International Science Index
Seismic Behavior of a Jumbo Container Crane in the Low Seismicity Zone Using Time-History Analyses
Jumbo container crane is an important part of port structures that needs to be designed properly, even when the port locates in low seismicity zone such as in Korea. In this paper, 30 artificial ground motions derived from the elastic response spectra of Korean Building Code (2005) are used for time history analysis. It is found that the uplift might not occur in this analysis when the crane locates in the low seismic zone. Therefore, a selection of a pinned or a gap element for base supporting has not much effect on the determination of the total base shear. The relationships between the total base shear and peak ground acceleration (PGA) and the relationships between the portal drift and the PGA are proposed in this study.
Performance of Steel Frame with a Viscoelastic Damper Device under Earthquake Excitation
Standard routes for upgrading existing buildings to improve their seismic response can be expensive in terms of both time and cost due to the modifications required to the foundations. As a result, interest has grown in the installation of viscoelastic dampers (VEDs) in mid and high-rise buildings. Details of a low-cost viscoelastic passive control device, the rotary rubber braced damper (RRBD), are presented in this paper. This design has the added benefits of being lightweight and simple to install. Experimental methods and finite element modeling were used to assess the performance of the proposed VED design and its effect on building response during earthquakes. The analyses took into account the behaviors of non-linear materials and large deformations. The results indicate that the proposed RRBD provides high levels of energy absorption, ensuring the stable cyclical response of buildings in all scenarios considered. In addition, time history analysis was employed in this study to evaluate the RRBD’s ability to control the displacements and accelerations experienced by steel frame structures. It was demonstrated that the device responds well even at low displacements, highlighting its suitability for use in seismic events of varying severity.
Optimization of Shear Frame Structures Applying Various Forms of Wavelet Transforms
In the present research, various formulations of wavelet transform are applied on acceleration time history of earthquake. The mentioned transforms decompose the strong ground motion into low and high frequency parts. Since the high frequency portion of strong ground motion has a minor effect on dynamic response of structures, the structure is excited by low frequency part. Consequently, the seismic response of structure is predicted consuming one half of computational time, comparing with conventional time history analysis. Towards reducing the computational effort needed in seismic optimization of structure, seismic optimization of a shear frame structure is conducted by applying various forms of mentioned transformation through genetic algorithm.
Seismic Vulnerability of Structures Designed in Accordance with the Allowable Stress Design and Load Resistant Factor Design Methods
The method selected for the design of structures not only can affect their seismic vulnerability but also can affect their construction cost. For the design of steel structures, two distinct methods have been introduced by existing codes, namely allowable stress design (ASD) and load resistant factor design (LRFD). This study investigates the effect of using the aforementioned design methods on the seismic vulnerability and construction cost of steel structures. Specifically, a 20-story building equipped with special moment resisting frame and an eccentrically braced system was selected for this study. The building was designed for three different intensities of peak ground acceleration including 0.2 g, 0.25 g, and 0.3 g using the ASD and LRFD methods. The required sizes of beams, columns, and braces were obtained using response spectrum analysis. Then, the designed frames were subjected to nine natural earthquake records which were scaled to the designed response spectrum. For each frame, the base shear, story shears, and inter-story drifts were calculated and then were compared. Results indicated that the LRFD method led to a more economical design for the frames. In addition, the LRFD method resulted in lower base shears and larger inter-story drifts when compared with the ASD method. It was concluded that the application of the LRFD method not only reduced the weights of structural elements but also provided a higher safety margin against seismic actions when compared with the ASD method.
Parametric Non-Linear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Frames with Supplemental Damping Systems
This paper focuses on parametric analysis of reinforced concrete structures equipped with supplemental damping braces. Practitioners still luck sufficient data for current design of damper added structures and often reduce the real model to a pure damper braced structure even if this assumption is neither realistic nor conservative. In the present study, the damping brace is modelled as made by a linear supporting brace connected in series with the viscous/hysteretic damper. Deformation capacity of existing structures is usually not adequate to undergo the design earthquake. In spite of this, additional dampers could be introduced strongly limiting structural damage to acceptable values, or in some cases, reducing frame response to elastic behavior. This work is aimed at providing useful considerations for retrofit of existing buildings by means of supplemental damping braces. The study explicitly takes into consideration variability of (a) relative frame to supporting brace stiffness, (b) dampers’ coefficient (viscous coefficient or yielding force) and (c) non-linear frame behavior. Non-linear time history analysis has been run to account for both dampers’ behavior and non-linear plastic hinges modelled by Pivot hysteretic type. Parametric analysis based on previous studies on SDOF or MDOF linear frames provide reference values for nearly optimal damping systems design. With respect to bare frame configuration, seismic response of the damper-added frame is strongly improved, limiting deformations to acceptable values far below ultimate capacity. Results of the analysis also demonstrated the beneficial effect of stiffer supporting braces, thus highlighting inadequacy of simplified pure damper models. At the same time, the effect of variable damping coefficient and yielding force has to be treated as an optimization problem.
Simulation of Dynamic Behavior of Seismic Isolators Using a Parallel Elasto-Plastic Model
In this paper, a one-dimensional (1d) Parallel Elasto-
Plastic Model (PEPM), able to simulate the uniaxial dynamic
behavior of seismic isolators having a continuously decreasing
tangent stiffness with increasing displacement, is presented. The
parallel modeling concept is applied to discretize the continuously
decreasing tangent stiffness function, thus allowing to simulate the
dynamic behavior of seismic isolation bearings by putting linear
elastic and nonlinear elastic-perfectly plastic elements in parallel. The
mathematical model has been validated by comparing the
experimental force-displacement hysteresis loops, obtained testing a
helical wire rope isolator and a recycled rubber-fiber reinforced
bearing, with those predicted numerically. Good agreement between
the simulated and experimental results shows that the proposed
model can be an effective numerical tool to predict the forcedisplacement
relationship of seismic isolators within relatively large
displacements. Compared to the widely used Bouc-Wen model, the
proposed one allows to avoid the numerical solution of a first order
ordinary nonlinear differential equation for each time step of a
nonlinear time history analysis, thus reducing the computation effort,
and requires the evaluation of only three model parameters from
experimental tests, namely the initial tangent stiffness, the asymptotic
tangent stiffness, and a parameter defining the transition from the
initial to the asymptotic tangent stiffness.
Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Base-Isolated Structures Using a Mixed Integration Method: Stability Aspects and Computational Efficiency
In order to reduce numerical computations in the
nonlinear dynamic analysis of seismically base-isolated structures, a
Mixed Explicit-Implicit time integration Method (MEIM) has been
proposed. Adopting the explicit conditionally stable central
difference method to compute the nonlinear response of the base
isolation system, and the implicit unconditionally stable Newmark’s
constant average acceleration method to determine the superstructure
linear response, the proposed MEIM, which is conditionally stable
due to the use of the central difference method, allows to avoid the
iterative procedure generally required by conventional monolithic
solution approaches within each time step of the analysis. The main
aim of this paper is to investigate the stability and computational
efficiency of the MEIM when employed to perform the nonlinear
time history analysis of base-isolated structures with sliding bearings.
Indeed, in this case, the critical time step could become smaller than
the one used to define accurately the earthquake excitation due to the
very high initial stiffness values of such devices. The numerical
results obtained from nonlinear dynamic analyses of a base-isolated
structure with a friction pendulum bearing system, performed by
using the proposed MEIM, are compared to those obtained adopting a
conventional monolithic solution approach, i.e. the implicit
unconditionally stable Newmark’s constant acceleration method
employed in conjunction with the iterative pseudo-force procedure.
According to the numerical results, in the presented numerical
application, the MEIM does not have stability problems being the
critical time step larger than the ground acceleration one despite of
the high initial stiffness of the friction pendulum bearings. In
addition, compared to the conventional monolithic solution approach,
the proposed algorithm preserves its computational efficiency even
when it is adopted to perform the nonlinear dynamic analysis using a
smaller time step.
Speeding up Nonlinear Time History Analysis of Base-Isolated Structures Using a Nonlinear Exponential Model
The nonlinear time history analysis of seismically base-isolated structures can require a significant computational effort when the behavior of each seismic isolator is predicted by adopting the widely used differential equation Bouc-Wen model. In this paper, a nonlinear exponential model, able to simulate the response of seismic isolation bearings within a relatively large displacements range, is described and adopted in order to reduce the numerical computations and speed up the nonlinear dynamic analysis. Compared to the Bouc-Wen model, the proposed one does not require the numerical solution of a nonlinear differential equation for each time step of the analysis. The seismic response of a 3d base-isolated structure with a lead rubber bearing system subjected to harmonic earthquake excitation is simulated by modeling each isolator using the proposed analytical model. The comparison of the numerical results and computational time with those obtained by modeling the lead rubber bearings using the Bouc-Wen model demonstrates the good accuracy of the proposed model and its capability to reduce significantly the computational effort of the analysis.
Dissipation Capacity of Steel Building with Fiction Pendulum Base-Isolation System
Use of base isolators in the seismic design of structures has attracted considerable attention in recent years. The major concern in the design of these structures is to have enough lateral stability to resist wind and seismic forces. There are different systems providing such isolation, among them there are friction- pendulum base isolation systems (FPS) which are rather widely applied nowadays involving to both affordable cost and high fundamental periods. These devices are characterised by a stiff resistance against wind loads and to be flexible to the seismic tremors, which make them suitable for different situations. In this paper, a 3D numerical investigation is done considering the seismic response of a twelve-storey steel building retrofitted with a FPS. Fast nonlinear time history analysis (FNA) of Boumerdes earthquake (Algeria, May 2003) is considered for analysis and carried out using SAP2000 software. Comparisons between fixed base, bearing base isolated and braced structures are shown in a tabulated and graphical format. The results of the various alternatives studies to compare the structural response without and with this device of dissipation energy thus obtained were discussed and the conclusions showed the interesting potential of the FPS isolator. This system may to improve the dissipative capacities of the structure without increasing its rigidity in a significant way which contributes to optimize the quantity of steel necessary for its general stability.
Seismic Fragility Curves for Shallow Circular Tunnels under Different Soil Conditions
This paper presents a methodology to develop fragility curves for shallow tunnels so as to describe a relationship between seismic hazard and tunnel vulnerability. Emphasis is given to the influence of surrounding soil material properties because the dynamic behaviour of the tunnel mostly depends on it. Four ground properties of soils ranging from stiff to soft soils are selected. A 3D nonlinear time history analysis is used to evaluate the seismic response of the tunnel when subjected to five real earthquake ground intensities. The derived curves show the future probabilistic performance of the tunnels based on the predicted level of damage states corresponding to the peak ground acceleration. A comparison of the obtained results with the previous literature is provided to validate the reliability of the proposed fragility curves. Results show the significant role of soil properties and input motions in evaluating the seismic performance and response of shallow tunnels.
On the Accuracy of Basic Modal Displacement Method Considering Various Earthquakes
Time history seismic analysis is supposed to be the most accurate method to predict the seismic demand of structures. On the other hand, the required computational time of this method toward achieving the result is its main deficiency. While being applied in optimization process, in which the structure must be analyzed thousands of time, reducing the required computational time of seismic analysis of structures makes the optimization algorithms more practical. Apparently, the invented approximate methods produce some amount of errors in comparison with exact time history analysis but the recently proposed method namely, Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC) and Sum Root of the Sum of Squares (SRSS) drastically reduces the computational time by combination of peak responses in each mode. In the present research, the Basic Modal Displacement (BMD) method is introduced and applied towards estimation of seismic demand of main structure. Seismic demand of sampled structure is estimated by calculation of modal displacement of basic structure (in which the modal displacement has been calculated). Shear steel sampled structures are selected as case studies. The error applying the introduced method is calculated by comparison of the estimated seismic demands with exact time history dynamic analysis. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated by application of three types of earthquakes (in view of time of peak ground acceleration).
Seismic Safety Evaluation of Weir Structures Using the Finite and Infinite Element Method
This study presents the seismic safety evaluation of weir structure subjected to strong earthquake ground motions, as a flood defense structure in civil engineering structures. The seismic safety analysis procedure was illustrated through development of Finite Element (FE) and InFinite Element (IFE) method in ABAQUS platform. The IFE model was generated by CINPS4, 4-node linear one-way infinite model as a sold continuum infinite element in foundation areas of the weir structure and then nonlinear FE model using friction model for soil-structure interactions was applied in this study. In order to understand the complex behavior of weir structures, nonlinear time history analysis was carried out. Consequently, it was interesting to note that the compressive stress gave more vulnerability to the weir structure, in comparison to the tensile stress, during an earthquake. The stress concentration of the weir structure was shown at the connection area between the weir body and stilling basin area. The stress both tension and compression was reduced in IFE model rather than FE model of weir structures.
Seismic Fragility Assessment of Continuous Integral Bridge Frames with Variable Expansion Joint Clearances
Fragility analysis is an effective tool for the seismic vulnerability assessment of civil structures in the last several years. The design of the expansion joints according to various bridge design codes is almost inconsistent, and only a few studies have focused on this problem so far. In this study, the influence of the expansion joint clearances between the girder ends and the abutment backwalls on the seismic fragility assessment of continuous integral bridge frames is investigated. The gaps (ranging from 60 mm, 150 mm, 250 mm and 350 mm) are designed by following two different bridge design code specifications, namely, Caltrans and Eurocode 8-2. Five bridge models are analyzed and compared. The first bridge model serves as a reference. This model uses three-dimensional reinforced concrete fiber beam-column elements with simplified supports at both ends of the girder. The other four models also employ reinforced concrete fiber beam-column elements but include the abutment backfill stiffness and four different gap values. The nonlinear time history analysis is performed. The artificial ground motion sets, which have the peak ground accelerations (PGAs) ranging from 0.1 g to 1.0 g with an increment of 0.05 g, are taken as input. The soil-structure interaction and the P-Δ effects are also included in the analysis. The component fragility curves in terms of the curvature ductility demand to the capacity ratio of the piers and the displacement demand to the capacity ratio of the abutment sliding bearings are established and compared. The system fragility curves are then obtained by combining the component fragility curves. Our results show that in the component fragility analysis, the reference bridge model exhibits a severe vulnerability compared to that of other sophisticated bridge models for all damage states. In the system fragility analysis, the reference curves illustrate a smaller damage probability in the earlier PGA ranges for the first three damage states, they then show a higher fragility compared to other curves in the larger PGA levels. In the fourth damage state, the reference curve has the smallest vulnerability. In both the component and the system fragility analysis, the same trend is found that the bridge models with smaller clearances exhibit a smaller fragility compared to that with larger openings. However, the bridge model with a maximum clearance still induces a minimum pounding force effect.
Assessment of the Energy Balance Method in the Case of Masonry Domes
Masonry dome structures had been widely used for covering large spans in the past. The seismic assessment of these historical structures is very complicated due to the nonlinear behavior of the material, their rigidness, and special stability configuration. The assessment method based on energy balance concept, as well as the standard pushover analysis, is used to evaluate the effectiveness of these methods in the case of masonry dome structures. The Soltanieh dome building is used as an example to which two methods are applied. The performance points are given from superimposing the capacity, and demand curves in Acceleration Displacement Response Spectra (ADRS) and energy coordination are compared with the nonlinear time history analysis as the exact result. The results show a good agreement between the dynamic analysis and the energy balance method, but standard pushover method does not provide an acceptable estimation.
Pushover Analysis of Masonry Infilled Reinforced Concrete Frames for Performance Based Design for Near Field Earthquakes
Non-linear dynamic time history analysis is
considered as the most advanced and comprehensive analytical
method for evaluating the seismic response and performance of
multi-degree-of-freedom building structures under the influence of
earthquake ground motions. However, effective and accurate
application of the method requires the implementation of advanced
hysteretic constitutive models of the various structural components
including masonry infill panels. Sophisticated computational research
tools that incorporate realistic hysteresis models for non-linear
dynamic time-history analysis are not popular among the professional
engineers as they are not only difficult to access but also complex and
time-consuming to use. In addition, commercial computer programs
for structural analysis and design that are acceptable to practicing
engineers do not generally integrate advanced hysteretic models
which can accurately simulate the hysteresis behavior of structural
elements with a realistic representation of strength degradation,
stiffness deterioration, energy dissipation and ‘pinching’ under cyclic
load reversals in the inelastic range of behavior. In this scenario,
push-over or non-linear static analysis methods have gained
significant popularity, as they can be employed to assess the seismic
performance of building structures while avoiding the complexities
and difficulties associated with non-linear dynamic time-history
analysis. “Push-over” or non-linear static analysis offers a practical
and efficient alternative to non-linear dynamic time-history analysis
for rationally evaluating the seismic demands. The present paper is
based on the analytical investigation of the effect of distribution of
masonry infill panels over the elevation of planar masonry infilled
reinforced concrete [R/C] frames on the seismic demands using the
capacity spectrum procedures implementing nonlinear static analysis
[pushover analysis] in conjunction with the response spectrum
concept. An important objective of the present study is to numerically
evaluate the adequacy of the capacity spectrum method using
pushover analysis for performance based design of masonry infilled
R/C frames for near-field earthquake ground motions.
Vibration Control of Two Adjacent Structures Using a Non-Linear Damping System
The advantage of using non-linear passive damping
system in vibration control of two adjacent structures is investigated
under their base excitation. The base excitation is El Centro
earthquake record acceleration. The damping system is considered as
an optimum and effective non-linear viscous damper that is
connected between two adjacent structures. A MATLAB program is
developed to produce the stiffness and damping matrices and to
determine a time history analysis of the dynamic motion of the
system. One structure is assumed to be flexible while the other has a
rule as laterally supporting structure with rigid frames. The response
of the structure has been calculated and the non-linear damping
coefficient is determined using optimum LQR algorithm in an
optimum vibration control system. The non-linear parameter of
damping system is estimated and it has shown a significant advantage
of application of this system device for vibration control of two
adjacent tall building.
Seismic Time History Analysis for Cable-Stayed Bridge Considering Different Geometrical Configuration For Near Field Earthquakes
To increase the maximum span of cable-stayed
bridges, Uwe Starossek has developed a modified statical system.
The basic idea of this new concept is the use of pairs of inclined
pylon legs that spread out longitudinally from the foundation base or
from the girder level.
Spread-pylon cable-stayed bridge has distinct advantage like
reduction of sag of cables and oscillation of cable during earthquake
over traditional cable-stayed bridges. Spread-pylon also improves
seismic performance of deck during strong ground motion.
Comparative Study of the Static and Dynamic Analysis of Multi-Storey Irregular Building
As the world move to the accomplishment of Performance Based Engineering philosophies in seismic design of Civil Engineering structures, new seismic design provisions require Structural Engineers to perform both static and dynamic analysis for the design of structures. While Linear Equivalent Static Analysis is performed for regular buildings up to 90m height in zone I and II, Dynamic Analysis should be performed for regular and irregular buildings in zone IV and V. Dynamic Analysis can take the form of a dynamic Time History Analysis or a linear Response Spectrum Analysis. In present study, Multi-storey irregular buildings with 20 stories have been modeled using software packages ETABS and SAP 2000 v.15 for seismic zone V in India. This paper also deals with the effect of the variation of the building height on the structural response of the shear wall building. Dynamic responses of building under actual earthquakes, EL-CENTRO 1949 and CHI-CHI Taiwan 1999 have been investigated. This paper highlights the accuracy and exactness of Time History analysis in comparison with the most commonly adopted Response Spectrum Analysis and Equivalent Static Analysis.
Column Size for R.C. Frames with High Drift
A method to predict the column size for displacement based design of reinforced concrete frame buildings with higher target inter storey drift is reported here. The column depth derived from empirical relation as a function of given beam section, target inter-story drift, building plan features and common displacement based design parameters is used. Regarding the high drift requirement, a minimum column-beam moment capacity ratio is maintained during capacity design. The method is used in designing four, eight and twelve story frame buildings with displacement based design for three percent target inter storey drift. Non linear time history analysis of the designed buildings are performed under five artificial ground motions to show that the columns are found elastic enough to avoid column sway mechanism assuring that for the design the column size can be used with or without minor changes.
The Nonlinear Dynamic Elasto-Plastic Analysis for Evaluating the Controlling Effectiveness and Failure Mechanism of the MSCSS
This paper focuses on the Mega-Sub Controlled
Structure Systems (MSCSS) performances and characteristics
regarding the new control principle contained in MSCSS subjected to
strong earthquake excitations. The adopted control scheme consists of
modulated sub-structures where the control action is achieved by
viscous dampers and sub-structure own configuration. The
elastic-plastic time history analysis under severe earthquake excitation
is analyzed base on the Finite Element Analysis Method (FEAM), and
some comparison results are also given in this paper. The result shows
that the MSCSS systems can remarkably reduce vibrations effects
more than the mega-sub structure (MSS). The study illustrates that the
improved MSCSS presents good seismic resistance ability even at 1.2g
and can absorb seismic energy in the structure, thus imply that
structural members cross section can be reduce and achieve to good
economic characteristics. Furthermore, the elasto-plastic analysis
demonstrates that the MSCSS is accurate enough regarding
international building evaluation and design codes. This paper also
shows that the elasto-plastic dynamic analysis method is a reasonable
and reliable analysis method for structures subjected to strong
earthquake excitations and that the computed results are more precise.
Uniform Distribution of Ductility Demand in Irregular Bridges using Shape Memory Alloy
Excessive ductility demand on shorter piers is a
common problem for irregular bridges subjected to strong ground
motion. Various techniques have been developed to reduce the
likelihood of collapse of bridge due to failure of shorter piers. This
paper presents the new approach to improve the seismic behavior of
such bridges using Nitinol shape memory alloys (SMAs).
Superelastic SMAs have the ability to remain elastic under very large
deformation due to martensitic transformation. This unique property
leads to enhanced performance of controlled bridge compared with
the performance of the reference bridge. To evaluate the effectiveness
of the devices, nonlinear time history analysis is performed on a RC
single column bent highway bridge using a suite of representative
ground motions. The results show that this method is very effective in
limiting the ductility demand of shorter pier.
Optimal Combination for Modal Pushover Analysis by Using Genetic Algorithm
In order to consider the effects of the higher modes in
the pushover analysis, during the recent years several multi-modal
pushover procedures have been presented. In these methods the
response of the considered modes are combined by the square-rootof-
sum-of-squares (SRSS) rule while application of the elastic modal
combination rules in the inelastic phases is no longer valid. In this
research the feasibility of defining an efficient alternative
combination method is investigated. Two steel moment-frame
buildings denoted SAC-9 and SAC-20 under ten earthquake records
are considered. The nonlinear responses of the structures are
estimated by the directed algebraic combination of the weighted
responses of the separate modes. The weight of the each mode is
defined so that the resulted response of the combination has a
minimum error to the nonlinear time history analysis. The genetic
algorithm (GA) is used to minimize the error and optimize the weight
factors. The obtained optimal factors for each mode in different cases
are compared together to find unique appropriate weight factors for
each mode in all cases.
Seismic Analysis of a S-Curved Viaduct using Stick and Finite Element Models
Stick models are widely used in studying the
behaviour of straight as well as skew bridges and viaducts subjected
to earthquakes while carrying out preliminary studies. The
application of such models to highly curved bridges continues to
pose challenging problems. A viaduct proposed in the foothills of the
Himalayas in Northern India is chosen for the study. It is having 8
simply supported spans @ 30 m c/c. It is doubly curved in horizontal
plane with 20 m radius. It is inclined in vertical plane as well. The
superstructure consists of a box section. Three models have been
used: a conventional stick model, an improved stick model and a 3D
finite element model. The improved stick model is employed by
making use of body constraints in order to study its capabilities. The
first 8 frequencies are about 9.71% away in the latter two models.
Later the difference increases to 80% in 50th mode. The viaduct was
subjected to all three components of the El Centro earthquake of May
1940. The numerical integration was carried out using the Hilber-
Hughes-Taylor method as implemented in SAP2000. Axial forces
and moments in the bridge piers as well as lateral displacements at
the bearing levels are compared for the three models. The maximum
difference in the axial forces and bending moments and
displacements vary by 25% between the improved and finite element
model. Whereas, the maximum difference in the axial forces,
moments, and displacements in various sections vary by 35%
between the improved stick model and equivalent straight stick
model. The difference for torsional moment was as high as 75%. It is
concluded that the stick model with body constraints to model the
bearings and expansion joints is not desirable in very sharp S curved
viaducts even for preliminary analysis. This model can be used only
to determine first 10 frequency and mode shapes but not for member
forces. A 3D finite element analysis must be carried out for