International Science Index
Energy-Aware Routing in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks
Wireless sensor networks are resource constrained networks, where energy is the major resource in such networks. Therefore, energy conservation is major aspect in the deployment of Wireless Sensor Network. This work makes use of an extended Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (eGPSR) protocol that mainly focuses on energy efficient data transmission. This data transmission is based on the fact that the message that is sent to a distant node consumes more energy than the message that is sent to a short range transmission. Every cluster contains a head set that consists of many virtual cluster heads. Routing is decided by head set members. The energy level of the received signal is the major constraint to choose head set from its members. The experimental result shows that the use of eGPSR in routing has improved throughput with comparatively less delay.
Performance Analysis of ERA Using Fuzzy Logic in Wireless Sensor Network
In Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), the main limitation is generally inimitable energy consumption during processing of the sensor nodes. Cluster head (CH) election is one of the main issues that can reduce the energy consumption. Therefore, discovering energy saving routing protocol is the focused area for research. In this paper, fuzzy-based energy aware routing protocol is presented, which enhances the stability and network lifetime of the network. Fuzzy logic ensures the well-organized selection of CH by taking four linguistic variables that are concentration, energy, centrality, and distance to base station (BS). The results show that the proposed protocol shows better results in requisites of stability and throughput of the network.
Perception-Oriented Model Driven Development for Designing Data Acquisition Process in Wireless Sensor Networks
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have always been characterized for application-specific sensing, relaying and collection of information for further analysis. However, software development was not considered as a separate entity in this process of data collection which has posed severe limitations on the software development for WSN. Software development for WSN is a complex process since the components involved are data-driven, network-driven and application-driven in nature. This implies that there is a tremendous need for the separation of concern from the software development perspective. A layered approach for developing data acquisition design based on Model Driven Development (MDD) has been proposed as the sensed data collection process itself varies depending upon the application taken into consideration. This work focuses on the layered view of the data acquisition process so as to ease the software point of development. A metamodel has been proposed that enables reusability and realization of the software development as an adaptable component for WSN systems. Further, observing users perception indicates that proposed model helps in improving the programmer's productivity by realizing the collaborative system involved.
Proposal of Commutation Protocol in Hybrid Sensors and Vehicular Networks for Intelligent Transport Systems
Hybrid Sensors and Vehicular Networks (HSVN), represent a hybrid network, which uses several generations of Ad-Hoc networks. It is used especially in Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). The HSVN allows making collaboration between the Wireless Sensors Network (WSN) deployed on the border of the road and the Vehicular Network (VANET). This collaboration is defined by messages exchanged between the two networks for the purpose to inform the drivers about the state of the road, provide road safety information and more information about traffic on the road. Moreover, this collaboration created by HSVN, also allows the use of a network and the advantage of improving another network. For example, the dissemination of information between the sensors quickly decreases its energy, and therefore, we can use vehicles that do not have energy constraint to disseminate the information between sensors. On the other hand, to solve the disconnection problem in VANET, the sensors can be used as gateways that allow sending the messages received by one vehicle to another. However, because of the short communication range of the sensor and its low capacity of storage and processing of data, it is difficult to ensure the exchange of road messages between it and the vehicle, which can be moving at high speed at the time of exchange. This represents the time where the vehicle is in communication range with the sensor. This work is the proposition of a communication protocol between the sensors and the vehicle used in HSVN. The latter has as the purpose to ensure the exchange of road messages in the available time of exchange.
Data Collection with Bounded-Sized Messages in Wireless Sensor Networks
In this paper, we study the data collection problem in
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) adopting the two interference
models: The graph model and the more realistic physical interference
model known as Signal-to-Interference-Noise-Ratio (SINR). The
main issue of the problem is to compute schedules with the minimum
number of timeslots, that is, to compute the minimum latency
schedules, such that data from every node can be collected without
any collision or interference to a sink node. While existing works
studied the problem with unit-sized and unbounded-sized message
models, we investigate the problem with the bounded-sized message
model, and introduce a constant factor approximation algorithm.
To the best known of our knowledge, our result is the first result
of the data collection problem with bounded-sized model in both
Sleep Scheduling Schemes Based on Location of Mobile User in Sensor-Cloud
The mobile cloud computing (MCC) with wireless sensor networks (WSNs) technology gets more attraction by research scholars because its combines the sensors data gathering ability with the cloud data processing capacity. This approach overcomes the limitation of data storage capacity and computational ability of sensor nodes. Finally, the stored data are sent to the mobile users when the user sends the request. The most of the integrated sensor-cloud schemes fail to observe the following criteria: 1) The mobile users request the specific data to the cloud based on their present location. 2) Power consumption since most of them are equipped with non-rechargeable batteries. Mostly, the sensors are deployed in hazardous and remote areas. This paper focuses on above observations and introduces an approach known as collaborative location-based sleep scheduling (CLSS) scheme. Both awake and asleep status of each sensor node is dynamically devised by schedulers and the scheduling is done purely based on the of mobile users’ current location; in this manner, large amount of energy consumption is minimized at WSN. CLSS work depends on two different methods; CLSS1 scheme provides lower energy consumption and CLSS2 provides the scalability and robustness of the integrated WSN.
Dominating Set Algorithm and Trust Evaluation Scheme for Secured Cluster Formation and Data Transferring
This paper describes the proficient way of choosing the cluster head based on dominating set algorithm in a wireless sensor network (WSN). The algorithm overcomes the energy deterioration problems by this selection process of cluster heads. Clustering algorithms such as LEACH, EEHC and HEED enhance scalability in WSNs. Dominating set algorithm keeps the first node alive longer than the other protocols previously used. As the dominating set of cluster heads are directly connected to each node, the energy of the network is saved by eliminating the intermediate nodes in WSN. Security and trust is pivotal in network messaging. Cluster head is secured with a unique key. The member can only connect with the cluster head if and only if they are secured too. The secured trust model provides security for data transmission in the dominated set network with the group key. The concept can be extended to add a mobile sink for each or for no of clusters to transmit data or messages between cluster heads and to base station. Data security id preferably high and data loss can be prevented. The simulation demonstrates the concept of choosing cluster heads by dominating set algorithm and trust evaluation using DSTE. The research done is rationalized.
The Selection of the Nearest Anchor Using Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI)
The localization information is crucial for the
operation of WSN. There are principally two types of localization
algorithms. The Range-based localization algorithm has strict
requirements on hardware, thus is expensive to be implemented in
practice. The Range-free localization algorithm reduces the hardware
cost. However, it can only achieve high accuracy in ideal scenarios.
In this paper, we locate unknown nodes by incorporating the
advantages of these two types of methods. The proposed algorithm
makes the unknown nodes select the nearest anchor using the
Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and choose two other
anchors which are the most accurate to achieve the estimated
location. Our algorithm improves the localization accuracy compared
with previous algorithms, which has been demonstrated by the
Heuristic Search Algorithm (HSA) for Enhancing the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks
The lifetime of a wireless sensor network can be
effectively increased by using scheduling operations. Once the
sensors are randomly deployed, the task at hand is to find the largest
number of disjoint sets of sensors such that every sensor set provides
complete coverage of the target area. At any instant, only one of these
disjoint sets is switched on, while all other are switched off. This
paper proposes a heuristic search method to find the maximum
number of disjoint sets that completely cover the region. A
population of randomly initialized members is made to explore the
solution space. A set of heuristics has been applied to guide the
members to a possible solution in their neighborhood. The heuristics
escalate the convergence of the algorithm. The best solution explored
by the population is recorded and is continuously updated. The
proposed algorithm has been tested for applications which require
sensing of multiple target points, referred to as point coverage
applications. Results show that the proposed algorithm outclasses the
existing algorithms. It always finds the optimum solution, and that
too by making fewer number of fitness function evaluations than the
An Energy Aware Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Network Using Connected Dominant Set
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have many advantages. Their deployment is easier and faster than wired sensor networks or other wireless networks, as they do not need fixed infrastructure. Nodes are partitioned into many small groups named clusters to aggregate data through network organization. WSN clustering guarantees performance achievement of sensor nodes. Sensor nodes energy consumption is reduced by eliminating redundant energy use and balancing energy sensor nodes use over a network. The aim of such clustering protocols is to prolong network life. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) is a popular protocol in WSN. LEACH is a clustering protocol in which the random rotations of local cluster heads are utilized in order to distribute energy load among all sensor nodes in the network. This paper proposes Connected Dominant Set (CDS) based cluster formation. CDS aggregates data in a promising approach for reducing routing overhead since messages are transmitted only within virtual backbone by means of CDS and also data aggregating lowers the ratio of responding hosts to the hosts existing in virtual backbones. CDS tries to increase networks lifetime considering such parameters as sensors lifetime, remaining and consumption energies in order to have an almost optimal data aggregation within networks. Experimental results proved CDS outperformed LEACH regarding number of cluster formations, average packet loss rate, average end to end delay, life computation, and remaining energy computation.
Energy Efficient Data Aggregation in Sensor Networks with Optimized Cluster Head Selection
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) routing is complex
due to its dynamic nature, computational overhead, limited battery
life, non-conventional addressing scheme, self-organization, and
sensor nodes limited transmission range. An energy efficient routing
protocol is a major concern in WSN. LEACH is a hierarchical WSN
routing protocol to increase network life. It performs self-organizing
and re-clustering functions for each round. This study proposes a
better sensor networks cluster head selection for efficient data
aggregation. The algorithm is based on Tabu search.
Multipath Routing Protocol Using Basic Reconstruction Routing (BRR) Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Network
A sensory network consists of multiple detection
locations called sensor nodes, each of which is tiny, featherweight
and portable. A single path routing protocols in wireless sensor
network can lead to holes in the network, since only the nodes
present in the single path is used for the data transmission. Apart
from the advantages like reduced computation, complexity and
resource utilization, there are some drawbacks like throughput,
increased traffic load and delay in data delivery. Therefore, multipath
routing protocols are preferred for WSN. Distributing the traffic
among multiple paths increases the network lifetime. We propose a
scheme, for the data to be transmitted through a dominant path to
save energy. In order to obtain a high delivery ratio, a basic route
reconstruction protocol is utilized to reconstruct the path whenever a
failure is detected. A basic reconstruction routing (BRR) algorithm is
proposed, in which a node can leap over path failure by using the
already existing routing information from its neighbourhood while
the composed data is transmitted from the source to the sink. In order
to save the energy and attain high data delivery ratio, data is
transmitted along a multiple path, which is achieved by BRR
algorithm whenever a failure is detected. Further, the analysis of
how the proposed protocol overcomes the drawback of the existing
protocols is presented. The performance of our protocol is compared
to AOMDV and energy efficient node-disjoint multipath routing
protocol (EENDMRP). The system is implemented using NS-2.34.
The simulation results show that the proposed protocol has high
delivery ratio with low energy consumption.
Harmony Search-based K-Coverage Enhancement in Wireless Sensor Networks
Many wireless sensor network applications require
K-coverage of the monitored area. In this paper, we propose a
scalable harmony search based algorithm in terms of execution
time, K-Coverage Enhancement Algorithm (KCEA), it attempts to
enhance initial coverage, and achieve the required K-coverage degree
for a specific application efficiently. Simulation results show that
the proposed algorithm achieves coverage improvement of 5.34%
compared to K-Coverage Rate Deployment (K-CRD), which achieves
1.31% when deploying one additional sensor. Moreover, the proposed
algorithm is more time efficient.
A Survey of Attacks and Security Requirements in Wireless Sensor Networks
Wireless sensor network (WSN) is a network of many interconnected networked systems, they equipped with energy resources and they are used to detect other physical characteristics. On WSN, there are many researches are performed in past decades. WSN applicable in many security systems govern by military and in many civilian related applications. Thus, the security of WSN gets attention of researchers and gives an opportunity for many future aspects. Still, there are many other issues are related to deployment and overall coverage, scalability, size, energy efficiency, quality of service (QoS), computational power and many more. In this paper we discus about various applications and security related issue and requirements of WSN.
Dual Band Fractal Antenna for Wireless Sensor Network Application
A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a collection of
sensor nodes organized into a cooperative network. These nodes
communicate through a wireless antenna. Reduction in physical size
and multiband operation is an important requirement of WSN
antenna. Fractal antenna is used for miniaturization and multiband
operation. The self-similar or self-affine and space filling property of
fractal geometry increases the effective electrical length of the
antenna, reduces the size and make them frequency independent. This
paper elaborates on Dual band fractal antenna with Coplanar
Waveguide (CPW) feed for WSN. The proposed antenna is designed
on a FR4 substrate with the dimension of 27mm x 28.5mm x 1.6mm,
resonates at 2.4GHz and 5.2GHz with a return loss less than -10dB.
The design and simulation process is carried out using IE3D
simulation software. The simulated and measured results are found in
REDD: Reliable Energy-Efficient Data Dissemination in Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Mobile Sinks
In wireless sensor network (WSN) the use of mobile
sink has been attracting more attention in recent times. Mobile sinks
are more effective means of balancing load, reducing hotspot
problem and elongating network lifetime. The sensor nodes in WSN
have limited power supply, computational capability and storage and
therefore for continuous data delivery reliability becomes high
priority in these networks. In this paper, we propose a Reliable
Energy-efficient Data Dissemination (REDD) scheme for WSNs with
multiple mobile sinks. In this strategy, sink first determines the
location of source and then directly communicates with the source
using geographical forwarding. Every forwarding node (FN) creates a
local zone comprising some sensor nodes that can act as
representative of FN when it fails. Analytical and simulation study
reveals significant improvement in energy conservation and reliable
data delivery in comparison to existing schemes.
RF Link Budget Analysis at 915 MHz band for Wireless Sensor Networks
Wireless sensor network has recently emerged as enablers
of several areas. Real applications of WSN are being explored
and some of them are yet to come. While the potential of sensor
networks has been only beginning to be realized, several challenges
still remain. One of them is the experimental evaluation of WSN.
Therefore, deploying and operating a testbed to study the real
behavior of WSN become more and more important. The main
contribution of this work is to analysis the RF link budget behavior
of wireless sensor networks in underground mine gallery.
Coverage Strategies for Wireless Sensor Networks
Coverage is one of the main research interests in wireless sensor networks (WSN), it is used to determine the quality of service (QoS) of the networks. Therefore this paper aims to review the common strategies use in solving coverage problem in WSN. The strategies studied are used during deployment phase where the coverage is calculated based on the placement of the sensors on the region of interest (ROI). The strategies reviewed are categorized into three groups based on the approaches used, namely; force based, grid based or computational geometry based approach.