in order to optimize the performance of AMR sensors has been developed. The operation of the proposed system has been tested using a Helmholtz coil calibration setup in order to control both the amplitude and direction of magnetic field in the vicinity of the AMR sensor. Experimental testing indicated that improved linearity of sensor response, as well as low noise levels can be achieved, when the system is employed.
In this paper, the problem of robust model predictive control (MPC) for discrete-time linear systems in linear fractional transformation form with structured uncertainty and norm-bounded disturbance is investigated. The problem of minimization of the cost function for MPC design is converted to minimization of the worst case of the cost function. Then, this problem is reduced to minimization of an upper bound of the cost function subject to a terminal inequality satisfying the l2-norm of the closed loop system. The characteristic of the linear fractional transformation system is taken into account, and by using some mathematical tools, the robust predictive controller design problem is turned into a linear matrix inequality minimization problem. Afterwards, a formulation which includes an integrator to improve the performance of the proposed robust model predictive controller in steady state condition is studied. The validity of the approaches is illustrated through a robust control benchmark problem.
In the process to cope with the challenges faced by the automobile industry in providing ride comfort, the electronics and control systems play a vital role. The control systems in an automobile monitor various parameters, controls the performances of the systems, thereby providing better handling characteristics. The automobile suspension system is one of the main systems that ensure the safety, stability and comfort of the passengers. The system is solely responsible for the isolation of the entire automobile from harmful road vibrations. Thus, integration of the control systems in the automobile suspension system would enhance its performance. The diverse road conditions of India demand the need of an efficient suspension system which can provide optimum ride comfort in all road conditions. For any passenger vehicle, the design of the suspension system plays a very important role in assuring the ride comfort and handling characteristics. In recent years, the air suspension system is preferred over the conventional suspension systems to ensure ride comfort. In this article, the ride comfort of the adaptive suspension system is compared with that of the passive suspension system. The schema is created in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The system is controlled by a proportional integral differential controller. Tuning of the controller was done with the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, since it suited the problem best. Ziegler-Nichols and Modified Ziegler-Nichols tuning methods were also tried and compared. Both the static responses and dynamic responses of the systems were calculated. Various random road profiles as per ISO 8608 standard are modelled in the MATLAB environment and their responses plotted. Open-loop and closed loop responses of the random roads, various bumps and pot holes are also plotted. The simulation results of the proposed design are compared with the available passive suspension system. The obtained results show that the proposed adaptive suspension system is efficient in controlling the maximum over shoot and the settling time of the system is reduced enormously.
Traveling Wave Ultrasonic Motor (TWUM) is a compact, precise, and silent actuator generating high torque at low speed without gears. Moreover, the TWUM has a high holding torque without supply, which makes this motor as an attractive solution for holding position of robotic arms. However, their nonlinear dynamics, and the presence of load-dependent dead zones often limit their use. Those issues can be overcome in closed loop with effective and precise controllers. In this paper, robust H-infinity (H∞) and discrete time RST position controllers are presented. The H∞ controller is designed in continuous time with additional weighting filters to ensure the robustness in the case of uncertain motor model and external disturbances. Robust RST controller based on the pole placement method is also designed and compared to the H∞. Simulink model of TWUM is used to validate the stability and the robustness of the two proposed controllers.
Technological innovations in electronic world demand novel, compact, simple in design, less costly and effective heat transfer devices. Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe (CLPHP) is a passive phase change heat transfer device and has potential to transfer heat quickly and efficiently from source to sink. Thermal performance of a CLPHP is governed by various parameters such as number of U-turns, orientations, input heat, working fluids and filling ratio. The present paper is an attempt to predict the thermal performance of a CLPHP using Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Filling ratio and heat input are considered as input parameters while thermal resistance is set as target parameter. Types of neural networks considered in the present paper are radial basis, generalized regression, linear layer, cascade forward back propagation, feed forward back propagation; feed forward distributed time delay, layer recurrent and Elman back propagation. Linear, logistic sigmoid, tangent sigmoid and Radial Basis Gaussian Function are used as transfer functions. Prediction accuracy is measured based on the experimental data reported by the researchers in open literature as a function of Mean Absolute Relative Deviation (MARD). The prediction of a generalized regression ANN model with spread constant of 4.8 is found in agreement with the experimental data for MARD in the range of ±1.81%.
In this study, a black box modeling of the coupled-tank system is obtained by using fuzzy sets. The derived model is tested via adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). In order to achieve a better control performance, the parameters of three different controller types, classical proportional integral controller (PID), fuzzy PID and function tuner method, are tuned by one of the evolutionary computation method, genetic algorithm. All tuned controllers are applied to the fuzzy model of the coupled-tank experimental setup and analyzed under the different reference input values. According to the results, it is seen that function tuner method demonstrates better robust control performance and guarantees the closed loop stability.
Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe (CLPHP) is a passive two-phase heat transfer device having potential to achieve high heat transfer rates over conventional cooling techniques. It is found in electronics cooling due to its outstanding characteristics such as excellent heat transfer performance, simple, reliable, cost effective, compact structure and no external mechanical power requirement etc. Comprehensive understanding of the thermo-hydrodynamic mechanism of CLPHP is still lacking due to its contradictory results available in the literature. The present paper discusses the experimental study on 9 turn CLPHP. Inner and outer diameters of the copper tube are 2 mm and 4 mm respectively. The lengths of the evaporator, adiabatic and condenser sections are 40 mm, 100 mm and 50 mm respectively. Water is used as working fluid. The Filling Ratio (FR) is kept as 50% throughout the investigations. The gravitational effect is studied by placing the evaporator heater at different orientations such as horizontal (90 degree), vertical top (180 degree) and bottom (0 degree) as well as inclined top (135 degree) and bottom (45 degree). Heat input is supplied in the range of 10-50 Watt. Heat transfer mechanism is natural convection in the condenser section. Vacuum pump is used to evacuate the system up to 10-5 bar. The results demonstrate the influence of input heat flux and gravity on the thermal performance of the CLPHP.
Evolutionary Fuzzy PID Speed Controller for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) is developed to achieve the Speed control of PMSM in Closed Loop operation and to deal with the existence of transients. Consider a Fuzzy PID control design problem, based on common control Engineering Knowledge. If the transient error is big, that Good transient performance can be obtained by increasing the P and I gains and decreasing the D gains. To autotune the control parameters of the Fuzzy PID controller, the Evolutionary Algorithms (EA) are developed. EA based Fuzzy PID controller provides better speed control and guarantees the closed loop stability. The Evolutionary Fuzzy PID controller can be implemented in real time Applications without any concern about instabilities that leads to system failure or damage.
Object-oriented modeling is spreading in current simulation of physiological systems through the use of the individual components of the model and its interconnections to define the underlying dynamic equations. In this paper we describe the use of both the SIMSCAPE and MODELICA simulation environments in the object-oriented modeling of the closed loop cardiovascular system. The performance of the controlled system was analyzed by simulation in light of the existing hypothesis and validation tests previously performed with physiological data. The described approach represents a valuable tool in the teaching of physiology for graduate medical students.
A Space Vector based Pulse Width Modulation control technique for the three-phase PWM converter is proposed in this paper. The proposed control scheme is based on a synchronous reference frame model. High performance and efficiency is obtained with regards to the DC bus voltage and the power factor considerations of the PWM rectifier thus leading to low losses. MATLAB/SIMULINK are used as a platform for the simulations and a SIMULINK model is presented in the paper. The results show that the proposed model demonstrates better performance and properties compared to the traditional SPWM method and the method improves the dynamic performance of the closed loop drastically. For the Space Vector based Pulse Width Modulation, Sine signal is the reference waveform and triangle waveform is the carrier waveform. When the value sine signal is large than triangle signal, the pulse will start produce to high. And then when the triangular signals higher than sine signal, the pulse will come to low. SPWM output will changed by changing the value of the modulation index and frequency used in this system to produce more pulse width. The more pulse width produced, the output voltage will have lower harmonics contents and the resolution increase.
This paper proposes a new technique to design a fixed-structure robust loop shaping controller for the pneumatic servosystem. In this paper, a new method based on a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm for tuning the weighting function parameters to design an H∞ controller is presented. The PSO algorithm is used to minimize the infinity norm of the transfer function of the nominal closed loop system to obtain the optimal parameters of the weighting functions. The optimal stability margin is used as an objective in PSO for selecting the optimal weighting parameters; it is shown that the proposed method can simplify the design procedure of H∞ control to obtain optimal robust controller for pneumatic servosystem. In addition, the order of the proposed controller is much lower than that of the conventional robust loop shaping controller, making it easy to implement in practical works. Also two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) control design procedure is proposed to improve tracking performance in the face of noise and disturbance. Result of simulations demonstrates the advantages of the proposed controller in terms of simple structure and robustness against plant perturbations and disturbances.
The knowledge about rock layers thickness,especially above drilled mining pavements is crucial for workers safety. The measuring systems used nowadays are generally imperfect and there is a strong demand for improvement. The application of a new type of a measurement system called Self-excited Acoustical System is presentedin the paper. The system was applied until now to monitor stress changes in metal and concrete constructions. The change in measurement methodology resulted in possibility of measuring the thickness of the rocks above the tunnels as well as thickness of a singular rocklayer. The idea is to find two resonance frequencies of the self-exited system,which consists of a vibration exciter and vibration receiver placed at a distance, which are coupled with a proper power amplifier, and which operate in a closed loop with a positive feedback. The resonance with the higher amplitude determines thickness of the whole rock, whereas the lower amplitude resonance indicates thickness of a singular layer. The results of the laboratory tests conducted on a group of different rock materials are also presented.
This paper investigates the performance of the single TCSC and proposed split TCSC on transmission system where India’s first TCSC project is installed in Kanpur - Ballabhgarh (KB) line to ensure the fine tuning of line reactance by proposed split TCSC in place of existing KB TCSC. A three phase KB transmission system is developed in MATLAB/Simulink (SimPowerSystems) forwithout any compensation, with fixed capacitor (FC), with FC + existing KB TCSC and with FC + proposed split TCSC
The KB system is analyzed for a step variation of load and performance of the system is investigated with a closed loop reactance control method.
This paper demonstrates the potential of applying PD-like fuzzy logic controller for active vibration control of piezoelectric Stewart platforms. Through simulation, the control authority of the piezo stack actuators for effectively damping the Stewart platform vibration can be evaluated for further implementation of the system. Each leg of the piezoelectric Stewart platform consists of a linear piezo stack actuator, a collocated velocity sensor, a collocated displacement sensor and flexible tips for the connections with the two end plates. The piezoelectric stack is modeled as a bar element and the electro-mechanical coupling property is simulated using Matlab/Simulink software. Then, the open loop and closed loop dynamic responses are performed for the system to characterize the effect of the control on the vibration of the piezoelectric Stewart platform. A significant improvement in the damping of the structure can be observed by using the PD-like fuzzy controller.
In this paper, supply air pressure of HVAC system has been modeled with second-order transfer function plus dead-time. In HVAC system, the desired input has step changes, and the output of proposed control system should be able to follow the input reference, so the idea of using model based predictive control is proceeded and designed in this paper. The closed loop control system is implemented in MATLAB software and the simulation results are provided. The simulation results show that the model based predictive control is able to control the plant properly.
Successful regional anesthesia depends upon precise location of the peripheral nerve or nerve plexus. Locating peripheral nerves is preferred to be done using nerve stimulation. In order to generate a nerve impulse by electrical means, a minimum threshold stimulus of current “rheobase” must be applied to the nerve. The technique depends on stimulating muscular twitching at a close distance to the nerve without actually touching it. Success rate of this operation depends on the accuracy of current intensity pulses used for stimulation .In this paper, we will discuss a circuit and algorithm for closed loop control for the current, theoretical analysis and test results is discussed and results is compared to previous techniques.
This paper is based on the bridgeless single-phase Ac–Dc Power Factor Correction (PFC) converters with Fuzzy Logic Controller. High frequency isolated Cuk converters are used as a modular dc-dc converter in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM) of operation of Power Factor Correction. The aim of this paper is to simplify the program complexity of the controller by reducing the number of fuzzy sets of the Membership Functions (MFs) and to improve the efficiency and to eliminate the power quality problems. The output of Fuzzy controller is compared with High frequency triangular wave to generate PWM gating signals of Cuk converter. The proposed topologies are designed to work in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM) to achieve a unity power factor and low total harmonic distortion of the input current. The Fuzzy Logic Controller gives additional advantages such as accurate result, uncertainty and imprecision and automatic control circuitry. Performance comparisons between the proposed and conventional controllers and circuits are performed based on circuit simulations.
This paper presents the design and implementation of a fully integrated Capacitance-to-Voltage Converter (CVC) as the analog front-end for magnetometer interface IC. The application demands very low power solution operating in the frequency of around 20 KHz. The design adapts low power architecture to create low noise electronic interface for Capacitive Micro-machined Lorentz force magnetometer sensor. Using a 0.18-μm CMOS process, simulation results of this interface IC show that the proposed CVC can provide 33 dB closed loop gain, 20 nV/√Hz input referred noise at 20 KHz, while consuming 65 μA current from 1.8-V supply.
The controller is used to improve the dynamic performance of DC-DC converter by achieving a robust output voltage against load disturbances. This paper presents the performance of PI and Fuzzy controller for a phase- shifted zero-voltage switched full-bridge PWM (ZVS FB- PWM) converters with a closed loop control. The proposed converter is regulated with minimum overshoot and good stability. In this paper phase-shift control method is used as an effective tool to reduce switching losses and duty cycle losses. A 1kW/100KHz dc/dc converter is simulated and analyzed using MATLAB. The circuit is simulated for static and dynamic load (DC motor). It has been observed that performance of converter with fuzzy controller is better than that of PI controller. An efficiency comparison of the converter with a reported topology has also been carried out.
The present work deals with the optimal placement of piezoelectric actuators on a thin plate using Modified Control Matrix and Singular Value Decomposition (MCSVD) approach. The problem has been formulated using the finite element method using ten piezoelectric actuators on simply supported plate to suppress first six modes. The sizes of ten actuators are combined to outline one actuator by adding the ten columns of control matrix to form a column matrix. The singular value of column control matrix is considered as the fitness function and optimal positions of the actuators are obtained by maximizing it with GA. Vibration suppression has been studied for simply supported plate with piezoelectric patches in optimal positions using Linear Quadratic regulator) scheme. It is observed that MCSVD approach has given the position of patches adjacent to each-other, symmetric to the centre axis and given greater vibration suppression than other previously published results on SVD.
This paper proposes a new algebraic scheme to design a PID controller for higher order linear time invariant continuous systems. Modified PSO (MPSO) based model order formulation techniques have applied to obtain the effective formulated second order system. A controller is tuned to meet the desired performance specification by using pole-zero cancellation method. Proposed PID controller is attached with both higher order system and formulated second order system. The closed loop response is observed for stabilization process and compared with general PSO based formulated second order system. The proposed method is illustrated through numerical example from literature.
Electrical distribution systems are incurring large losses as the loads are wide spread, inadequate reactive power compensation facilities and their improper control. A comprehensive static VAR compensator consisting of capacitor bank in five binary sequential steps in conjunction with a thyristor controlled reactor of smallest step size is employed in the investigative work. The work deals with the performance evaluation through analytical studies and practical implementation on an existing system. A fast acting error adaptive controller is developed suitable both for contactor and thyristor switched capacitors. The switching operations achieved are transient free, practically no need to provide inrush current limiting reactors, TCR size minimum providing small percentages of nontriplen harmonics, facilitates stepless variation of reactive power depending on load requirement so as maintain power factor near unity always. It is elegant, closed loop microcontroller system having the features of self regulation in adaptive mode for automatic adjustment. It is successfully tested on a distribution transformer of three phase 50 Hz, Dy11, 11KV/440V, 125 KVA capacity and the functional feasibility and technical soundness are established. The controller developed is new, adaptable to both LT & HT systems and practically established to be giving reliable performance.
This paper shows a new method for design of fuzzy observers for Takagi-Sugeno systems. The method is based on Linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) and it allows to insert H constraint into the design procedure. The speed of estimation can tuned be specification of a decay rate of the observer closed loop system. We discuss here also the influence of parametric uncertainties at the output control system stability.
In this paper, Speed Sensorless Indirect Field Oriented Control (IFOC) of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous machine (PMSM) is studied. The closed loop scheme of the drive system utilizes fuzzy speed and current controllers. Due to the well known drawbacks of the speed sensor, an algorithm is proposed in this paper to eliminate it. In fact, based on the model of the PMSM, the stator currents and rotor speed are estimated simultaneously using adaptive Luenberger observer for currents and MRAS (Model Reference Adaptive System) observer for rotor speed. To overcome the sensivity of this algorithm against parameter variation, adaptive for on line stator resistance tuning is proposed. The validity of the proposed method is verified by an extensive simulation work.