International Science Index
Sparsity-Based Unsupervised Unmixing of Hyperspectral Imaging Data Using Basis Pursuit
Mixing in the hyperspectral imaging occurs due to the low spatial resolutions of the used cameras. The existing pure materials “endmembers” in the scene share the spectra pixels with different amounts called “abundances”. Unmixing of the data cube is an important task to know the present endmembers in the cube for the analysis of these images. Unsupervised unmixing is done with no information about the given data cube. Sparsity is one of the recent approaches used in the source recovery or unmixing techniques. The l1-norm optimization problem “basis pursuit” could be used as a sparsity-based approach to solve this unmixing problem where the endmembers is assumed to be sparse in an appropriate domain known as dictionary. This optimization problem is solved using proximal method “iterative thresholding”. The l1-norm basis pursuit optimization problem as a sparsity-based unmixing technique was used to unmix real and synthetic hyperspectral data cubes.
An Efficient Separation for Convolutive Mixtures
This paper describes a new efficient blind source separation method; in this method we uses a non-uniform filter bank and a new structure with different sub-bands. This method provides a reduced permutation and increased convergence speed comparing to the full-band algorithm. Recently, some structures have been suggested to deal with two problems: reducing permutation and increasing the speed of convergence of the adaptive algorithm for correlated input signals. The permutation problem is avoided with the use of adaptive filters of orders less than the full-band adaptive filter, which operate at a sampling rate lower than the sampling rate of the input signal. The decomposed signals by analysis bank filter are less correlated in each sub-band than the input signal at full-band, and can promote better rates of convergence.
Wavelet Enhanced CCA for Minimization of Ocular and Muscle Artifacts in EEG
Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings are often
contaminated with ocular and muscle artifacts. In this paper, the
canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is used as blind source
separation (BSS) technique (BSS-CCA) to decompose the artifact
contaminated EEG into component signals. We combine the BSSCCA
technique with wavelet filtering approach for minimizing both
ocular and muscle artifacts simultaneously, and refer the proposed
method as wavelet enhanced BSS-CCA. In this approach, after
careful visual inspection, the muscle artifact components are
discarded and ocular artifact components are subjected to wavelet
filtering to retain high frequency cerebral information, and then clean
EEG is reconstructed. The performance of the proposed wavelet
enhanced BSS-CCA method is tested on real EEG recordings
contaminated with ocular and muscle artifacts, for which power
spectral density is used as a quantitative measure. Our results suggest
that the proposed hybrid approach minimizes ocular and muscle
artifacts effectively, minimally affecting underlying cerebral activity
in EEG recordings.
A Semi- One Time Pad Using Blind Source Separation for Speech Encryption
We propose a new perspective on speech
communication using blind source separation. The original speech is
mixed with key signals which consist of the mixing matrix, chaotic
signals and a random noise. However, parts of the keys (the mixing
matrix and the random noise) are not necessary in decryption. In
practice implement, one can encrypt the speech by changing the noise
signal every time. Hence, the present scheme obtains the advantages
of a One Time Pad encryption while avoiding its drawbacks in key
exchange. It is demonstrated that the proposed scheme is immune
against traditional attacks.
A Frequency Grouping Approach for Blind Deconvolution of Fairly Motionless Sources
A frequency grouping approach for multi-channel
instantaneous blind source separation (I-BSS) of convolutive
mixtures is proposed for a lower net residual inter-symbol
interference (ISI) and inter-channel interference (ICI) than the
conventional short-time Fourier transform (STFT) approach. Starting
in the time domain, STFTs are taken with overlapping windows to
convert the convolutive mixing problem into frequency domain
instantaneous mixing. Mixture samples at the same frequency but
from different STFT windows are grouped together forming unique
The individual frequency group vectors are input to the I-BSS
algorithm of choice, from which the output samples are dispersed
back to their respective STFT windows. After applying the inverse
STFT, the resulting time domain signals are used to construct the
complete source estimates via the weighted overlap-add method
(WOLA). The proposed algorithm is tested for source deconvolution
given two mixtures, and simulated along with the STFT approach to
illustrate its superiority for fairly motionless sources.
Blind Source Separation for Convoluted Signals Based on Properties of Acoustic Transfer Function in Real Environments
Frequency domain independent component analysis has
a scaling indeterminacy and a permutation problem. The scaling
indeterminacy can be solved by use of a decomposed spectrum. For
the permutation problem, we have proposed the rules in terms of gain
ratio and phase difference derived from the decomposed spectra and
the source-s coarse directions.
The present paper experimentally clarifies that the gain ratio and
the phase difference work effectively in a real environment but their
performance depends on frequency bands, a microphone-space and
a source-microphone distance. From these facts it is seen that it is
difficult to attain a perfect solution for the permutation problem in a
real environment only by either the gain ratio or the phase difference.
For the perfect solution, this paper gives a solution to the problems
in a real environment. The proposed method is simple, the amount of
calculation is small. And the method has high correction performance
without depending on the frequency bands and distances from source
signals to microphones. Furthermore, it can be applied under the real
environment. From several experiments in a real room, it clarifies
that the proposed method has been verified.
Blind Source Separation based on the Estimation for the Number of the Blind Sources under a Dynamic Acoustic Environment
Independent component analysis can estimate unknown
source signals from their mixtures under the assumption that the
source signals are statistically independent. However, in a real environment,
the separation performance is often deteriorated because
the number of the source signals is different from that of the sensors.
In this paper, we propose an estimation method for the number of
the sources based on the joint distribution of the observed signals
under two-sensor configuration. From several simulation results, it
is found that the number of the sources is coincident to that of
peaks in the histogram of the distribution. The proposed method can
estimate the number of the sources even if it is larger than that of
the observed signals. The proposed methods have been verified by
Atrial Fibrillation Analysis Based on Blind Source Separation in 12-lead ECG
Atrial Fibrillation is the most common sustained
arrhythmia encountered by clinicians. Because of the invisible
waveform of atrial fibrillation in atrial activation for human, it is
necessary to develop an automatic diagnosis system. 12-Lead ECG
now is available in hospital and is appropriate for using Independent
Component Analysis to estimate the AA period. In this research, we
also adopt a second-order blind identification approach to transform
the sources extracted by ICA to more precise signal and then we use
frequency domain algorithm to do the classification. In experiment,
we gather a significant result of clinical data.
Floating-Point Scaling for BSS Gain Control
In Blind Source Separation (BSS) processing, taking
advantage of scaling factor indetermination and based on the floatingpoint
representation, we propose a scaling technique applied to the
separation matrix, to avoid the saturation or the weakness in the
recovered source signals. This technique performs an Automatic Gain
Control (AGC) in an on-line BSS environment. We demonstrate
the effectiveness of this technique by using the implementation of
a division free BSS algorithm with two input, two output. This
technique is computationally cheaper and efficient for a hardware
A Double Referenced Contrast for Blind Source Separation
This paper addresses the problem of blind source separation
(BSS). To recover original signals, from linear instantaneous
mixtures, we propose a new contrast function based on the use of a
double referenced system. Our approach assumes statistical independence
sources. The reference vectors will be incrusted in the cumulant
to evaluate the independence. The estimation of the separating matrix
will be performed in two steps: whitening observations and joint
diagonalization of a set of referenced cumulant matrices. Computer
simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the
Blind Source Separation Using Modified Gaussian FastICA
This paper addresses the problem of source separation
in images. We propose a FastICA algorithm employing a modified
Gaussian contrast function for the Blind Source Separation.
Experimental result shows that the proposed Modified Gaussian
FastICA is effectively used for Blind Source Separation to obtain
better quality images. In this paper, a comparative study has been
made with other popular existing algorithms. The peak signal to
noise ratio (PSNR) and improved signal to noise ratio (ISNR) are
used as metrics for evaluating the quality of images. The ICA metric
Amari error is also used to measure the quality of separation.
Spectral Analysis of Speech: A New Technique
ICA which is generally used for blind source separation
problem has been tested for feature extraction in Speech recognition
system to replace the phoneme based approach of MFCC. Applying
the Cepstral coefficients generated to ICA as preprocessing has
developed a new signal processing approach. This gives much better
results against MFCC and ICA separately, both for word and speaker
recognition. The mixing matrix A is different before and after MFCC
as expected. As Mel is a nonlinear scale. However, cepstrals
generated from Linear Predictive Coefficient being independent
prove to be the right candidate for ICA. Matlab is the tool used for
all comparisons. The database used is samples of ISOLET.
An Approach to Solving a Permutation Problem of Frequency Domain Independent Component Analysis for Blind Source Separation of Speech Signals
Independent component analysis (ICA) in the
frequency domain is used for solving the problem of blind source
separation (BSS). However, this method has some problems. For
example, a general ICA algorithm cannot determine the permutation
of signals which is important in the frequency domain ICA. In this
paper, we propose an approach to the solution for a permutation
problem. The idea is to effectively combine two conventional
approaches. This approach improves the signal separation
performance by exploiting features of the conventional approaches.
We show the simulation results using artificial data.
Application of a Time-Frequency-Based Blind Source Separation to an Instantaneous Mixture of Secondary Radar Sources
In Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) systems, it is
more difficult to locate and recognise aircrafts in the neighbourhood of civil airports since aerial traffic becomes greater. Here, we propose to apply a recent Blind Source Separation (BSS) algorithm based
on Time-Frequency Analysis, in order to separate messages sent by different aircrafts and falling in the same radar beam in reception. The above source separation method involves joint-diagonalization
of a set of smoothed version of spatial Wigner-Ville distributions.
The technique makes use of the difference in the t-f signatures of the nonstationary sources to be separated. Consequently, as the SSR sources emit different messages at different frequencies, the above fitted to this new application. We applied the technique in simulation to separate SSR replies. Results are provided at the end
of the paper.
A Robust Watermarking using Blind Source Separation
In this paper, we present a robust and secure
algorithm for watermarking, the watermark is first transformed into
the frequency domain using the discrete wavelet transform (DWT).
Then the entire DWT coefficient except the LL (Band) discarded,
these coefficients are permuted and encrypted by specific mixing.
The encrypted coefficients are inserted into the most significant
spectral components of the stego-image using a chaotic system. This
technique makes our watermark non-vulnerable to the attack (like
compression, and geometric distortion) of an active intruder, or due
to noise in the transmission link.
An Approach for Blind Source Separation using the Sliding DFT and Time Domain Independent Component Analysis
''Cocktail party problem'' is well known as one of the human auditory abilities. We can recognize the specific sound that we want to listen by this ability even if a lot of undesirable sounds or noises are mixed. Blind source separation (BSS) based on independent component analysis (ICA) is one of the methods by which we can separate only a special signal from their mixed signals with simple hypothesis. In this paper, we propose an online approach for blind source separation using the sliding DFT and the time domain independent component analysis. The proposed method can reduce calculation complexity in comparison with conventional methods, and can be applied to parallel processing by using digital signal processors (DSPs) and so on. We evaluate this method and show its availability.