International Science Index
Investigation of Chlorophylls a and b Interaction with Inner and Outer Surfaces of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Using Molecular Dynamics Simulation
In this work, adsorption of chlorophylls a and b pigments in aqueous solution on the inner and outer surfaces of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) has been studied using molecular dynamics simulation. The linear interaction energy algorithm has been used to calculate the binding free energy. The results show that the adsorption of two pigments is fine on the both positions. Although there is the close similarity between these two pigments, their interaction with the nanotube is different. This result is useful to separate these pigments from one another. According to interaction energy between the pigments and carbon nanotube, interaction between these pigments-SWCNT on the inner surface is stronger than the outer surface. The interaction of SWCNT with chlorophylls phytol tail is stronger than the interaction of SWCNT with porphyrin ring of chlorophylls.
Basicity of Jordanian Natural Clays Studied by Pyrrole-tpd and Catalytic Conversion of Methylbutynol
The main objective of this study is to investigate basic properties of different natural clays, by two methods. The first method is a gas phase conversion of methylbutynol (MBOH). The second method is the application of Pyrrole-tpd. Based on the product distribution from the first method, the acidic, basic and coordinately unsaturated sites were differentiated. It was shown that both the conversion and the selectivity for basic products did not change with reaction time. Nevertheless, a deviation from the stoichiometric ratio R of formed acetylene to acetone was observed (R=0.8…0.97). The conversion normalized to the surface area was used for establishing the activity sequence: White kaolinite > red kaolinite > bentonite > zeolite > diatomite. In addition, the results were compared with synthetic amorphous alumosilicates and typical basic materials like MgO and ZnO. The basic properties were characterized using the Pyrrole-tpd. The Pyrrole-tpd results showed the same basicity sequence as the MBOH gas phase reaction.
Solid-Liquid-Polymer Mixed Matrix Membrane Using Liquid Additive Adsorbed on Activated Carbon Dispersed in Polymeric Membrane for CO2/CH4 Separation
Gas separation by selective transport through polymeric membranes is one of the rapid growing branches of membrane technology. However, the tradeoff between the permeability and selectivity is one of the critical challenges encountered by pure polymer membranes, which in turn limits their large-scale application. To enhance gas separation performances, mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) have been developed. In this study, MMMs were prepared by a solution-coating method and tested for CO2/CH4 separation through permeability and selectivity using a membrane testing unit at room temperature and a pressure of 100 psig. The fabricated MMMs were composed of silicone rubber dispersed with the activated carbon individually absorbed with polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a liquid additive. PEG emulsified silicone rubber MMMs showed superior gas separation on cellulose acetate membrane with both high permeability and selectivity compared with silicone rubber membrane and alone support membrane. However, the MMMs performed limited stability resulting from the undesirable PEG leakage. To stabilize the MMMs, PEG was then incorporated into activated carbon by adsorption. It was found that the incorporation of solid and liquid was effective to improve the separation performance of MMMs.
Effects of the Coagulation Bath and Reduction Process on SO2 Adsorption Capacity of Graphene Oxide Fiber
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a very toxic air pollutant gas and it causes the greenhouse effect, photochemical smog, and acid rain, which threaten human health severely. Thus, the capture of SO2 gas is very important for the environment. Graphene which is two-dimensional material has excellent mechanical, chemical, thermal properties, and many application areas such as energy storage devices, gas adsorption, sensing devices, and optical electronics. Further, graphene oxide (GO) is examined as a good adsorbent because of its important features such as functional groups (epoxy, carboxyl and hydroxyl) on the surface and layered structure. The SO2 adsorption properties of the fibers are usually investigated on carbon fibers. In this study, potential adsorption capacity of GO fibers was researched. GO dispersion was first obtained with Hummers’ method from graphite, and then GO fibers were obtained via wet spinning process. These fibers were converted into a disc shape, dried, and then subjected to SO2 gas adsorption test. The SO2 gas adsorption capacity of GO fiber discs was investigated in the fields of utilization of different coagulation baths and reduction by hydrazine hydrate. As coagulation baths, single and triple baths were used. In single bath, only ethanol and CaCl2 (calcium chloride) salt were added. In triple bath, each bath has a different concentration of water/ethanol and CaCl2 salt, and the disc obtained from triple bath has been called as reference disk. The fibers which were produced with single bath were flexible and rough, and the analyses show that they had higher SO2 adsorption capacity than triple bath fibers (reference disk). However, the reduction process did not increase the adsorption capacity, because the SEM images showed that the layers and uniform structure in the fiber form were damaged, and reduction decreased the functional groups which SO2 will be attached. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analyzes were performed on the fibers and discs, and the effects on the results were interpreted. In the future applications of the study, it is aimed that subjects such as pH and additives will be examined.
Formation of Volatile Iodine from Cesium Iodide Aerosols: A DFT Study
Periodic DFT calculations were performed to study the chemistry of CsI particles and the possible release of volatile iodine from CsI surfaces for nuclear safety interest. The results show that water adsorbs at low temperature associatively on the (011) surface of CsI, while water desorbs at higher temperatures. On the other hand, removing iodine species from the surface requires oxidizing the surface one time for each removed iodide atom. The activation energy of removing I2 from the surface in the presence of two OH is 1,2 eV.
Effect of the Experimental Conditions on the Adsorption Capacities in the Removal of Pb2+ from Aqueous Solutions by the Hydroxyapatite Nanopowders
In this study, Pb2+ uptake by the hydroxyapatite nanopowders (n-Hap) from aqueous solutions was investigated by using batch adsorption techniques. The adsorption equilibrium studies were carried out as a function of contact time, adsorbent dosage, pH, temperature, and initial Pb2+ concentration. The results showed that the equilibrium time of adsorption was achieved within 60 min, and the effective pH was selected to be 5 (natural pH). The maximum adsorption capacity of Pb2+ on n-Hap was found as 565 mg.g-1. It is believed that the results obtained for adsorption may provide a background for the detailed mechanism investigations and the pilot and industrial scale applications.
Modeling of Bisphenol A (BPA) Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic synthetic compound that has many applications in various industries and is known as persistent pollutant. The aim of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of bone ash and banana peel as adsorbents for BPA adsorption from aqueous solution by using Response Surface Methodology. The effects of some variables such as sorbent dose, detention time, solution pH, and BPA concentration on the sorption efficiency was examined. All analyses were carried out according to Standard Methods. The sample size was performed using Box-Benken design and also optimization of BPA removal was done using response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that the BPA adsorption increases with increasing of contact time and BPA concentration. However, it decreases with higher pH. More adsorption efficiency of a banana peel is very smaller than a bone ash so that BPA removal for bone ash and banana peel is 62 and 28 percent, respectively. It is concluded that a bone ash has a good ability for the BPA adsorption.
The Purification of Waste Printing Developer with the Fixed Bed Adsorption Column
The present study investigates the effectiveness of
newly designed clayey pellets (fired clay pellets diameter sizes of 5
and 8 mm, and unfired clay pellets with the diameter size of 15 mm)
as the beds in the column adsorption process. The adsorption
experiments in the batch mode were performed before the column
experiment with the purpose to determine the order of adsorbent
package in the column which was to be designed in the investigation.
The column experiment was performed by using a known mass of the
clayey beds and the volume of the waste printing developer, which
was purified. The column was filled in the following order: fired clay
pellets of the diameter size of 5 mm, fired clay pellets of the diameter
size of 8 mm, and unfired clay pellets of the diameter size of 15 mm.
The selected order of the adsorbents showed a high removal
efficiency for zinc (97.8%) and copper (81.5%) ions. These
efficiencies were better than those in the case of the already existing
mode adsorption. The obtained experimental data present a good
basis for the selection of an appropriate column fill, but further
testing is necessary in order to obtain more accurate results.
Accumulation of Pollutants, Self-purification and Impact on Peripheral Urban Areas: A Case Study in Shantytowns in Argentina
This work sets out to debate the tensions involved in
the processes of contamination and self-purification in the urban
space, particularly in the streams that run through the Buenos Aires
metropolitan area. For much of their course, those streams are piped;
their waters do not come into contact with the outdoors until they
have reached deeply impoverished urban areas with high levels of
environmental contamination. These are peripheral zones that, until
thirty years ago, were marshlands and fields. They are now densely
populated areas largely lacking in urban infrastructure.
The Cárcova neighborhood, where this project is underway, is in
the José León Suárez section of General San Martín county, Buenos
Aires province. A stretch of José León Suarez canal crosses the
neighborhood. Starting upstream, this canal carries pollutants due to
the sewage and industrial waste released into it. Further downstream,
in the neighborhood, domestic drainage is poured into the stream. In
this paper, we formulate a hypothesis diametrical to the one that
holds that these neighborhoods are the primary source of
contamination, suggesting instead that in the stretch of the canal that
runs through the neighborhood the stream’s waters are actually
cleaned and the sediments accumulate pollutants. Indeed, the
stretches of water that runs through these neighborhoods act as water
processing plants for the metropolis.
This project has studied the different organic-load polluting
contributions to the water in a certain stretch of the canal, the
reduction of that load over the course of the canal, and the
incorporation of pollutants into the sediments. We have found that
the surface water has considerable ability to self-purify, mostly due to
processes of sedimentation and adsorption. The polluting load is
accumulated in the sediments where that load stabilizes slowly by
means of anaerobic processes. In this study, we also investigated the
risks of sediment management and the use of the processes studied
here in controlled conditions as tools of environmental restoration.
Thermal Regeneration of CO2 Spent Palm Shell-Polyetheretherketone Activated Carbon Sorbents
Activated carbons (M4P0, M4P2, and M5P2) used in
this research were produced from palm shell and polyetherether
ketone (PEEK) via carbonization, impregnation and microwave
activation. The adsorption/desorption process was carried out using
static volumetric adsorption. Regeneration is important in the overall
economy of the process and waste minimization. This work focuses
on the thermal regeneration of the CO2 exhausted microwave
activated carbons. The regeneration strategy adopted was thermal
with nitrogen purge desorption with N2 feed flow rate of 20 ml/min
for 1 h at atmospheric pressure followed by drying at 150oC.Seven
successive adsorption/regeneration processes were carried out on the
material. It was found that after seven adsorption regeneration cycles;
the regeneration efficiency (RE) for CO2 activated carbon from palm
shell only (M4P0) was more than 90% while that of hybrid palm
shell-PEEK (M4P2, M5P2) was above 95%. The cyclic adsorption
and regeneration shows the stability of the adsorbent materials.
Adsorption of Acetone Vapors by SBA-16 and MCM-48 Synthesized from Rice Husk Ash
Silica was extracted from agriculture waste rice husk
ash (RHA) and was used as the silica source for synthesis of
RMCM-48 and RSBA-16. An alkali fusion process was utilized to
separate silicate supernatant and the sediment effectively. The
CTAB/Si and F127/Si molar ratio was employed to control the
structure properties of the obtained RMCM-48 and RSBA-16
materials. The N2 adsorption-desorption results showed the
micro-mesoporous RSBA-16 possessed high specific surface areas
(662-1001 m2/g). All the obtained RSBA-16 materials were applied as
the adsorbents for acetone adsorption. And the breakthrough tests
clearly revealed that the RSBA-16(0.004) materials could achieve the
highest acetone adsorption capacity of 181 mg/g under 1000 ppmv
acetone vapor concentration at 25oC, which was also superior to
ZSM-5 (71mg/g) and MCM-41 (157mg/g) under same test conditions.
This can help to reduce the solid waste and the high adsorption
performance of the obtained materials could consider as potential
adsorbents for acetone adsorption.
Adsorption of Bovine Serum Albumin on CeO2
Preparation of nanoparticles of cerium oxide and
adsorption of bovine serum albumin on them were studied. Particle
size distribution and influence of pH on zeta potential of prepared
CeO2 were determined. Average size of prepared cerium oxide
nanoparticles was 9 nm. The simultaneous measurements of the
bovine serum albumin adsorption and zeta potential determination of
the (adsorption) suspensions were carried out. The adsorption
isotherms were found to be of typical Langmuir type; values of the
bovine serum albumin adsorption capacities were calculated.
Increasing of pH led to decrease of zeta potential and decrease of
adsorption capacity of cerium oxide nanoparticles. The maximum
adsorption capacity was found for strongly acid suspension (am =
118 mg/g). The samples of nanoceria with positive zeta potential
adsorbed more bovine serum albumin on the other hand, the samples
with negative zeta potential showed little or no protein adsorption.
Surface charge or better say zeta potential of CeO2 nanoparticles
plays the key role in adsorption of proteins on such type of materials.
Comparison Study on Characterization of Various Fly Ashes for Heavy Metal Adsorption
Fly ash is a waste material of coal firing thermal
plants that is released from thermal power plants. It was defined as
very fine particles that are drifted upward which are taken up by the
flue gases. The emerging amount of fly ash in the world is
approximately 600 million tons per year. In our country, it is
expected that will be occurred 50 million tons of waste ash per year
until 2020. The fly ashes can be evaluated by using as adsorbent
material. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of
use of various fly ashes (Tuncbilek, Catalagzi, Orhaneli) like lowcost
adsorbents for heavy metal adsorption. First of all, fly ashes
were characterized. For this purpose; analyses such as XRD, XRF,
SEM and FT-IR were performed.
Hydrogenation of Acetic Acid on Alumina-Supported Pt-Sn Catalysts
Three alumina-supported Pt-Sn catalysts have been
prepared by means of co-impregnation and characterized by XRD and
N2 adsorption. The influence of catalyst composition and reaction
conditions on the conversion and selectivity were investigated in the
hydrogenation of acetic acid in an isothermal integral fixed bed
reactor. The experiments were performed on the temperature interval
468-548 K, liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) of 0.3-0.7h-1,
pressures between 1.0 and 5.0Mpa. A good compromise of
0.75%Pt-1.5%Sn can act as an optimized acetic acid hydrogenation
catalyst, and the conversion and selectivity can be tuned through the
variation of reaction conditions.
Alignment of MG-63 Osteoblasts on Fibronectin-Coated Phosphorous Doping Lattices in Silicon
A major challenge in biomaterials research is the
regulation of protein adsorption which is a key factor for controlling
the subsequent cell adhesion at implant surfaces. The aim of the
present study was to control the adsorption of fibronectin (FN) and
the attachment of MG-63 osteoblasts with an electronic
nanostructure. Shallow doping line lattices with a period of 260 nm
were produced for this purpose by implantation of phosphorous in
silicon wafers. Protein coverage was determined after incubating the
substrate with FN by means of an immunostaining procedure and the
measurement of the fluorescence intensity with a TECAN analyzer.
We observed an increased amount of adsorbed FN on the
nanostructure compared to control substrates. MG-63 osteoblasts
were cultivated for 24h on FN-incubated substrates and their
morphology was assessed by SEM. Preferred orientation and
elongation of the cells in direction of the doping lattice lines was
observed on FN-coated nanostructures.
Mercury Removal Techniques for Industrial Waste Water
The current work focuses on rephrasing the harmful
effects of mercury that is being released from a number of sources.
Most of the sources are from the industrial waste water. Different
techniques of mercury removal have been discussed and a brief
comparison among these has been made. The experimental work has
been conducted for two most widely used methods of mercury
removal and comparison in terms of their efficiency has been made.
Characterization of Catalagzi Fly Ash for Heavy Metal Adsorption
Fly ash is a significant waste that is released of
thermal power plants and defined as very fine particles that are drifted upward with up taken by the flue gases due to the burning of
used coal . The fly-ash is capable of removing organic
contaminants in consequence of high carbon content, a large surface area per unit volume and contained heavy metals. Therefore, fly ash
is used as an effective coagulant and adsorbent by pelletization [2, 3].
In this study, the possibility of use of fly ash taken from Turkey like low-cost adsorbent for adsorption of zinc ions found in waste
water was investigated. The fly ash taken from Turkey was pelletized with bentonite and molass to evaluate the adsorption capaticity. For
this purpose; analyses such as sieve analysis, XRD, XRF, FTIR and SEM were performed. As a result, it was seen that pellets prepared
from fly ash, bentonite and molass would be used for zinc adsorption.
Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage: A General Review on Adsorbents
CO2 is the primary anthropogenic greenhouse gas,
accounting for 77% of the human contribution to the greenhouse
effect in 2004. In the recent years, global concentration of CO2 in the
atmosphere is increasing rapidly. CO2 emissions have an impact on
global climate change. Anthropogenic CO2 is emitted primarily from
fossil fuel combustion. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one
option for reducing CO2 emissions. There are three major approaches
for CCS: post-combustion capture, pre-combustion capture and
oxyfuel process. Post-combustion capture offers some advantages as
existing combustion technologies can still be used without radical
changes on them.
There are several post combustion gas separation and capture
technologies being investigated, namely; (a) absorption, (b)
cryogenic separation, (c) membrane separation (d) micro algal biofixation
and (e) adsorption. Apart from establishing new techniques,
the exploration of capture materials with high separation performance
and low capital cost are paramount importance. However, the
application of adsorption from either technology, require easily
regenerable and durable adsorbents with a high CO2 adsorption
capacity. It has recently been reported that the cost of the CO2
capture can be reduced by using this technology. In this paper, the
research progress (from experimental results) in adsorbents for CO2
adsorption, storage, and separations were reviewed and future
research directions were suggested as well.
Study on Characterization of Tuncbilek Fly Ash
Fly ash is one of the residues generated in
combustion, and comprises the fine particles that rise with the flue
gases. Ash which does not rise is termed bottom ash . In our
country, it is expected that will be occurred 50 million tons of waste
ash per year until 2020. Released waste from the thermal power
plants is caused very significant problems as known. The fly ashes
can be evaluated by using as adsorbent material.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of use of
Tuncbilek fly ash like low-cost adsorbents for heavy metal
adsorption. First of all, Tuncbilek fly ash was characterized. For this
purpose; analysis such as sieve analysis, XRD, XRF, SEM and FT-IR
Removal of Pb (II) from Aqueous Solutions using Fuller's Earth
Fuller’s earth is a fine-grained, naturally occurring substance that has a substantial ability to adsorb impurities. In the present study Fuller’s earth has been characterized and used for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution. The effect of various physicochemical parameters such as pH, adsorbent dosage and shaking time on adsorption were studied. The result of the equilibrium studies showed that the solution pH was the key factor affecting the adsorption. The optimum pH for adsorption was 5. Kinetics data for the adsorption of Pb(II) was best described by pseudo-second order model. The effective diffusion co-efficient for Pb(II) adsorption was of the order of 10-8 m2/s. The adsorption data for metal adsorption can be well described by Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The maximum uptake of metal was 103.3 mg/g of adsorbent. Mass transfer analysis was also carried out for the adsorption process. The values of mass transfer coefficients obtained from the study indicate that the velocity of the adsorbate transport from bulk to the solid phase was quite fast. The mean sorption energy calculated from Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm indicated that the metal adsorption process was chemical in nature.
Developing Cu-Mesoporous TiO2 Cooperated with Ozone Assistance and Online- Regeneration System for Acid Odor Removal in All Weather
Cu-mesoporous TiO2 is developed for removal acid
odor cooperated with ozone assistance and online- regeneration
system with/without UV irradiation (all weather) in study. The results
showed that Cu-mesoporous TiO2 present the desirable adsorption
efficiency of acid odor without UV irradiation, due to the larger
surface area, pore sizeand the additional absorption ability provided by
Cu. In the photocatalysis process, the material structure also benefits
Cu-mesoporous TiO2 to perform the more outstanding efficiency on
degrading acid odor. Cu also postponed the recombination of
electron-hole pairs excited from TiO2 to enhance photodegradation
ability. Cu-mesoporous TiO2 could gain the conspicuous increase on
photocatalysis ability from ozone assistance, but without any benefit
on adsorption. In addition, the online regeneration procedure could
process the used Cu-mesoporous TiO2 to reinstate the adsorption
ability and maintain the photodegradtion performance, depended on
scrubbing, desorping acid odor and reducing Cu to metal state.
The Removal of Cu (II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions on Synthetic Zeolite NaA
In this study the adsorption of Cu (II) ions from aqueous solutions on synthetic zeolite NaA was evaluated. The effect of solution temperature and the determination of the kinetic parameters of adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution on zeolite NaA is important in understanding the adsorption mechanism. Variables of the system include adsorption time, temperature (293- 328K), initial solution concentration and pH for the system. The sorption kinetics of the copper ions were found to be strongly dependent on pH (the optimum pH 3-5), solute ion concentration and temperature (293 – 328 K). It was found, the pseudo-second-order model was the best choice among all the kinetic models to describe the adsorption behavior of Cu(II) onto ziolite NaA, suggesting that the adsorption mechanism might be a chemisorptions process The activation energy of adsorption (Ea) was determined as Cu(II) 13.5 kJ mol-1. The low value of Ea shows that Cu(II) adsorption process by zeolite NaA may be an activated chemical adsorption. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0) were also determined from the temperature dependence. The results show that the process of adsorption Cu(II) is spontaneous and endothermic process and rise in temperature favors the adsorption.
Mass Transfer Modeling of Nitrate in an Ion Exchange Selective Resin
The rate of nitrate adsorption by a nitrate selective ion
exchange resin was investigated in a well-stirred batch experiments.
The kinetic experimental data were simulated with diffusion models including external mass transfer, particle diffusion and chemical
adsorption. Particle pore volume diffusion and particle surface diffusion were taken into consideration separately and simultaneously
in the modeling. The model equations were solved numerically using the Crank-Nicholson scheme. An optimization technique was
employed to optimize the model parameters. All nitrate concentration
decay data were well described with the all diffusion models. The
results indicated that the kinetic process is initially controlled by external mass transfer and then by particle diffusion. The external
mass transfer coefficient and the coefficients of pore volume diffusion and surface diffusion in all experiments were close to each
other with the average value of 8.3×10-3 cm/S for external mass
transfer coefficient. In addition, the models are more sensitive to the
mass transfer coefficient in comparison with particle diffusion. Moreover, it seems that surface diffusion is the dominant particle
diffusion in comparison with pore volume diffusion.
The Effects of Sodium Chloride in the Formation of Size and Shape of Gold (Au)Nanoparticles by Microwave-Polyol Method for Mercury Adsorption
Mercury is a natural occurring element and present in
various concentrations in the environment. Due to its toxic effects, it
is desirable to research mercury sensitive materials to adsorb
mercury. This paper describes the preparation of Au nanoparticles for
mercury adsorption by using a microwave (MW)-polyol method in
the presence of three different Sodium Chloride (NaCl)
concentrations (10, 20 and 30 mM). Mixtures of spherical, triangular,
octahedral, decahedral particles and 1-D product were obtained using
this rapid method. Sizes and shapes was found strongly depend on the
concentrations of NaCl. Without NaCl concentration, spherical,
triangular plates, octahedral, decahedral nanoparticles and 1D
product were produced. At the lower NaCl concentration (10 mM),
spherical, octahedral and decahedral nanoparticles were present,
while spherical and decahedral nanoparticles were preferentially form
by using 20 mM of NaCl concentration. Spherical, triangular plates,
octahedral and decahedral nanoparticles were obtained at the highest
NaCl concentration (30 mM). The amount of mercury adsorbed using
20 ppm mercury solution is the highest (67.5 %) for NaCl
concentration of 30 mM. The high yield of polygonal particles will
increase the mercury adsorption. In addition, the adsorption of
mercury is also due to the sizes of the particles. The sizes of particles
become smaller with increasing NaCl concentrations (size ranges, 5-
16 nm) than those synthesized without addition of NaCl (size ranges
11-32 nm). It is concluded that NaCl concentrations affects the
formation of sizes and shapes of Au nanoparticles thus affects the
A Study on Removal of Toluidine Blue Dye from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption onto Neem Leaf Powder
Adsorption of Toluidine blue dye from aqueous solutions onto Neem Leaf Powder (NLP) has been investigated. The surface characterization of this natural material was examined by Particle size analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The effects of process parameters such as initial concentration, pH, temperature and contact duration on the adsorption capacities have been evaluated, in which pH has been found to be most effective parameter among all. The data were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich for explaining the equilibrium characteristics of adsorption. And kinetic models like pseudo first- order, second-order model and Elovich equation were utilized to describe the kinetic data. The experimental data were well fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and pseudo second order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters, such as Free energy of adsorption (AG"), enthalpy change (AH') and entropy change (AS°) were also determined and evaluated.
Removal of Ciprofloxazin and Carbamazepine by Adsorption on Functionalized Mesoporous Silicates
Ciprofloxacin (CIP) and Carbamazepine (CBZ), nonbiodegradable pharmaceutical residues, were become emerging pollutants in several aquatic environments. The objectives of this research were to study the possibility to recover these pharmaceuticals residues from pharmaceutical wastewater by increasing the selective adsorption on synthesized functionalized porous silicate, comparing with powdered activated carbon (PAC). Hexagonal mesoporous silicate (HMS), functionalized HMSs (3- aminopropyltriethoxy, 3- mercaptopropyltrimethoxy and noctyldimethyl) were synthesized and characterized physico-chemical characteristics. Obtained adsorption kinetics and isotherms showed that 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxy functional groups grafted on HMS provided highest CIP and CBZ adsorption capacities; however, it was still lower than that of PAC. The kinetic results were compatible with pseudo-second order. The hydrophobicity and hydrogen bonding might play a key role on the adsorption. Furthermore, the capacities were affected by varying pH values due to the strength of hydrogen bonding between targeted compounds and adsorbents. Electrostatic interaction might not affect the adsorption capacities.
Experimental Evaluation of Methane Adsorptionon Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) and Determination of Model Isotherm
This study investigates the capacity of granular
activated carbon (GAC) for the storage of methane through the
equilibrium adsorption. An experimental apparatus consist of a dual
adsorption vessel was set up for the measurement of equilibrium
adsorption of methane on GAC using volumetric technique (pressure
decay). Experimental isotherms of methane adsorption were
determined by the measurement of equilibrium uptake of methane in
different pressures (0-50 bar) and temperatures (285.15-328.15°K).
The experimental data was fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir
equations to determine the model isotherm. The results show that the
experimental data is equally well fitted by the both model isotherms.
Using the experimental data obtained in different temperatures the
isosteric heat of methane adsorption was also calculated by the
Clausius-Clapeyron equation from the Sips isotherm model. Results
of isosteric heat of adsorption show that decreasing temperature or
increasing methane uptake by GAC decrease the isosteric heat of
Study Interaction between Tin Dioxide Nanowhiskers and Ethanol Molecules in Gas Phase: Monte Carlo(MC) and Langevin Dynamics (LD) Simulation
Three dimensional nanostructure materials have attracted the attention of many researches because the possibility to apply them for near future devices in sensors, catalysis and energy related. Tin dioxide is the most used material for gas sensing because its three-dimensional nanostructures and properties are related to the large surface exposed to gas adsorption. We propose the use of branch SnO2 nanowhiskers in interaction with ethanol. All Sn atoms are symmetric. The total energy, potential energy and Kinetic energy calculated for interaction between SnO2 and ethanol in different distances and temperatures. The calculations achieved by methods of Langevin Dynamic and Mont Carlo simulation. The total energy increased with addition ethanol molecules and temperature so interactions between them are endothermic.
Adsorption of Lead(II) and Cadmium(II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption on Activated Carbon Prepared from Cashew Nut Shells
Cashew nut shells were converted into activated carbon powders using KOH activation plus CO2 gasification at 1027 K. The increase both of impregnation ratio and activation time, there was swiftly the development of mesoporous structure with increasing of mesopore volume ratio from 20-28% and 27-45% for activated carbon with ratio of KOH per char equal to 1 and 4, respectively. Activated carbon derived from KOH/char ratio equal to 1 and CO2 gasification time from 20 to 150 minutes were exhibited the BET surface area increasing from 222 to 627 m2.g-1. And those were derived from KOH/char ratio of 4 with activation time from 20 to 150 minutes exhibited high BET surface area from 682 to 1026 m2.g-1. The adsorption of Lead(II) and Cadmium(II) ion was investigated. This adsorbent exhibited excellent adsorption for Lead(II) and Cadmium(II) ion. Maximum adsorption presented at 99.61% at pH 6.5 and 98.87% at optimum conditions. The experimental data was calculated from Freundlich isotherm and Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum capacity of Pb2+ and Cd2+ ions was found to be 28.90 m2.g-1 and 14.29 m2.g-1, respectively.
Adsorptive Removal of Vapors of Toxic Sulfur Compounds using Activated Carbons
Adsorption of CS2 vapors has been studied on
different types of activated carbons obtained from different source
raw materials. The activated carbons have different surface areas and
are associated with varying amounts of the carbon-oxygen surface
groups. The adsorption of CS2 vapors is not directly related to surface
area, but is considerably influenced by the presence of carbonoxygen
surface groups. The adsorption decreases on increasing the
amount of carbon-oxygen surface groups on oxidation and increases
when these surface groups are eliminated on degassing. The
adsorption is maximum in case of the 950°-degassed carbon sample
which is almost completely free of any associated oxygen. The
kinetic data as analysed by Empirical diffusion model and Linear
driving force mass transfer model indicate that the adsorption does
not involve Fickian diffusion but may be considered as a pseudo first
order mass transfer process. The activation energy of adsorption and
isosteric enthalpies of adsorption indicate that the adsorption does not
involve interaction between CS2 and carbon-oxygen surface groups,
but hydrophobic interactions between CS2 and C-C atoms in the