International Science Index
Application of Subversion Analysis in the Search for the Causes of Cracking in a Marine Engine Injector Nozzle
Subversion analysis is a tool used in the TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving) methodology. This article introduces the history and describes the process of subversion analysis, as well as function analysis and analysis of the resources, used at the design stage when generating possible undesirable situations. The article charts the course of subversion analysis when applied to a fuel injection nozzle of a marine engine. The work describes the fuel injector nozzle as a technological system and presents principles of analysis for the causes of a cracked tip of the nozzle body. The system is modelled with functional analysis. A search for potential causes of the damage is undertaken and a cause-and-effect analysis for various hypotheses concerning the damage is drawn up. The importance of particular hypotheses is evaluated and the most likely causes of damage identified.
The Search of Anomalous Higgs Boson Couplings at the Large Hadron Electron Collider and Future Circular Electron Hadron Collider
The Higgs boson was discovered by the ATLAS
and CMS experimental groups in 2012 at the Large Hadron
Collider (LHC). Production and decay properties of the Higgs
boson, Standard Model (SM) couplings, and limits on effective
scale of the Higgs boson’s couplings with other bosons are
investigated at particle colliders. Deviations from SM estimates are
parametrized by effective Lagrangian terms to investigate Higgs
couplings. This is a model-independent method for describing the
new physics. In this study, sensitivity to neutral gauge boson
anomalous couplings with the Higgs boson is investigated using
the parameters of the Large Hadron electron Collider (LHeC)
and the Future Circular electron-hadron Collider (FCC-eh) with
a model-independent approach. By using MadGraph5_aMC@NLO
multi-purpose event generator with the parameters of LHeC and
FCC-eh, the bounds on the anomalous Hγγ, HγZ and HZZ couplings
in e− p → e− q H process are obtained. Detector simulations are
also taken into account in the calculations.
Model-Driven and Data-Driven Approaches for Crop Yield Prediction: Analysis and Comparison
Crop yield prediction is a paramount issue in
agriculture. The main idea of this paper is to find out efficient
way to predict the yield of corn based meteorological records.
The prediction models used in this paper can be classified into
model-driven approaches and data-driven approaches, according to
the different modeling methodologies. The model-driven approaches are based on crop mechanistic
modeling. They describe crop growth in interaction with their
environment as dynamical systems. But the calibration process of
the dynamic system comes up with much difficulty, because it
turns out to be a multidimensional non-convex optimization problem.
An original contribution of this paper is to propose a statistical
methodology, Multi-Scenarios Parameters Estimation (MSPE), for the
parametrization of potentially complex mechanistic models from a
new type of datasets (climatic data, final yield in many situations).
It is tested with CORNFLO, a crop model for maize growth. On the other hand, the data-driven approach for yield prediction
is free of the complex biophysical process. But it has some strict
requirements about the dataset.
A second contribution of the paper is the comparison of these
model-driven methods with classical data-driven methods. For this
purpose, we consider two classes of regression methods, methods
derived from linear regression (Ridge and Lasso Regression, Principal
Components Regression or Partial Least Squares Regression) and
machine learning methods (Random Forest, k-Nearest Neighbor,
Artificial Neural Network and SVM regression).
The dataset consists of 720 records of corn yield at county scale
provided by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and
the associated climatic data. A 5-folds cross-validation process and
two accuracy metrics: root mean square error of prediction(RMSEP),
mean absolute error of prediction(MAEP) were used to evaluate the
crop prediction capacity.
The results show that among the data-driven approaches, Random
Forest is the most robust and generally achieves the best prediction
error (MAEP 4.27%). It also outperforms our model-driven approach
(MAEP 6.11%). However, the method to calibrate the mechanistic
model from dataset easy to access offers several side-perspectives.
The mechanistic model can potentially help to underline the stresses
suffered by the crop or to identify the biological parameters of interest
for breeding purposes. For this reason, an interesting perspective is
to combine these two types of approaches.
Number of Parametrization of Discrete-Time Systems without Unit-Delay Element: Single-Input Single-Output Case
In this paper, we consider the parametrization of the
discrete-time systems without the unit-delay element within the
framework of the factorization approach. In the parametrization,
we investigate the number of required parameters. We consider
single-input single-output systems in this paper. By the investigation,
we find, on the discrete-time systems without the unit-delay element,
three cases that are (1) there exist plants which require only one
parameter and (2) two parameters, and (3) the number of parameters
is at most three.
3D Object Model Reconstruction Based on Polywogs Wavelet Network Parametrization
This paper presents a technique for compact three
dimensional (3D) object model reconstruction using wavelet
networks. It consists to transform an input surface vertices
into signals,and uses wavelet network parameters for signal
approximations. To prove this, we use a wavelet network architecture
founded on several mother wavelet families. POLYnomials
WindOwed with Gaussians (POLYWOG) wavelet families are used
to maximize the probability to select the best wavelets which
ensure the good generalization of the network. To achieve a better
reconstruction, the network is trained several iterations to optimize the
wavelet network parameters until the error criterion is small enough.
Experimental results will shown that our proposed technique can
effectively reconstruct an irregular 3D object models when using
the optimized wavelet network parameters. We will prove that an
accurateness reconstruction depends on the best choice of the mother
3-D Visualization and Optimization for SISO Linear Systems Using Parametrization of Two-Stage Compensator Design
In this paper, we consider the two-stage compensator
designs of SISO plants. As an investigation of the characteristics of
the two-stage compensator designs, which is not well investigated
yet, of SISO plants, we implement three dimensional visualization
systems of output signals and optimization system for SISO plants by
the parametrization of stabilizing controllers based on the two-stage
compensator design. The system runs on Mathematica by using
“Three Dimensional Surface Plots,” so that the visualization can
be interactively manipulated by users. In this paper, we use the
discrete-time LTI system model. Even so, our approach is the
factorization approach, so that the result can be applied to many
Parametrization of Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesters for Low Power Embedded Systems
Matching an embedded electronic application with a
cantilever vibration energy harvester remains a difficult endeavour
due to the large number of factors influencing the output power.
In the presented work, complementary balanced energy harvester
parametrization is used as a methodology for simplification of
harvester integration in electronic applications. This is achieved
by a dual approach consisting of an adaptation of the general
parametrization methodology in conjunction with a straight forward
harvester benchmarking strategy. For this purpose, the design and
implementation of a suitable user friendly cantilever energy harvester
benchmarking platform is discussed. Its effectiveness is demonstrated
by applying the methodology to a commercially available Mide
V21BL vibration energy harvester, with excitation amplitude and
frequency as variables.
Applying Theory of Inventive Problem Solving to Develop Innovative Solutions: A Case Study
Good service design can increase organization revenue and consumer satisfaction while reducing labor and time costs. The problems facing consumers in the original serve model for eyewear and optical industry includes the following issues: 1. Insufficient information on eyewear products 2. Passively dependent on recommendations, insufficient selection 3. Incomplete records on progression of vision conditions 4. Lack of complete customer records. This study investigates the case of Kobayashi Optical, applying the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) to develop innovative solutions for eyewear and optical industry. Analysis results raise the following conclusions and management implications: In order to provide customers with improved professional information and recommendations, Kobayashi Optical is suggested to establish customer purchasing records. Overall service efficiency can be enhanced by applying data mining techniques to analyze past consumer preferences and purchase histories. Furthermore, Kobayashi Optical should continue to develop a 3D virtual trial service which can allow customers for easy browsing of different frame styles and colors. This 3D virtual trial service will save customer waiting times in during peak service times at stores.
Relevant Stakeholders in Environmental Management Organization: The Case of Industries Três Rios/RJ
The intense process of economic acceleration, expansion of industrial activities and capitalism, combined with population growth, while promoting the development, bring environmental consequences and dynamics of locations. It can be seen that society is seeking to break with old paradigms of capitalist society, seeking to reconcile growth with sustainable development, with a change of mentality of the stakeholders of the production process (shareholders, employees, suppliers, customers, governments, and neighbors, groups citizens and the public in general). In this context, this research aims to map the stakeholders interested in environmental management in industries located in the city of Três Rios/RJ. The city of Três Rios is located in South-Central region of the state of Rio de Janeiro - Brazil. Methodological resources used refer to descriptive and field research, whose nature is qualitative and quantitative. It is also of multicases studies in the study area, and the data collection occurred by means of semi-structured questionnaires and interviews with employees related to the environmental area of the industries located in Três Rios and registered at the Federation of Industries the State of Rio de Janeiro - FIRJAN in the version of 2013 and active in federal revenue. Through this research it observed, among other things, the stakeholders involved in the environmental management process of “Três Rios” industry respondents, and those responding to the demands of environmental management.
Prooxidant Effect of the Crude Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Ficus odorata Blanco Merr. in vitro: It’s Medical Significance
Alongside with antioxidant, pro-oxidant activity is also observed in phytochemical compounds. In the study, Ficus odorata, an endemic medicinal plant in the Philippines, was screened for the potential medical application of its pro-oxidant activity.
Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of terpenes, glycosides and phenolic acids. The crude extract was found to contain low gallic acid and quercetin equivalence. The TLC chromatogram of the crude extract showed that none of the 11 spots obtained has antioxidant activity nor correspond to gallic acid and quercetin standards. Experiments showed that the crude extract has stimulatory activity towards DPPH radicals, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions and nitric oxide. Moreover, the extract exhibited a low ferric reducing power.
The prooxidant activity was evident in the crude ethanolic leaf extract of F. odorata, which may provide a better understanding of the plant’s pharmacological importance in the prevention of diseases.
Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized Using Sugar Cane as a Percursor
This article deals with the carbon nanotubes (CNT) synthesized from a novel precursor, sugar cane and Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO). The objective was to produce CNTs to be used as catalyst supports for Proton Exchange Membranes. The influence of temperature, inert gas flow rate and concentration of the precursor is presented. The CNTs prepared were characterized using TEM, XRD, Raman Spectroscopy, and the surface area determined by BET. The results show that it is possible to form CNT from sugar cane by pyrolysis and the CNTs are the type multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The MWCNTs are short and closed at the two ends with very small surface area of SBET= 3.691m,/g.
Optimal Current Control of Externally Excited Synchronous Machines in Automotive Traction Drive Applications
The excellent suitability of the externally excited synchronous
machine (EESM) in automotive traction drive applications
is justified by its high efficiency over the whole operation range and
the high availability of materials. Usually, maximum efficiency is
obtained by modelling each single loss and minimizing the sum of all
losses. As a result, the quality of the optimization highly depends on
the precision of the model. Moreover, it requires accurate knowledge
of the saturation dependent machine inductances. Therefore, the
present contribution proposes a method to minimize the overall losses
of a salient pole EESM and its inverter in steady state operation based
on measurement data only. Since this method does not require any
manufacturer data, it is well suited for an automated measurement
data evaluation and inverter parametrization. The field oriented control
(FOC) of an EESM provides three current components resp. three
degrees of freedom (DOF). An analytic minimization of the copper
losses in the stator and the rotor (assuming constant inductances) is
performed and serves as a first approximation of how to choose the
optimal current reference values. After a numeric offline minimization
of the overall losses based on measurement data the results are
compared to a control strategy that satisfies cos (ϕ) = 1.
A Relationship between Two Stabilizing Controllers and Its Application to Two-Stage Compensator Design without Coprime Factorizability – Single-Input Single-Output Case –
In this paper, we first show a relationship between two
stabilizing controllers, which presents an extended feedback system
using two stabilizing controllers. Then, we apply this relationship to
the two-stage compensator design. In this paper, we consider singleinput
single-output plants. On the other hand, we do not assume the
coprime factorizability of the model. Thus, the results of this paper
are based on the factorization approach only, so that they can be
applied to numerous linear systems.
Re-telling Goa's History: The Margin Narrative
This paper presents the first reflexions about Margaret Mascarenhas-s novel, “Skin", based on post-colonial critic perception of History and its agents. By doing so, this study will put light on a literary corpus of Indian Literatures: the Goan Literature whose cultural basis creates an unique historiographic metafiction conducted by different characters that one by one plays the narrator role.
Two Culture-s Characters in Contemporary Kazakh Cinema
In this article the authors are researching cultural
differences between rural and urban characters in case of
contemporary Kazakh cinema.Two motion pictures are analyzed:
“Strizh" (2007) by AbaiKulbai and “Seker" (2009) by
SabitKurmanbekov.According to the authors- opinion ateenage girl
characters in these two films reflect two cultures (urban and rural) of
Kazakh society, which displays complicated socio-cultural processes
of modern Kazakhstan.
Integrating PZB Model and TRIZ for Service Innovation of Tele-Healthcare
Due to the rise of aging population, effective utilization
of healthcare resources has become an important issue. With the
advance of ICT technology, the application of tele-healthcare service
has received more attention than ever. The main purpose of this
research is to investigate how to conduct innovative design for
tele-healthcare service based on user-s perspectives. First, the
healthcare service blueprint was used to describe the processes
of tele-healthcare service delivery, and then construct PZB service
quality gap model based on the literature and practitioners-
interviews. Next, TRIZ theory is applied to implement service
innovation. We found the proposed service innovation procedures can
effectively improve the quality of service design.
Two-Stage Compensator Designs with Partial Feedbacks
The two-stage compensator designs of linear system are
investigated in the framework of the factorization approach. First, we
give “full feedback" two-stage compensator design. Based on this
result, various types of the two-stage compensator designs with partial
feedbacks are derived.
A TRIZ-based Approach to Generation of Service-supporting Product Concepts
Recently, business environment and customer needs
have become rapidly changing, hence it is very difficult to fulfill
sophisticated customer needs by product or service innovation only. In
practice, to cope with this problem, various manufacturing companies
have developed services to combine with their products. Along with
this, many academic studies on PSS (Product Service System) which is
the integrated system of products and services have been conducted
from the viewpoint of manufacturers. On the other hand, service
providers are also attempting to develop service-supporting products
to increase their service competitiveness and provide differentiated
value. However, there is a lack of research based on the service-centric
point of view. Accordingly, this paper proposes a concept generation
method for service-supporting product development from the
service-centric point of view. This method is designed to be executed
in five consecutive steps: situation analysis, problem definition,
problem resolution, solution evaluation, and concept generation. In
the proposed approach, some tools of TRIZ (Theory of Solving
Inventive Problem) such as ISQ (Innovative Situation Questionnaire)
and 40 inventive principles are employed in order to define problems
of the current services and solve them by generating
service-supporting product concepts. This research contributes to the
development of service-supporting products and service-centric PSSs.
Effect of Shared Competences in Industrial Districts on Knowledge Creation and Absorptive Capacity
The literature has argued that firms based in industrial districts enjoy advantages for creating internal knowledge and absorbing external knowledge as a consequence of to the knowledge flows and spillovers that exist in the district. However, empirical evidence to show how belonging to an industrial district affects the business processes of creation and absorption of knowledge is scarce and, moreover, empirical research has not taken into account the influence of variations in the flows of knowledge circulating in each cluster. This study aims to extend empirical evidence on the effect that the stock of shared competencies in industrial districts has on the business processes of creation and absorption of knowledge, through data from an initial study on 952 firms and 35 industrial districts in Spain.
Towards Medical Device Maintenance Workflow Monitoring
Concerning the inpatient care the present situation is
characterized by intense charges of medical technology into the
clinical daily routine and an ever stronger integration of special
techniques into the clinical workflow. Medical technology is by now
an integral part of health care according to consisting general
accepted standards. Purchase and operation thereby represent an
important economic position and both are subject of everyday
optimisation attempts. For this purpose by now exists a huge number
of tools which conduce more likely to a complexness of the problem
by a comprehensive implementation. In this paper the advantages of
an integrative information-workflow on the life-cycle-management in
the region of medical technology are shown.
Arc Length of Rational Bezier Curves and Use for CAD Reparametrization
The length of a given rational B'ezier curve is
efficiently estimated. Since a rational B'ezier function is nonlinear,
it is usually impossible to evaluate its length exactly. The
length is approximated by using subdivision and the accuracy
of the approximation n is investigated. In order to improve
the efficiency, adaptivity is used with some length estimator.
A rigorous theoretical analysis of the rate of convergence of
n to is given. The required number of subdivisions to
attain a prescribed accuracy is also analyzed. An application
to CAD parametrization is briefly described. Numerical results
are reported to supplement the theory.
Systematic Analysis of Dynamic Association of Health Outcomes with Computer Usage for Office Staff
This paper systematically investigates the timedependent
health outcomes for office staff during computer work
using the developed mathematical model. The model describes timedependent
health outcomes in multiple body regions associated with
computer usage. The association is explicitly presented with a doseresponse
relationship which is parametrized by body region
parameters. Using the developed model we perform extensive
investigations of the health outcomes statically and dynamically. We
compare the risk body regions and provide various severity rankings
of the discomfort rate changes with respect to computer-related
workload dynamically for the study population. Application of the
developed model reveals a wide range of findings. Such broad
spectrum of investigations in a single report literature is lacking.
Based upon the model analysis, it is discovered that the highest
average severity level of the discomfort exists in neck, shoulder, eyes,
shoulder joint/upper arm, upper back, low back and head etc. The
biggest weekly changes of discomfort rates are in eyes, neck, head,
shoulder, shoulder joint/upper arm and upper back etc. The fastest
discomfort rate is found in neck, followed by shoulder, eyes, head,
shoulder joint/upper arm and upper back etc. Most of our findings are
consistent with the literature, which demonstrates that the developed
model and results are applicable and valuable and can be utilized to
assess correlation between the amount of computer-related workload
and health risk.
A Study on the Application of TRIZ to CAD/CAM System
This study created new graphical icons and operating
functions in a CAD/CAM software system by analyzing icons in some
of the popular systems, such as AutoCAD, AlphaCAM, Mastercam
and the 1st edition of LiteCAM. These software systems all focused on
geometric design and editing, thus how to transmit messages
intuitively from icon itself to users is an important function of
graphical icons. The primary purpose of this study is to design
innovative icons and commands for new software.
This study employed the TRIZ method, an innovative design
method, to generate new concepts systematically. Through literature
review, it then investigated and analyzed the relationship between
TRIZ and idea development. Contradiction Matrix and 40 Principles
were used to develop an assisting tool suitable for icon design in
software development. We first gathered icon samples from the
selected CAD/CAM systems. Then grouped these icons by
meaningful functions, and compared useful and harmful properties.
Finally, we developed new icons for new software systems in order to
avoid intellectual property problem.