International Science Index
Long Short-Term Memory Based Model for Modeling Nicotine Consumption Using an Electronic Cigarette and Internet of Things Devices
In this paper, we want to determine whether the accurate prediction of nicotine concentration can be obtained by using a network of smart objects and an e-cigarette. The approach consists of, first, the recognition of factors influencing smoking cessation such as physical activity recognition and participant’s behaviors (using both smartphone and smartwatch), then the prediction of the configuration of the e-cigarette (in terms of nicotine concentration, power, and resistance of e-cigarette). The study uses a network of commonly connected objects; a smartwatch, a smartphone, and an e-cigarette transported by the participants during an uncontrolled experiment. The data obtained from sensors carried in the three devices were trained by a Long short-term memory algorithm (LSTM). Results show that our LSTM-based model allows predicting the configuration of the e-cigarette in terms of nicotine concentration, power, and resistance with a root mean square error percentage of 12.9%, 9.15%, and 11.84%, respectively. This study can help to better control consumption of nicotine and offer an intelligent configuration of the e-cigarette to users.
Automatic Classification of Periodic Heart Sounds Using Convolutional Neural Network
This paper presents an automatic normal and abnormal heart sound classification model developed based on deep learning algorithm. MITHSDB heart sounds datasets obtained from the 2016 PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge database were used in this research with the assumption that the electrocardiograms (ECG) were recorded simultaneously with the heart sounds (phonocardiogram, PCG). The PCG time series are segmented per heart beat, and each sub-segment is converted to form a square intensity matrix, and classified using convolutional neural network (CNN) models. This approach removes the need to provide classification features for the supervised machine learning algorithm. Instead, the features are determined automatically through training, from the time series provided. The result proves that the prediction model is able to provide reasonable and comparable classification accuracy despite simple implementation. This approach can be used for real-time classification of heart sounds in Internet of Medical Things (IoMT), e.g. remote monitoring applications of PCG signal.
Enhanced Multi-Intensity Analysis in Multi-Scenery Classification-Based Macro and Micro Elements
Several computationally challenging issues are
encountered while classifying complex natural scenes. In this
paper, we address the problems that are encountered in rotation
invariance with multi-intensity analysis for multi-scene overlapping.
In the present literature, various algorithms proposed techniques
for multi-intensity analysis, but there are several restrictions in
these algorithms while deploying them in multi-scene overlapping
classifications. In order to resolve the problem of multi-scenery
overlapping classifications, we present a framework that is based
on macro and micro basis functions. This algorithm conquers the
minimum classification false alarm while pigeonholing multi-scene
overlapping. Furthermore, a quadrangle multi-intensity decay is
invoked. Several parameters are utilized to analyze invariance
for multi-scenery classifications such as rotation, classification,
correlation, contrast, homogeneity, and energy. Benchmark datasets
were collected for complex natural scenes and experimented for
the framework. The results depict that the framework achieves
a significant improvement on gray-level matrix of co-occurrence
features for overlapping in diverse degree of orientations while
pigeonholing multi-scene overlapping.
Automatic Staging and Subtype Determination for Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Using PET Image Texture Analysis
In this study, our goal was to perform tumor staging and subtype determination automatically using different texture analysis approaches for a very common cancer type, i.e., non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Especially, we introduced a texture analysis approach, called Law’s texture filter, to be used in this context for the first time. The 18F-FDG PET images of 42 patients with NSCLC were evaluated. The number of patients for each tumor stage, i.e., I-II, III or IV, was 14. The patients had ~45% adenocarcinoma (ADC) and ~55% squamous cell carcinoma (SqCCs). MATLAB technical computing language was employed in the extraction of 51 features by using first order statistics (FOS), gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), gray-level run-length matrix (GLRLM), and Laws’ texture filters. The feature selection method employed was the sequential forward selection (SFS). Selected textural features were used in the automatic classification by k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) and support vector machines (SVM). In the automatic classification of tumor stage, the accuracy was approximately 59.5% with k-NN classifier (k=3) and 69% with SVM (with one versus one paradigm), using 5 features. In the automatic classification of tumor subtype, the accuracy was around 92.7% with SVM one vs. one. Texture analysis of FDG-PET images might be used, in addition to metabolic parameters as an objective tool to assess tumor histopathological characteristics and in automatic classification of tumor stage and subtype.
Segmentation of Korean Words on Korean Road Signs
This paper introduces an effective method of
segmenting Korean text (place names in Korean) from a Korean road
sign image. A Korean advanced directional road sign is composed of
several types of visual information such as arrows, place names in
Korean and English, and route numbers. Automatic classification of
the visual information and extraction of Korean place names from the
road sign images make it possible to avoid a lot of manual inputs to a
database system for management of road signs nationwide. We
propose a series of problem-specific heuristics that correctly segments
Korean place names, which is the most crucial information, from the
other information by leaving out non-text information effectively. The
experimental results with a dataset of 368 road sign images show 96%
of the detection rate per Korean place name and 84% per road sign
Effect of Personality Traits on Classification of Political Orientation
Today, there is a large number of political transcripts
available on the Web to be mined and used for statistical analysis,
and product recommendations. As the online political resources are
used for various purposes, automatically determining the political
orientation on these transcripts becomes crucial. The methodologies
used by machine learning algorithms to do an automatic classification
are based on different features that are classified under categories
such as Linguistic, Personality etc. Considering the ideological
differences between Liberals and Conservatives, in this paper, the
effect of Personality traits on political orientation classification is
studied. The experiments in this study were based on the correlation
between LIWC features and the BIG Five Personality traits. Several
experiments were conducted using Convote U.S. Congressional-
Speech dataset with seven benchmark classification algorithms. The
different methodologies were applied on several LIWC feature sets
that constituted by 8 to 64 varying number of features that are
correlated to five personality traits. As results of experiments,
Neuroticism trait was obtained to be the most differentiating
personality trait for classification of political orientation. At the same
time, it was observed that the personality trait based classification
methodology gives better and comparable results with the related
Automatic Motion Trajectory Analysis for Dual Human Interaction Using Video Sequences
Advance in techniques of image and video processing has enabled the development of intelligent video surveillance systems. This study was aimed to automatically detect moving human objects and to analyze events of dual human interaction in a surveillance scene. Our system was developed in four major steps: image preprocessing, human object detection, human object tracking, and motion trajectory analysis. The adaptive background subtraction and image processing techniques were used to detect and track moving human objects. To solve the occlusion problem during the interaction, the Kalman filter was used to retain a complete trajectory for each human object. Finally, the motion trajectory analysis was developed to distinguish between the interaction and non-interaction events based on derivatives of trajectories related to the speed of the moving objects. Using a database of 60 video sequences, our system could achieve the classification accuracy of 80% in interaction events and 95% in non-interaction events, respectively. In summary, we have explored the idea to investigate a system for the automatic classification of events for interaction and non-interaction events using surveillance cameras. Ultimately, this system could be incorporated in an intelligent surveillance system for the detection and/or classification of abnormal or criminal events (e.g., theft, snatch, fighting, etc.).
Automatic Moment-Based Texture Segmentation
An automatic moment-based texture segmentation approach is proposed in this paper. First, we describe the related work in this computer vision domain. Our texture feature extraction, the first part of the texture recognition process, produces a set of moment-based feature vectors. For each image pixel, a texture feature vector is computed as a sequence of area moments. Then, an automatic pixel classification approach is proposed. The feature vectors are clustered using an unsupervised classification algorithm, the optimal number of clusters being determined using a measure based on validation indexes. From the resulted pixel classes one determines easily the desired texture regions of the image.
Automatic Classification of Initial Categories of Alzheimer's Disease from Structural MRI Phase Images: A Comparison of PSVM, KNN and ANN Methods
An early and accurate detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an important stage in the treatment of individuals suffering from AD. We present an approach based on the use of structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) phase images to distinguish between normal controls (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD patients with clinical dementia rating (CDR) of 1. Independent component analysis (ICA) technique is used for extracting useful features which form the inputs to the support vector machines (SVM), K nearest neighbour (kNN) and multilayer artificial neural network (ANN) classifiers to discriminate between the three classes. The obtained results are encouraging in terms of classification accuracy and effectively ascertain the usefulness of phase images for the classification of different stages of Alzheimer-s disease.
Clustering Methods Applied to the Tracking of user Traces Interacting with an e-Learning System
Many research works are carried out on the analysis of
traces in a digital learning environment. These studies produce large
volumes of usage tracks from the various actions performed by a
user. However, to exploit these data, compare and improve
performance, several issues are raised. To remedy this, several works
deal with this problem seen recently. This research studied a series of
questions about format and description of the data to be shared. Our
goal is to share thoughts on these issues by presenting our experience
in the analysis of trace-based log files, comparing several approaches
used in automatic classification applied to e-learning platforms.
Finally, the obtained results are discussed.
Detection, Tracking and Classification of Vehicles and Aircraft based on Magnetic Sensing Technology
Existing ground movement surveillance technologies
at airports are subjected to limitations due to shadowing effects or
multiple reflections. Therefore, there is a strong demand for a new
sensing technology, which will be cost effective and will provide
detection of non-cooperative targets under any weather conditions.
This paper aims to present a new intelligent system, developed
within the framework of the EC-funded ISMAEL project, which is
based on a new magnetic sensing technology and provides detection,
tracking and automatic classification of targets moving on the airport
surface. The system is currently being installed at two European
airports. Initial experimental results under real airport traffic
demonstrate the great potential of the proposed system.
Classification of Non Stationary Signals Using Ben Wavelet and Artificial Neural Networks
The automatic classification of non stationary signals is an important practical goal in several domains. An essential classification task is to allocate the incoming signal to a group associated with the kind of physical phenomena producing it. In this paper, we present a modular system composed by three blocs: 1) Representation, 2) Dimensionality reduction and 3) Classification. The originality of our work consists in the use of a new wavelet called "Ben wavelet" in the representation stage. For the dimensionality reduction, we propose a new algorithm based on the random projection and the principal component analysis.
In Search of an SVD and QRcp Based Optimization Technique of ANN for Automatic Classification of Abnormal Heart Sounds
Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been
extensively used for classification of heart sounds for its
discriminative training ability and easy implementation. However, it
suffers from overparameterization if the number of nodes is not
chosen properly. In such cases, when the dataset has redundancy
within it, ANN is trained along with this redundant information that
results in poor validation. Also a larger network means more
computational expense resulting more hardware and time related
cost. Therefore, an optimum design of neural network is needed
towards real-time detection of pathological patterns, if any from heart
sound signal. The aims of this work are to (i) select a set of input
features that are effective for identification of heart sound signals and
(ii) make certain optimum selection of nodes in the hidden layer for a
more effective ANN structure. Here, we present an optimization
technique that involves Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and
QR factorization with column pivoting (QRcp) methodology to
optimize empirically chosen over-parameterized ANN structure.
Input nodes present in ANN structure is optimized by SVD followed
by QRcp while only SVD is required to prune undesirable hidden
nodes. The result is presented for classifying 12 common
pathological cases and normal heart sound.
A New Hybrid RMN Image Segmentation Algorithm
The development of aid's systems for the medical
diagnosis is not easy thing because of presence of inhomogeneities in
the MRI, the variability of the data from a sequence to the other as
well as of other different source distortions that accentuate this
difficulty. A new automatic, contextual, adaptive and robust
segmentation procedure by MRI brain tissue classification is
described in this article. A first phase consists in estimating the
density of probability of the data by the Parzen-Rozenblatt method.
The classification procedure is completely automatic and doesn't
make any assumptions nor on the clusters number nor on the
prototypes of these clusters since these last are detected in an
automatic manner by an operator of mathematical morphology called
skeleton by influence zones detection (SKIZ). The problem of
initialization of the prototypes as well as their number is transformed
in an optimization problem; in more the procedure is adaptive since it
takes in consideration the contextual information presents in every
voxel by an adaptive and robust non parametric model by the
Markov fields (MF). The number of bad classifications is reduced by
the use of the criteria of MPM minimization (Maximum Posterior
Massive Lesions Classification using Features based on Morphological Lesion Differences
Purpose of this work is the development of an
automatic classification system which could be useful for radiologists
in the investigation of breast cancer. The software has been designed
in the framework of the MAGIC-5 collaboration.
In the automatic classification system the suspicious regions with
high probability to include a lesion are extracted from the image as
regions of interest (ROIs). Each ROI is characterized by some
features based on morphological lesion differences.
Some classifiers as a Feed Forward Neural Network, a K-Nearest
Neighbours and a Support Vector Machine are used to distinguish the
pathological records from the healthy ones.
The results obtained in terms of sensitivity (percentage of
pathological ROIs correctly classified) and specificity (percentage of
non-pathological ROIs correctly classified) will be presented through
the Receive Operating Characteristic curve (ROC). In particular the
best performances are 88% ± 1 of area under ROC curve obtained
with the Feed Forward Neural Network.
EEG Spikes Detection, Sorting, and Localization
This study introduces a new method for detecting,
sorting, and localizing spikes from multiunit EEG recordings. The
method combines the wavelet transform, which localizes distinctive
spike features, with Super-Paramagnetic Clustering (SPC) algorithm,
which allows automatic classification of the data without assumptions
such as low variance or Gaussian distributions. Moreover, the method
is capable of setting amplitude thresholds for spike detection. The
method makes use of several real EEG data sets, and accordingly the
spikes are detected, clustered and their times were detected.
Superior Performances of the Neural Network on the Masses Lesions Classification through Morphological Lesion Differences
Purpose of this work is to develop an automatic classification system that could be useful for radiologists in the breast cancer investigation. The software has been designed in the framework of the MAGIC-5 collaboration. In an automatic classification system the suspicious regions with high probability to include a lesion are extracted from the image as regions of interest (ROIs). Each ROI is characterized by some features based generally on morphological lesion differences. A study in the space features representation is made and some classifiers are tested to distinguish the pathological regions from the healthy ones. The results provided in terms of sensitivity and specificity will be presented through the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curves. In particular the best performances are obtained with the Neural Networks in comparison with the K-Nearest Neighbours and the Support Vector Machine: The Radial Basis Function supply the best results with 0.89 ± 0.01 of area under ROC curve but similar results are obtained with the Probabilistic Neural Network and a Multi Layer Perceptron.