International Science Index
Digital Forensics Compute Cluster: A High Speed Distributed Computing Capability for Digital Forensics
We have developed a distributed computing capability, Digital Forensics Compute Cluster (DFORC2) to speed up the ingestion and processing of digital evidence that is resident on computer hard drives. DFORC2 parallelizes evidence ingestion and file processing steps. It can be run on a standalone computer cluster or in the Amazon Web Services (AWS) cloud. When running in a virtualized computing environment, its cluster resources can be dynamically scaled up or down using Kubernetes. DFORC2 is an open source project that uses Autopsy, Apache Spark and Kafka, and other open source software packages. It extends the proven open source digital forensics capabilities of Autopsy to compute clusters and cloud architectures, so digital forensics tasks can be accomplished efficiently by a scalable array of cluster compute nodes. In this paper, we describe DFORC2 and compare it with a standalone version of Autopsy when both are used to process evidence from hard drives of different sizes.
Unpacking Chilean Preservice Teachers’ Beliefs on Practicum Experiences through Digital Stories
An EFL teacher education programme in Chile takes five years to train a future teacher of English. Preservice teachers are prepared to learn an advanced level of English and teach the language from 5th to 12th grade in the Chilean educational system. In the context of their first EFL Methodology course in year four, preservice teachers have to create a five-minute digital story that starts from a critical incident they have experienced as teachers-to-be during their observations or interventions in the schools. A critical incident can be defined as a happening, a specific incident or event either observed by them or involving them. The happening sparks their thinking and may make them subsequently think differently about the particular event. When they create their digital stories, preservice teachers put technology, teaching practice and theory together to narrate a story that is complemented by still images, moving images, text, sound effects and music. The story should be told as a personal narrative, which explains the critical incident. This presentation will focus on the creation process of 50 Chilean preservice teachers’ digital stories highlighting the critical incidents they started their stories. It will also unpack preservice teachers’ beliefs and reflections when approaching their teaching practices in schools. These beliefs will be coded and categorized through content analysis to evidence preservice teachers’ most rooted conceptions about English teaching and learning in Chilean schools. The findings seem to indicate that preservice teachers’ beliefs are strongly mediated by contextual and affective factors.
Regression Approach for Optimal Purchase of Hosts Cluster in Fixed Fund for Hadoop Big Data Platform
Given a fixed fund, purchasing fewer hosts of higher capability or inversely more of lower capability is a must-be-made trade-off in practices for building a Hadoop big data platform. An exploratory study is presented for a Housing Big Data Platform project (HBDP), where typical big data computing is with SQL queries of aggregate, join, and space-time condition selections executed upon massive data from more than 10 million housing units. In HBDP, an empirical formula was introduced to predict the performance of host clusters potential for the intended typical big data computing, and it was shaped via a regression approach. With this empirical formula, it is easy to suggest an optimal cluster configuration. The investigation was based on a typical Hadoop computing ecosystem HDFS+Hive+Spark. A proper metric was raised to measure the performance of Hadoop clusters in HBDP, which was tested and compared with its predicted counterpart, on executing three kinds of typical SQL query tasks. Tests were conducted with respect to factors of CPU benchmark, memory size, virtual host division, and the number of element physical host in cluster. The research has been applied to practical cluster procurement for housing big data computing.
An Investigation on Material Removal Rate of EDM Process: A Response Surface Methodology Approach
In the present work response surface methodology (RSM) based central composite design (CCD) is used for analyzing the electrical discharge machining (EDM) process. For experimentation, mild steel is selected as work piece and copper is used as electrode. Three machining parameters namely current (I), spark on time (Ton) and spark off time (Toff) are selected as the input variables. The output or response chosen is material removal rate (MRR) which is to be maximized. To reduce the number of runs face centered central composite design (FCCCD) was used. ANOVA was used to determine the significance of parameter and interactions. The suitability of model is tested using Anderson darling (AD) plot. The results conclude that different parameters considered i.e. current, pulse on and pulse off time; all have dominant effect on the MRR. At last, the optimized parameter setting for maximizing MRR is found through main effect plot analysis.
Control-Oriented Enhanced Zero-Dimensional Two-Zone Combustion Modelling of Internal Combustion Engines
This paper investigates an efficient combustion modeling for cycle simulation of internal combustion engine (ICE) studies. The term “efficient model” means that the models must generate desired simulation results while having fast simulation time. In other words, the efficient model is defined based on the application of the model. The objective of this study is to develop math-based models for control applications or shortly control-oriented models. This study compares different modeling approaches used to model the ICEs such as mean-value models, zero dimensional, quasi-dimensional, and multi-dimensional models for control applications. Mean-value models have been widely used for model-based control applications, but recently by developing advanced simulation tools (e.g. Maple/MapleSim) the higher order models (more complex) could be considered as control-oriented models. This paper presents the enhanced zero-dimensional cycle-by-cycle modeling and simulation of a spark ignition engine with a two-zone combustion model. The simulation results are cross-validated against the simulation results from GT-Power package and show a good agreement in terms of trends and values.
Analysis of Thermoelectric Coolers as Energy Harvesters for Low Power Embedded Applications
The growing popularity of solid state thermoelectric
devices in cooling applications has sparked an increasing diversity of
thermoelectric coolers (TECs) on the market, commonly known as
“Peltier modules”. They can also be used as generators, converting
a temperature difference into electric power, and opportunities are
plentiful to make use of these devices as thermoelectric generators
(TEGs) to supply energy to low power, autonomous embedded
electronic applications. Their adoption as energy harvesters in this
new domain of usage is obstructed by the complex thermoelectric
models commonly associated with TEGs. Low cost TECs for the
consumer market lack the required parameters to use the models
because they are not intended for this mode of operation, thereby
urging an alternative method to obtain electric power estimations
in specific operating conditions. The design of the test setup
implemented in this paper is specifically targeted at benchmarking
commercial, off-the-shelf TECs for use as energy harvesters in
domestic environments: applications with limited temperature
differences and space available. The usefulness is demonstrated by
testing and comparing single and multi stage TECs with different
sizes. The effect of a boost converter stage on the thermoelectric
end-to-end efficiency is also discussed.
Influence of Valve Lift Timing on Producer Gas Combustion and Its Modeling Using Two-Stage Wiebe Function
Producer gas is a biomass derived gaseous fuel which is extensively used in internal combustion engines for power generation application. Unlike the conventional hydrocarbon fuels (Gasoline and Natural gas), the combustion properties of producer gas fuel are much different. Therefore, setting of optimal spark time for efficient engine operation is required. Owing to the fluctuating tendency of producer gas composition during gasification process, the heat release patterns (dictating the power output and emissions) obtained are quite different from conventional fuels. It was found that, valve lift timing is yet another factor which influences the burn rate of producer gas fuel, and thus, the heat release rate of the engine. Therefore, the present study was motivated to estimate the influence of valve lift timing analytically (Wiebe model) on the burn rate of producer gas through curve fitting against experimentally obtained mass fraction burn curves of several producer gas compositions. Furthermore, Wiebe models are widely used in zero-dimensional codes for engine parametric studies and are quite popular. This study also addresses the influence of hydrogen and methane concentration of producer gas on combustion trends, which are known to cause dynamics in engine combustion.
An Experimental Study on the Effect of Operating Parameters during the Micro-Electro-Discharge Machining of Ni Based Alloy
Ni alloys have managed to cover wide range of applications such as automotive industries, oil gas industries, and aerospace industries. However, these alloys impose challenges while using conventional machining technologies. On the other hand, Micro-Electro-Discharge machining (micro-EDM) is a non-conventional machining method that uses controlled sparks energy to remove material irrespective of the materials hardness. There has been always a huge interest from the industries for developing optimum methodology and parameters in order to enhance the productivity of micro-EDM in terms of reducing machining time and tool wear for different alloys. Therefore, the aims of this study are to investigate the effects of the micro-EDM process parameters, in order to find their optimal values. The input process parameters include voltage, capacitance, and electrode rotational speed, whereas the output parameters considered are machining time, entrance diameter of hole, overcut, tool wear, and crater size. The surface morphology and element characterization are also investigated with the use of SEM and EDX analysis. The experimental result indicates the reduction of machining time with the increment of discharge energy. Discharge energy also contributes to the enlargement of entrance diameter as well as overcut. In addition, tool wears show reduction with the increase of discharge energy. Moreover, crater size is found to be increased in size along with the increment of discharge energy.
Tool Condition Monitoring of Ceramic Inserted Tools in High Speed Machining through Image Processing
Cutting tools with ceramic inserts are often used in the process of machining many types of superalloy, mainly due to their high strength and thermal resistance. Nevertheless, during the cutting process, the plastic flow wear generated in these inserts enhances and propagates cracks due to high temperature and high mechanical stress. This leads to a very variable failure of the cutting tool. This article explores the relationship between the continuous wear that ceramic SiAlON (solid solutions based on the Si3N4 structure) inserts experience during a high-speed machining process and the evolution of sparks created during the same process. These sparks were analysed through pictures of the cutting process recorded using an SLR camera. Features relating to the intensity and area of the cutting sparks were extracted from the individual pictures using image processing techniques. These features were then related to the ceramic insert’s crater wear area.
Optimization of Process Parameters in Wire Electrical Discharge Machining of Inconel X-750 for Dimensional Deviation Using Taguchi Technique
The effective optimization of machining process parameters affects dramatically the cost and production time of machined components as well as the quality of the final products. This paper presents the optimization aspects of a Wire Electrical Discharge Machining operation using Inconel X-750 as work material. The objective considered in this study is minimization of the dimensional deviation. Six input process parameters of WEDM namely spark gap voltage, pulse-on time, pulse-off time, wire feed rate, peak current and wire tension, were chosen as variables to study the process performance. Taguchi's design of experiments methodology has been used for planning and designing the experiments. The analysis of variance was carried out for raw data as well as for signal to noise ratio. Four input parameters and one two-factor interaction have been found to be statistically significant for their effects on the response of interest. The confirmation experiments were also performed for validating the predicted results.
Dependence of Densification, Hardness and Wear Behaviors of Ti6Al4V Powders on Sintering Temperature
The sintering step in powder metallurgy (P/M) processes is very sensitive as it determines to a large extent the properties of the final component produced. Spark plasma sintering over the past decade has been extensively used in consolidating a wide range of materials including metallic alloy powders. This novel, non-conventional sintering method has proven to be advantageous offering full densification of materials, high heating rates, low sintering temperatures, and short sintering cycles over conventional sintering methods. Ti6Al4V has been adjudged the most widely used α+β alloy due to its impressive mechanical performance in service environments, especially in the aerospace and automobile industries being a light metal alloy with the capacity for fuel efficiency needed in these industries. The P/M route has been a promising method for the fabrication of parts made from Ti6Al4V alloy due to its cost and material loss reductions and the ability to produce near net and intricate shapes. However, the use of this alloy has been largely limited owing to its relatively poor hardness and wear properties. The effect of sintering temperature on the densification, hardness, and wear behaviors of spark plasma sintered Ti6Al4V powders was investigated in this present study. Sintering of the alloy powders was performed in the 650–850°C temperature range at a constant heating rate, applied pressure and holding time of 100°C/min, 50 MPa and 5 min, respectively. Density measurements were carried out according to Archimedes’ principle and microhardness tests were performed on sectioned as-polished surfaces at a load of 100gf and dwell time of 15 s. Dry sliding wear tests were performed at varied sliding loads of 5, 15, 25 and 35 N using the ball-on-disc tribometer configuration with WC as the counterface material. Microstructural characterization of the sintered samples and wear tracks were carried out using SEM and EDX techniques. The density and hardness characteristics of sintered samples increased with increasing sintering temperature. Near full densification (99.6% of the theoretical density) and Vickers’ micro-indentation hardness of 360 HV were attained at 850°C. The coefficient of friction (COF) and wear depth improved significantly with increased sintering temperature under all the loading conditions examined, except at 25 N indicating better mechanical properties at high sintering temperatures. Worn surface analyses showed the wear mechanism was a synergy of adhesive and abrasive wears, although the former was prevalent.
Social Media: The Major Trigger of Online and Offline Political Activism
With the viral factor on social media, the sense of persuasion is generated by repetition and popularity. When users’ interest is captured, political awareness increases to spark political enthusiasm, but, the level of user’s political participation and political attitude of those active users is still questionable. An online survey on 250 youth and in-depth interview on two politicians are conducted to answer the main question in this paper. The result shows that Facebook significantly increases political awareness among youths. Social media may not be the major trigger to political activism among youths as most respondents opined that they would still vote without Facebook. Other factors could be political campaigning, political climate, age, peer pressure or others. Finding also shows that majority of respondents did not participate in online political debates or political groups. Many also wondered if the social media was the main power switch that triggers the political influx among young voters. The research finding is significant to understand how the new media, Facebook, has reshaped the political landscape in Malaysia, creating the Social Media Election that changed the rules of the political game. However, research finding does not support the ideal notion that the social media is the major trigger to youth’s political activism. This research outcome has exposed the flaws of the Social Media Election. It has revealed the less optimistic side of youth political activism. Unfortunately, results fall short of the idealistic belief that the social media have given rise to political activism among youths in the 13th General Election in Malaysia. The research outcome also highlights an important lesson for the democratic discourse of Malaysia which is making informed and educated decisions takes more commitment, proactive and objective attitude.
Large Eddy Simulation of Hydrogen Deflagration in Open Space and Vented Enclosure
This paper discusses the applicability of the numerical model for a damage prediction method of the accidental hydrogen explosion occurring in a hydrogen facility. The numerical model was based on an unstructured finite volume method (FVM) code “NuFD/FrontFlowRed”. For simulating unsteady turbulent combustion of leaked hydrogen gas, a combination of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and a combustion model were used. The combustion model was based on a two scalar flamelet approach, where a G-equation model and a conserved scalar model expressed a propagation of premixed flame surface and a diffusion combustion process, respectively. For validation of this numerical model, we have simulated the previous two types of hydrogen explosion tests. One is open-space explosion test, and the source was a prismatic 5.27 m3 volume with 30% of hydrogen-air mixture. A reinforced concrete wall was set 4 m away from the front surface of the source. The source was ignited at the bottom center by a spark. The other is vented enclosure explosion test, and the chamber was 4.6 m × 4.6 m × 3.0 m with a vent opening on one side. Vent area of 5.4 m2 was used. Test was performed with ignition at the center of the wall opposite the vent. Hydrogen-air mixtures with hydrogen concentrations close to 18% vol. were used in the tests. The results from the numerical simulations are compared with the previous experimental data for the accuracy of the numerical model, and we have verified that the simulated overpressures and flame time-of-arrival data were in good agreement with the results of the previous two explosion tests.
New Highly-Scalable Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Glasses and Ceramics
We report herein the development and preliminary mechanical characterization of fully-dense multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-reinforced ceramics and glasses based on a completely new methodology termed High Shear Compaction (HSC). The tubes are introduced and bound to the matrix grains by aid of polymeric binders to form flexible green bodies which are sintered and densified by spark plasma sintering to unprecedentedly high densities of 100% of the pure-matrix value. The strategy was validated across a PyrexTM glass / MWCNT composite while no identifiable factors limit application to other types of matrices. Nondestructive evaluation, based on ultrasonics, of the dynamic mechanical properties of the materials including elastic, shear and bulk modulus as well as Poisson’s ratio showed optimum property improvement at 0.5 %wt tube loading while evidence of nanoscalespecific energy dissipative characteristics acting complementary to nanotube bridging and pull-out indicate a high potential in a wide range of reinforcing and multifunctional applications.
Effect of Chromium Behavior on Mechanical and Electrical Properties of P/M Copper-Chromium Alloy Dispersed with VGCF
Microstructural and electrical properties of
Cu-chromium alloy (Cu-Cr) dispersed with vapor-grown carbon fiber
(VGCF) prepared by powder metallurgy (P/M) process have been
investigated. Cu-0.7 mass% Cr pre-alloyed powder (Cu-Cr) made by
water atomization process was used as raw materials, which contained
solid solute Cr elements in Cu matrix. The alloy powder coated with
un-bundled VGCF by using oil coating process was consolidated at
1223 K in vacuum by spark plasma sintering, and then extruded at
1073 K. The extruded Cu-Cr alloy (monolithic alloy) had 209.3 MPa
YS and 80.4 IACS% conductivity. The extruded Cu-Cr with 0.1
mass% VGCF composites revealed a small decrease of YS compared
to the monolithic Cu-Cr alloy. On the other hand, the composite had a
higher electrical conductivity than that of the monolithic alloy. For
example, Cu-Cr with 0.1 mass% VGCF composite sintered for 5 h
showed 182.7 MPa YS and 89.7 IACS% conductivity. In the case of
Cu-Cr with VGCFs composites, the Cr concentration was observed
around VGCF by SEM-EDS analysis, where Cr23C6 compounds were
detected by TEM observation. The amount of Cr solid solution in the
matrix of the Cu-Cr composites alloy was about 50% compared to the
monolithic Cu-Cr sintered alloy, and resulted in the remarkable
increment of the electrical conductivity.
Steepest Descent Method with New Step Sizes
Steepest descent method is a simple gradient method
for optimization. This method has a slow convergence in heading to
the optimal solution, which occurs because of the zigzag form of the
steps. Barzilai and Borwein modified this algorithm so that it
performs well for problems with large dimensions. Barzilai and
Borwein method results have sparked a lot of research on the method
of steepest descent, including alternate minimization gradient method
and Yuan method. Inspired by previous works, we modified the step
size of the steepest descent method. We then compare the
modification results against the Barzilai and Borwein method,
alternate minimization gradient method and Yuan method for
quadratic function cases in terms of the iterations number and the
running time. The average results indicate that the steepest descent
method with the new step sizes provide good results for small
dimensions and able to compete with the results of Barzilai and
Borwein method and the alternate minimization gradient method for
large dimensions. The new step sizes have faster convergence
compared to the other methods, especially for cases with large
National Image in the Age of Mass Self-Communication: An Analysis of Internet Users' Perception of Portugal
Nowadays, massification of Internet access represents one of the major challenges to the traditional powers of the State, among which the power to control its external image. The virtual world has also sparked the interest of social sciences which consider it a new field of study, an immense open text where sense is expressed. In this paper, that immense text has been accessed to so as to understand the perception Internet users from all over the world have of Portugal. Ours is a quantitative and qualitative approach, as we have resorted to buzz, thematic and category analysis. The results confirm the predominance of sea stereotype in others' vision of the Portuguese people, and evidence that national image has adapted to network communication through processes of individuation and paganization.
Spark Plasma Sintering of Aluminum-Based Composites Reinforced by Nanocrystalline Carbon-Coated Intermetallic Particles
Aluminum Matrix Composites reinforced with
nanocrystalline Ni3Al carbon-coated intermetallic particles, were
synthesized by powder metallurgy. Powder mixture of aluminum
with 0.5-volume fraction of reinforcement particles was compacted
by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique and the compared with
conventional sintering process. The better results for SPS technique
were obtained in 520ºC-5kN-3min.The hardness (70.5±8 HV) and the
elastic modulus (95 GPa) were evaluated in function of sintering
conditions for SPS technique; it was found that the incorporation of
these kind of reinforcement particles in aluminum matrix improve its
mechanical properties. The densities were about 94% and 97% of the
theoretical density. The carbon coating avoided the interfacial
reaction between matrix-particle at high temperature (520°C) without
show composition change either intermetallic dissolution.
ED Machining of Particulate Reinforced MMC’s
This paper reports the optimal process conditions for machining of three different types of MMC’s 65vol%SiC/A356.2; 10vol%SiC-5vol%quartz/Al and 30vol%SiC/A359 using PMEDM process. MRR, TWR, SR and surface integrity were evaluated after each trial and contributing process parameters were identified. The four responses were then collectively optimized using TOPSIS and optimal process conditions were identified for each type of MMC. The density of reinforced particles shields the matrix material from spark energy hence the high MRR and SR was observed with lowest reinforced particle. TWR was highest with Cu-Gr electrode due to disintegration of the weakly bonded particles in the composite electrode. Each workpiece was examined for surface integrity and ranked as per severity of surface defects observed and their rankings were used for arriving at the most optimal process settings for each workpiece.
A Theoretical Study of the SI Engine Performance Operating with Different Fuels
The intension in this work is to investigate the effect of different fuels type on engine performance for different engine speed. Brake Power, Brake Torque, and specific fuel consumption were calculated and presented to show the effect of varying fuel type on them for all cases considered. A special program used to carry out the calculations. A simulation model for one-cylinder spark ignition engine has been built and calculated.
The analysis of the results shows that for methanol the power increases about 30% at 1000 rpm and 16% at 6000 rpm comparing with methane. For the same compared fuels the increment in fuel consumption is about 100% at 1000 rpm and 115% at 6000 rpm. The increment in brake thermal efficiency for gasoline is around 11% comparing with methane at 1000 rpm and 7% for methanol comparing with methane at 4000 rpm.
An Experimental Study on the Effects of Bioethanol-Unleaded Gasoline Blends on Engine Performance in a Spark Ignition Engine
In the present study, the effects of bioethanol-unleaded gasoline blends on engine performance were investigated in a spark ignition engine. Fuel containing 100% ethanol (E100), fuel blend containing 40% bioethanol by volume (E40) and 100% unleaded gasoline (E0) were tested and the test results were compared. As the result of the study, it was found that the use of unleaded gasoline and bioethanol-unleaded gasoline blends as fuel did not cause a significant change in engine performance. The results of the engine tests showed that the use of unleaded gasoline-bioethanol blends as fuel caused a decrease in engine torque and engine power depending on the increase in the ratio of bioethanol in the fuel blend. As the result of these decreases, increases of up to 30% were observed in the specific fuel consumption of the engine.
An Exhaustive Review of Die Sinking Electrical Discharge Machining Process and Scope for Future Research
Electrical Discharge Machine (EDM) is especially
used for the manufacturing of 3-D complex geometry and hard
material parts that are extremely difficult-to-machine by conventional
machining processes. In this paper authors review the research work
carried out in the development of die-sinking EDM within the past
decades for the improvement of machining characteristics such as
Material Removal Rate, Surface Roughness and Tool Wear Ratio. In
this review various techniques reported by EDM researchers for
improving the machining characteristics have been categorized as
process parameters optimization, multi spark technique, powder
mixed EDM, servo control system and pulse discriminating. At the
end, flexible machine controller is suggested for Die Sinking EDM to
enhance the machining characteristics and to achieve high-level
automation. Thus, die sinking EDM can be integrated with Computer
Integrated Manufacturing environment as a need of agile
Spark Breakdown Voltage and Surface Degradation of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Electrode Surfaces
Silicon substrates coated with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were experimentally investigated to determine spark breakdown voltages relative to uncoated surfaces, the degree of surface degradation associated with the spark discharge, and techniques to minimize the surface degradation. The results may be applicable to instruments or processes that use MWCNT as a means of increasing local electric field strength and where spark breakdown is a possibility that might affect the devices’ performance or longevity. MWCNTs were shown to reduce the breakdown voltage of a 1mm gap in air by 30-50%. The relative decrease in breakdown voltage was maintained over gap distances of 0.5 to 2mm and gauge pressures of 0 to 4 bar. Degradation of the MWCNT coated surfaces was observed. Several techniques to improve durability were investigated. These included: chromium and gold-palladium coatings, tube annealing, and embedding clusters of MWCNT in a ceramic matrix.
Modeling the Effect of Inlet Manifold Pipes Bending Angle on SI Engine Performance
the intension in this work is to investigate the effect of
different bending manifold pipes on engine performance for different
engine speed. Power, Torque, and BSFC were calculated and
presented to show the effect of varying bending pipes angles on them
for all cases considered. A special program used to carry out the
calculations. A simulation model for 4-cylinders spark ignition
engine with turbocharger has been built and calculated. The analysis
of the results shows that for 120o angle the torque increases about
40% at 3000 rpm and 25% at 4000 rpm without changing in fuel
consumption. For 90o angle the increment in torque is about 10 %.
For the same bending angle the increment in brake power is around
40% at 3000 rpm and 25% at 4000 rpm. The increment in fuel
consumption is about 12% for 60o and 30% for 90o between (6000-
FEA Modeling of Material Removal Rate in Electrical Discharge Machining of Al6063/SiC Composites
Metal matrix composites (MMC) are generating
extensive interest in diverse fields like defense, aerospace, electronics
and automotive industries. In this present investigation, material
removal rate (MRR) modeling has been carried out using an
axisymmetric model of Al-SiC composite during electrical discharge
machining (EDM). A FEA model of single spark EDM was
developed to calculate the temperature distribution.Further, single
spark model was extended to simulate the second discharge. For
multi-discharge machining material removal was calculated by
calculating the number of pulses. Validation of model has been done
by comparing the experimental results obtained under the same
process parameters with the analytical results. A good agreement was
found between the experimental results and the theoretical value.
Development of a Spark Electrode Ignition System for an Explosion Vessel
This paper presents development of an ignition system using spark electrodes for application in a research explosion vessel.
A single spark is aimed to be discharged with quantifiable ignition energy. The spark electrode system would enable study of flame
propagation, ignitability of fuel-air mixtures and other fundamental characteristics of flames. The principle of the capacitive spark circuit
of ASTM is studied to charge an appropriate capacitance connected across the spark gap through a large resistor by a high voltage from
the source of power supply until the initiation of spark. Different spark energies could be obtained mainly by varying the value of the
capacitance and the supply current. The spark sizes produced are found to be affected by the spark gap, electrode size, input voltage
and capacitance value.
Effect of Inlet Valve Variable Timing in the Spark Ignition Engine on Achieving Greener Transport
The current emission legislations and the large concern about the environment produced very numerous constraints on both governments and car manufacturers. Also the cost of energy increase means a reduction in fuel consumption must be met, without largely affecting the current engine production and performance. It is the intension to contribute towards the development and pursuing, among others on variable valve timing (VVT), for improving the engine performance. The investigation of the effect of (IVO) and (IVC) to optimize engine torque and volumetric efficiency for different engine speeds was considered. Power, BMEP and BSFC were calculated and presented to show the effect of varying inlet valve timing on them for all cases. A special program used to carry out the calculations. The analysis of the results shows that the reduction of 10% of (IVO) angle gave an improvement of around 1.3% in torque, BSFC, and volumetric efficiency, while a 10% decrease in (IVC) caused a 0.1% reduction in power, torque, and volumetric efficiency.
Investigation of Corona wind Effect on Heat and Mass Transfer Enhancement
Applying corona wind as a novel technique can lead
to a great level of heat and mass transfer augmentation by using very
small amount of energy. Enhancement of forced flow evaporation
rate by applying electric field (corona wind) has been experimentally
evaluated in this study. Corona wind produced by a fine wire
electrode which is charged with positive high DC voltage impinges
to water surface and leads to evaporation enhancement by disturbing
the saturated air layer over water surface. The study was focused on
the effect of corona wind velocity, electrode spacing and air flow
velocity on the level of evaporation enhancement. Two sets of
experiments, i.e. with and without electric field, have been
conducted. Data obtained from the first experiment were used as
reference for evaluation of evaporation enhancement at the presence
of electric field. Applied voltages ranged from corona threshold
voltage to spark over voltage at 1 kV increments. The results showed
that corona wind has great enhancement effect on water evaporation
rate, but its effectiveness gradually diminishes by increasing air flow
velocity. Maximum enhancements were 7.3 and 3.6 for air velocities
of 0.125 and 1.75 m/s, respectively.
Structural and Electrical Properties of BNT-BT0.08 Ceramics Processed by Spark Plasma Sintering
(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 doped with 8 mol % BaTiO3 powder
(BNT-BT0.08), prepared by sol-gel method was compacted and
sintered by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) process. The influence of
SPS temperature on the densification of BNT-BT0.08 ceramic was
investigated. Starting from sol-gel nanopowder of BNT-BT
containing 8 mol % BaTiO3 with an average particles size of about
30 nm, were obtained ceramics with density around 98 % of the
theoretical density value when the SPS temperature used was about
850 °C. The average grain size of the resulting ceramics was 80 nm.
The BNT-BT0.08 ceramic sample obtained by SPS method has shown
good electric properties at various frequencies.
Single Zone Model for HCCI Engine Fueled with n-Heptane
In this study, we developed a model to predict the
temperature and the pressure variation in an internal combustion
engine operated in HCCI (Homogeneous charge compression ignition)
mode. HCCI operation begins from aspirating of homogeneous charge
mixture through intake valve like SI (Spark ignition) engine and the
premixed charge is compressed until temperature and pressure of
mixture reach autoignition point like diesel engine. Combustion phase
was described by double-Wiebe function. The single zone model
coupled with an double-Wiebe function were performed to simulated
pressure and temperature between the period of IVC (Inlet valve close)
and EVO (Exhaust valve open). Mixture gas properties were
implemented using STANJAN and transfer the results to main model.
The model has considered the engine geometry and enables varying in
fuelling, equivalence ratio, manifold temperature and pressure. The
results were compared with the experiment and showed good
correlation with respect to combustion phasing, pressure rise, peak
pressure and temperature. This model could be adapted and use to
control start of combustion for HCCI engine.