International Science Index
Design and Implementation of Medium Access Control Based Routing on Real Wireless Sensor Networks Testbed
IEEE 802.15.4 is a Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN) standard combined with ZigBee, which is going to enable new applications in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Internet of Things (IoT) domain. In recent years, it has become a popular standard for WSNs. Wireless communication among sensor motes, enabled by IEEE 802.15.4 standard, is extensively replacing the existing wired technology in a wide range of monitoring and control applications. Researchers have proposed a routing framework and mechanism that interacts with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard using software platform. In this paper, we have designed and implemented MAC based routing (MBR) based on IEEE 802.15.4 standard using a hardware platform “SENSEnuts”. The experimental results include data through light and temperature sensors obtained from communication between PAN coordinator and source node through coordinator, MAC address of some modules used in the experimental setup, topology of the network created for simulation and the remaining battery power of the source node. Our experimental effort on a WSN Testbed has helped us in bridging the gap between theoretical and practical aspect of implementing IEEE 802.15.4 for WSNs applications.
Multipurpose Agricultural Robot Platform: Conceptual Design of Control System Software for Autonomous Driving and Agricultural Operations Using Programmable Logic Controller
This paper discusses about the conceptual design and development of the control system software using Programmable logic controller (PLC) for autonomous driving and agricultural operations of Multipurpose Agricultural Robot Platform (MARP). Based on given initial conditions by field analysis and desired agricultural operations, the structural design development of MARP is done using modelling and analysis tool. PLC, being robust and easy to use, has been used to design the autonomous control system of robot platform for desired parameters. The robot is capable of performing autonomous driving and three automatic agricultural operations, viz. hilling, mulching, and sowing of seeds in the respective order. The input received from various sensors on the field is later transmitted to the controller via ZigBee network to make the changes in the control program to get desired field output. The research is conducted to provide assistance to farmers by reducing labor hours for agricultural activities by implementing automation. This study will provide an alternative to the existing systems with machineries attached behind tractors and rigorous manual operations on agricultural field at effective cost.
Comparison of Power Consumption of WiFi Inbuilt Internet of Things Device with Bluetooth Low Energy
The Internet of things (IoT) is currently a highly
researched topic, especially within the context of the smart home.
These are small sensors that are capable of gathering data and
transmitting it to a server. The majority of smart home products use
protocols such as ZigBee or Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE). As these
small sensors are increasing in number, the need to implement these
with much more capable and ubiquitous transmission technology is
necessary. The high power consumption is the reason that holds
these small sensors back from using other protocols such as the
most ubiquitous form of communication, WiFi. Comparing the power
consumption of existing transmission technologies to one with WiFi
inbuilt, would provide a better understanding for choosing between
these technologies. We have developed a small IoT device with WiFi
capability and proven that it is much more efficient than the first
protocol, 433 MHz. We extend our work in this paper and compare
WiFi power consumption with the other most widely used protocol
BLE. The experimental results in this paper would conclude whether
the developed prototype is capable in terms of power consumption to
replace the existing protocol BLE with WiFi.
Development and Evaluation of a Portable Ammonia Gas Detector
In this paper, we present a portable ammonia gas detector for performing the gas safety management efficiently. The display of the detector is separated from its body. The display module is received the data measured from the detector using ZigBee. The detector has a rechargeable li-ion battery which can be use for 11~12 hours, and a Bluetooth module for sending the data to the PC or the smart devices. The data are sent to the server and can access using the web browser or mobile application. The range of the detection concentration is 0~100ppm.
Wireless Sensor Networks for Water Quality Monitoring: Prototype Design
This paper is devoted to present the advances in the design of a prototype that is able to supervise the complex behavior of water quality parameters such as pH and temperature, via a real-time monitoring system. The current water quality tests that are performed in government water quality institutions in Mexico are carried out in problematic locations and they require taking manual samples. The water samples are then taken to the institution laboratory for examination. In order to automate this process, a water quality monitoring system based on wireless sensor networks is proposed. The system consists of a sensor node which contains one pH sensor, one temperature sensor, a microcontroller, and a ZigBee radio, and a base station composed by a ZigBee radio and a PC. The progress in this investigation shows the development of a water quality monitoring system. Due to recent events that affected water quality in Mexico, the main motivation of this study is to address water quality monitoring systems, so in the near future, a more robust, affordable, and reliable system can be deployed.
Design and Implementation of Active Radio Frequency Identification on Wireless Sensor Network-Based System
Wireless sensors, also known as wireless sensor nodes,
have been making a significant impact on human daily life. The
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Network
(WSN) are two complementary technologies; hence, an integrated
implementation of these technologies expands the overall
functionality in obtaining long-range and real-time information on the
location and properties of objects and people. An approach for
integrating ZigBee and RFID networks is proposed in this paper, to
create an energy-efficient network improved by the benefits of
combining ZigBee and RFID architecture. Furthermore, the
compatibility and requirements of the ZigBee device and
communication links in the typical RFID system which is presented
with the real world experiment on the capabilities of the proposed
Condition Monitoring System of Mine Air Compressors Based on Wireless Sensor Network
In the current mine air compressors monitoring system, there are some difficulties in the installation and maintenance because of the wired connection. To solve the problem, this paper introduces a new air compressors monitoring system based on ZigBee in which the monitoring parameters are transmitted wirelessly. The collecting devices are designed to form a cluster network to collect vibration, temperature, and pressure of air cylinders and other parameters. All these devices are battery-powered. Besides, the monitoring software in PC is developed using MFC. Experiments show that the designed wireless sensor network works well in the site environmental condition and the system is very convenient to be installed since the wireless connection. This monitoring system will have a wide application prospect in the upgrade of the old monitoring system of the air compressors.
Wireless Neural Stimulator with Adjustable Electrical Quantity
The neural stimulation has been gaining much interest in neuromodulation research and clinical trials. For efficiency, there is a need for variable electrical stimulation such as current and voltage stimuli as well as wireless framework. In this regard, we develop the wireless neural stimulator capable of voltage and current stimuli. The system consists of ZigBee which is a wireless communication module and stimulus generator. The stimulus generator with 8-bits resolution enable both mono-polar and bi-polar waveform in voltage (-3.3~3.3V) and current(-330~330µA) stimulus mode which is controllable. The experimental results suggest that the proposed neural stimulator can play a role as an effective approach for neuromodulation.
ZigBee Wireless Sensor Nodes with Hybrid Energy Storage System Based On Li-ion Battery and Solar Energy Supply
Most ZigBee sensor networks to date make use of nodes with limited processing, communication, and energy capabilities. Energy consumption is of great importance in wireless sensor applications as their nodes are commonly battery-driven. Once ZigBee nodes are deployed outdoors, limited power may make a sensor network useless before its purpose is complete. At present, there are two strategies for long node and network lifetime. The first strategy is saving energy as much as possible. The energy consumption will be minimized through switching the node from active mode to sleep mode and routing protocol with ultra-low energy consumption. The second strategy is to evaluate the energy consumption of sensor applications as accurately as possible. Erroneous energy model may render a ZigBee sensor network useless before changing batteries.
In this paper, we present a ZigBee wireless sensor node with four key modules: a processing and radio unit, an energy harvesting unit, an energy storage unit, and a sensor unit. The processing unit uses CC2530 for controlling the sensor, carrying out routing protocol, and performing wireless communication with other nodes. The harvesting unit uses a 2W solar panel to provide lasting energy for the node. The storage unit consists of a rechargeable 1200 mAh Li-ion battery and a battery charger using a constant-current/constant-voltage algorithm. Our solution to extend node lifetime is implemented. Finally, a long-term sensor network test is used to exhibit the functionality of the solar powered system.
An Intelligent WSN-Based Parking Guidance System
This paper designs an intelligent guidance system, based on wireless sensor networks, for efficient parking in parking lots. The proposed system consists of a parking space allocation subsystem, a parking space monitoring subsystem, a driving guidance subsystem, and a vehicle detection subsystem. In the system, we propose a novel and effective virtual coordinate system for sensing and displaying devices to determine the proper vacant parking space and provide the precise guidance to the driver. This study constructs a ZigBee-based wireless sensor network on Arduino platform and implements the prototype of the proposed system using Arduino-based complements. Experimental results confirm that the proposed prototype can not only work well, but also provide drivers the correct parking information.
Greenhouse Micro Climate Monitoring Based On WSN with Smart Irrigation Technique
Greenhouse is a building, which provides controlled climate conditions to the plants to keep them from external hard conditions. Greenhouse technology gives freedom to the farmer to select any crop type in any time during year. The quality and productivity of plants inside greenhouse is highly dependent on the management quality and a good management scheme is defined by the quality of the information collected from the greenhouse environment. Therefore, Continuous monitoring of environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and soil moisture gives information to the grower to better understand, how each factor affects growth and how to manage maximal crop productiveness. In this piper, we designed and implemented climate monitoring with irrigation control system based on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technology. The designed system is characterized with friendly to use, easy to install by any greenhouse user, multi-sensing nodes, multi-PAN ID, low cast, water irrigation control and low operation complexity. The system consists of two node types (sensing and control) with star topology on one PAN ID. Moreover, greenhouse manager can modifying system parameters such as (sensing node addresses, irrigation upper and lower control limits) by updating corresponding data in SDRAM memory. In addition, the designed system uses 2*16 characters. LCD to display the micro climate parameters values of each plants row inside the greenhouse.
Wavelet-Based Data Compression Technique for Wireless Sensor Networks
In this paper, we proposed an efficient data
compression strategy exploiting the multi-resolution characteristic of
the wavelet transform. We have developed a sensor node called
“Smart Sensor Node; SSN". The main goals of the SSN design are
lightweight, minimal power consumption, modular design and robust
circuitry. The SSN is made up of four basic components which are a
sensing unit, a processing unit, a transceiver unit and a power unit.
FiOStd evaluation board is chosen as the main controller of the SSN
for its low costs and high performance. The software coding of the
implementation was done using Simulink model and MATLAB
programming language. The experimental results show that the
proposed data compression technique yields recover signal with good
quality. This technique can be applied to compress the collected data
to reduce the data communication as well as the energy consumption
of the sensor and so the lifetime of sensor node can be extended.
An Efficient Burst Errors Combating for Image Transmission over Mobile WPANs
This paper presents an efficient burst error spreading tool. Also, it studies a vital issue in wireless communications, which is the transmission of images over wireless networks. IEEE ZigBee 802.15.4 is a short-range communication standard that could be used for small distance multimedia transmissions. In fact, the ZigBee network is a Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN), which needs a strong interleaving mechanism for protection against error bursts. Also, it is low power technology and utilized in the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) implementation. This paper presents the chaotic interleaving scheme as a data randomization tool for this purpose. This scheme depends on the chaotic Baker map. The mobility effects on the image transmission are studied with different velocity through utilizing the Jakes’ model. A comparison study between the proposed chaotic interleaving scheme and the traditional block and convolutional interleaving schemes for image transmission over a correlated fading channel is presented. The simulation results show the superiority of the proposed chaotic interleaving scheme over the traditional schemes.
A Nobel Approach for Campus Monitoring
This paper presents one of the best applications of wireless sensor network for campus Monitoring. With the help of PIR sensor, temperature sensor and humidity sensor, effective utilization of energy resources has been implemented in one of rooms of Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. The RISC microcontroller is used here for analysis of output of sensors and providing proper control using ZigBee protocol. This wireless sensor module presents a tremendous power saving method for any campus
Controllable Electrical Power Plug Adapters Made As A ZigBee Wireless Sensor Network
Using Internet communication, new home electronics
have functions of monitoring and control from remote. However in
many case these electronics work as standalone, and old electronics
are not followed. Then, we developed the total remote system include
not only new electronics but olds. This systems node is a adapter of
electrical power plug that embed relay switch and some sensors, and
these nodes communicate with each other. the system server was build
on the Internet, and users access to this system from web browsers.
To reduce the cost to set up of this system, communication between
adapters are used ZigBee wireless network instead of wired LAN
cable. From measured RSSI(received signal strength indicator)
information between each nodes, the system can estimate roughly
adapters were mounted on which room, and where in the room. So
also it reduces the cost of mapping nodes. Using this system, energy
saving and house monitoring are expected.
Zigbee Based Wireless Energy Surveillance System for Energy Savings
In this paper, zigbee communication based wireless energy surveillance system is presented. The proposed system consists of multiple energy surveillance devices and an energy surveillance monitor. Each different standby power-off value of electric device is set automatically by using learning function of energy surveillance device. Thus adaptive standby power-off function provides user convenience and it maximizes the energy savings. Also, power consumption monitoring function is helpful to reduce inefficient energy consumption in home. The zigbee throughput simulator is designed to evaluate minimum transmission power and maximum allowable information quantity in the proposed system. The test result of prototype has been satisfied all the requirements. The proposed system has confirmed that can be used as an intelligent energy surveillance system for energy savings in home or office.
Development of Greenhouse Analysis Tools for Home Agriculture Project
This paper presents the development of analysis tools
for Home Agriculture project. The tools are required for monitoring
the condition of greenhouse which involves two components:
measurement hardware and data analysis engine. Measurement
hardware is functioned to measure environment parameters such as
temperature, humidity, air quality, dust and etc while analysis tool is
used to analyse and interpret the integrated data against the condition
of weather, quality of health, irradiance, quality of soil and etc. The
current development of the tools is completed for off-line data
recorded technique. The data is saved in MMC and transferred via
ZigBee to Environment Data Manager (EDM) for data analysis.
EDM converts the raw data and plot three combination graphs. It has
been applied in monitoring three months data measurement for
irradiance, temperature and humidity of the greenhouse..
Multifunctional Electrical Outlet based on Mobile Ad Hoc Network
Nowadays, new home appliances and office appliances
have been developed that communicate with users through the
Internet, for remote monitor and remote control. However, developments
and sales of these new appliances are just started, then,
many products in our houses and offices do not have these useful
functions. In few years, we add these new functions to the outlet,
it means multifunctional electrical power socket plug adapter. The
outlet measure power consumption of connecting appliances, and it
can switch power supply to connecting appliances, too. Using this
outlet, power supply of old appliances can be control and monitor.
And we developed the interface system using web browser to operate
it from users. But, this system need to set up LAN cables between
outlets and so on. It is not convenience that cables around rooms. In
this paper, we develop the system that use wireless mobile ad hoc
network instead of wired LAN to communicate with the outlets.
AES and ECC Mixed for ZigBee Wireless Sensor Security
In this paper, we argue the security protocols of
ZigBee wireless sensor network in MAC layer. AES 128-bit
encryption algorithm in CCM* mode is secure transferred data;
however, AES-s secret key will be break within nearest future.
Efficient public key algorithm, ECC has been mixed with AES to
rescue the ZigBee wireless sensor from cipher text and replay attack.
Also, the proposed protocol can parallelize the integrity function to
increase system performance.
Embedded Throughput Improving of Low-rate EDR Packets for Lower-latency
With increasing utilization of the wireless devices in
different fields such as medical devices and industrial fields, the
paper presents a method for simplify the Bluetooth packets with
throughput enhancing. The paper studies a vital issue in wireless
communications, which is the throughput of data over wireless
networks. In fact, the Bluetooth and ZigBee are a Wireless Personal
Area Network (WPAN). With taking these two systems competition
consideration, the paper proposes different schemes for improve the
throughput of Bluetooth network over a reliable channel. The
proposition depends on the Channel Quality Driven Data Rate
(CQDDR) rules, which determines the suitable packet in the
transmission process according to the channel conditions. The
proposed packet is studied over additive White Gaussian Noise
(AWGN) and fading channels. The Experimental results reveal the
capability of extension of the PL length by 8, 16, 24 bytes for classic
and EDR packets, respectively. Also, the proposed method is suitable
for the low throughput Bluetooth.
Development of the Gas Safety Management System using an Intelligent Gasmeter with Wireless ZigBee Network
The gas safety management system using an
intelligent gas meter we proposed is to monitor flow and
pressure of gas, earthquake, temperature, smoke and leak of
methane. Then our system takes safety measures to protect a
serious risk by the result of an event, to communicate with a
wall-pad including a gateway by zigbee network in buildings
and to report the event to user by the safety management
program in a server. Also, the inner cutoff valve of an
intelligent gas meter is operated if any event occurred or
abnormal at each sensor.
A Sub-mW Low Noise Amplifier for Wireless Sensor Networks
A 1.2 V, 0.61 mA bias current, low noise amplifier
(LNA) suitable for low-power applications in the 2.4 GHz band is
presented. Circuit has been implemented, laid out and simulated using
a UMC 130 nm RF-CMOS process. The amplifier provides a 13.3 dB
power gain a noise figure NF< 2.28 dB and a 1-dB compression point
of -15.69 dBm, while dissipating 0.74 mW. Such performance make
this design suitable for wireless sensor networks applications such as
Software Architecture and Support for Patient Tracking Systems in Critical Scenarios
In this work a new platform for mobile-health systems is
presented. System target application is providing decision support to
rescue corps or military medical personnel in combat areas. Software
architecture relies on a distributed client-server system that manages a
wireless ad-hoc networks hierarchy in which several different types of
client operate. Each client is characterized for different hardware and
software requirements. Lower hierarchy levels rely in a network of
completely custom devices that store clinical information and patient
status and are designed to form an ad-hoc network operating in the
2.4 GHz ISM band and complying with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard
(ZigBee). Medical personnel may interact with such devices, that are
called MICs (Medical Information Carriers), by means of a PDA
(Personal Digital Assistant) or a MDA (Medical Digital Assistant),
and transmit the information stored in their local databases as well as
issue a service request to the upper hierarchy levels by using IEEE
802.11 a/b/g standard (WiFi). The server acts as a repository that
stores both medical evacuation forms and associated events (e.g., a
teleconsulting request). All the actors participating in the diagnostic
or evacuation process may access asynchronously to such repository
and update its content or generate new events. The designed system
pretends to optimise and improve information spreading and flow
among all the system components with the aim of improving both
diagnostic quality and evacuation process.
A Direct Down-conversion Receiver for Low-power Wireless Sensor Networks
A direct downconversion receiver implemented in 0.13 μm 1P8M process is presented. The circuit is formed by a single-end LNA, an active balun for conversion into balanced mode, a quadrature double-balanced passive switch mixer and a quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator. The receiver operates in the 2.4 GHz ISM band and complies with IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee) specifications. The circuit exhibits a very low noise figure of only 2.27 dB and dissipates only 14.6 mW with a 1.2 V supply voltage and is hence suitable for low-power applications.
Low-MAC FEC Controller for JPEG2000 Image Transmission Over IEEE 802.15.4
In this paper, we propose the low-MAC FEC controller for practical implementation of JPEG2000 image transmission using IEEE 802.15.4. The proposed low-MAC FEC controller has very small HW size and spends little computation to estimate channel state. Because of this advantage, it is acceptable to apply IEEE 802.15.4 which has to operate more than 1 year with battery. For the image transmission, we integrate the low-MAC FEC controller and RCPC coder in sensor node of LR-WPAN. The modified sensor node has increase of 3% hardware size than conventional zigbee sensor node.
130 nm CMOS Mixer and VCO for 2.4 GHz Low-power Wireless Personal Area Networks
This paper describes a 2.4 GHz passive switch mixer
and a 5/2.5 GHz voltage-controlled negative Gm oscillator (VCO)
with an inversion-mode MOS varactor. Both circuits are implemented
using a 1P8M 0.13 μm process. The switch mixer has an input
referred 1 dB compression point of -3.89 dBm and a conversion
gain of -0.96 dB when the local oscillator power is +2.5 dBm.
The VCO consumes only 1.75 mW, while drawing 1.45 mA from a
1.2 V supply voltage. In order to reduce the passives size, the VCO
natural oscillation frequency is 5 GHz. A clocked CMOS divideby-
two circuit is used for frequency division and quadrature phase
generation. The VCO has a -109 dBc/Hz phase noise at 1 MHz
frequency offset and a 2.35-2.5 GHz tuning range (after the frequency
division), thus complying with ZigBee requirements.
Design, Development and Implementation of aTemperature Sensor using Zigbee Concepts
This paper deals with the design, development & implementation of a temperature sensor using zigbee. The main aim of the work undertaken in this paper is to sense the temperature and to display the result on the LCD using the zigbee technology. ZigBee operates in the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands; 868 MHz in Europe, 915 MHz in the USA and 2.4 GHz in most jurisdictions worldwide. The technology is intended to be simpler and cheaper than other WPANs such as Bluetooth. The most capable ZigBee node type is said to require only about 10 % of the software of a typical Bluetooth or Wireless Internet node, while the simplest nodes are about 2 %. However, actual code sizes are much higher, more like 50 % of the Bluetooth code size. ZigBee chip vendors have announced 128-kilobyte devices. In this work undertaken in the design & development of the temperature sensor, it senses the temperature and after amplification is then fed to the micro controller, this is then connected to the zigbee module, which transmits the data and at the other end the zigbee reads the data and displays on to the LCD. The software developed is highly accurate and works at a very high speed. The method developed shows the effectiveness of the scheme employed.
Implementing a Prototype System for Power Facility Management using RFID/WSN
Firstly, research and development on RFID focuses on
manufacturing and retail sectors, because it can improve supply chain
efficiency. But, now a variety of field is considered the next research
area for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). Although RFID is
infancy, RFID technology has great potential in power industry to
significantly reduce cost, and improve quality of power supply. To
complement the limitation of RFID, we adopt the WSN (Wireless
Sensor Network) technology. However, relevant experience is limited,
the challenge will be to derive requirement from business practice and
to determine whether it is possible or not. To explore this issue, we
conduct a case study on implementing power facility management
system using RFID/WSN in Korea Electric Power Corporation
(KEPCO). In this paper we describe requirement from power industry.
And we introduce design and implementation of the test bed.
Emerging Wireless Standards - WiFi, ZigBee and WiMAX
The world of wireless telecommunications is rapidly evolving. Technologies under research and development promise to deliver more services to more users in less time. This paper presents the emerging technologies helping wireless systems grow from where we are today into our visions of the future. This paper will cover the applications and characteristics of emerging wireless technologies: Wireless Local Area Networks (WiFi-802.11n), Wireless Personal Area Networks (ZigBee) and Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (WiMAX). The purpose of this paper is to explain the impending 802.11n standard and how it will enable WLANs to support emerging media-rich applications. The paper will also detail how 802.11n compares with existing WLAN standards and offer strategies for users considering higher-bandwidth alternatives. The emerging IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee) standard aims to provide low data rate wireless communications with high-precision ranging and localization, by employing UWB technologies for a low-power and low cost solution. WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a standard for wireless data transmission covering a range similar to cellular phone towers. With high performance in both distance and throughput, WiMAX technology could be a boon to current Internet providers seeking to become the leader of next generation wireless Internet access. This paper also explores how these emerging technologies differ from one another.