In this study, we developed and simulated nano-drug delivery systems efficacy in compare to free drug prescription. Computational models can be utilized to accelerate experimental steps and control the experiments high cost. Molecular dynamics simulation (MDS), in particular NAMD was utilized to better understand the anti-cancer drug interaction with cell membrane model. Paclitaxel (PTX) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) were selected for the drug molecule and as a natural phospholipid nanocarrier, respectively. This work focused on two important interaction parameters between molecules in terms of center of mass (COM) and van der Waals interaction energy. Furthermore, we compared the simulation results of the PTX interaction with the cell membrane and the interaction of DPPC as a nanocarrier loaded by the drug with the cell membrane. The molecular dynamic analysis resulted in low energy between the nanocarrier and the cell membrane as well as significant decrease of COM amount in the nanocarrier and the cell membrane system during the interaction. Thus, the drug vehicle showed notably better interaction with the cell membrane in compared to free drug interaction with the cell membrane.
This study estimates the seismic demands of tall buildings with central symmetric setbacks by using nonlinear time history analysis. Three setback structures, all 60-story high with setback in three levels, are used for evaluation. The effects of irregularities occurred by setback are evaluated by determination of global-drift, story-displacement and story drift. Story-displacement is modified by roof displacement and first story displacement and story drift is modified by global drift. All results are calculated at the center of mass and in x and y direction. Also the absolute values of these quantities are determined. The results show that increasing of vertical irregularities increases the global drift of the structure and enlarges the deformations in the height of the structure. It is also observed that the effects of geometry irregularity in the seismic deformations of setback structures are higher than those of mass irregularity.
The curvature space-time by the presence of material, this deformation must present a pattern of deformation, not random. Space is uniform, elastic and any modification that occurs in one part, causes a change in another.
This deformation exists, must be a constant value and is independent of the observer, and relates the amount of matter, the force caused by the curvature of space and surface space. This unit of space is defined in this study as PIL and represents a constant area of space, deformable in the direction and sense of the center of mass of the body. The PIL is curved and connected to the center of mass of the Earth, to get to that point, through all matter, thus forming part of any place between particles at atomic and subatomic levels. At these levels the space between each particle is flat, unlike the macro where the space curves.
In this paper a new Genetic Algorithm based on a heuristic operator and Centre of Mass selection operator (CMGA) is designed for the unbounded knapsack problem(UKP), which is NP-Hard combinatorial optimization problem. The proposed genetic algorithm is based on a heuristic operator, which utilizes problem specific knowledge. This center of mass operator when combined with other Genetic Operators forms a competitive algorithm to the existing ones. Computational results show that the proposed algorithm is capable of obtaining high quality solutions for problems of standard randomly generated knapsack instances. Comparative study of CMGA with simple GA in terms of results for unbounded knapsack instances of size up to 200 show the superiority of CMGA. Thus CMGA is an efficient tool of solving UKP and this algorithm is competitive with other Genetic Algorithms also.
An iterative definition of any n variable mean function is given in this article, which iteratively uses the two-variable form of the corresponding two-variable mean function. This extension method omits recursivity which is an important improvement compared with certain recursive formulas given before by Ando-Li-Mathias, Petz- Temesi. Furthermore it is conjectured here that this iterative algorithm coincides with the solution of the Riemann centroid minimization problem. Certain simulations are given here to compare the convergence rate of the different algorithms given in the literature. These algorithms will be the gradient and the Newton mehod for the Riemann centroid computation.