International Science Index
Taguchi-Based Optimization of Surface Roughness and Dimensional Accuracy in Wire EDM Process with S7 Heat Treated Steel
This research focuses on the use of the Taguchi method to reduce the surface roughness and improve dimensional accuracy of parts machined by Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) with S7 heat treated steel material. Due to its high impact toughness, the material is a candidate for a wide variety of tooling applications which require high precision in dimension and desired surface roughness. This paper demonstrates that Taguchi Parameter Design methodology is able to optimize both dimensioning and surface roughness successfully by investigating seven wire-EDM controllable parameters: pulse on time (ON), pulse off time (OFF), servo voltage (SV), voltage (V), servo feed (SF), wire tension (WT), and wire speed (WS). The temperature of the water in the Wire EDM process is investigated as the noise factor in this research. Experimental design and analysis based on L18 Taguchi orthogonal arrays are conducted. This paper demonstrates that the Taguchi-based system enables the wire EDM process to produce (1) high precision parts with an average of 0.6601 inches dimension, while the desired dimension is 0.6600 inches; and (2) surface roughness of 1.7322 microns which is significantly improved from 2.8160 microns.
Surface Topography Measurement by Confocal Spectral Interferometry
Confocal spectral interferometry (CSI) is an innovative optical method for determining microtopography of surfaces and thickness of transparent layers, based on the combination of two optical principles: confocal imaging, and spectral interferometry. Confocal optical system images at each instant a single point of the sample. The whole surface is reconstructed by plan scanning. The interference signal generated by mixing two white-light beams is analyzed using a spectrometer. In this work, five ‘rugotests’ of known standard roughnesses are investigated. The topography is then measured and illustrated, and the equivalent roughness is determined and compared with the standard values.
Flexural Properties of Halloysite Nanotubes-Polyester Nanocomposites Exposed to Aggressive Environment
This study aimed to investigate the effect of aggressive environment on the flexural properties of halloysite nanotubes-polyester nanocomposites. Results showed that the addition of halloysite nanotubes into polyester matrix was found to improve flexural properties of the nanocomposites in dry condition and after water-methanol exposure. Significant increase in surface roughness was also observed and measured by Alicona Infinite Focus optical microscope.
Process Modeling of Electric Discharge Machining of Inconel 825 Using Artificial Neural Network
Electrical discharge machining (EDM), a non-conventional machining process, finds wide applications for shaping difficult-to-cut alloys. Process modeling of EDM is required to exploit the process to the fullest. Process modeling of EDM is a challenging task owing to involvement of so many electrical and non-electrical parameters. This work is an attempt to model the EDM process using artificial neural network (ANN). Experiments were carried out on die-sinking EDM taking Inconel 825 as work material. ANN modeling has been performed using experimental data. The prediction ability of trained network has been verified experimentally. Results indicate that ANN can predict the values of performance measures of EDM satisfactorily.
Study of Variation of Winds Behavior on Micro Urban Environment with Use of Fuzzy Logic for Wind Power Generation: Case Study in the Cities of Arraial do Cabo and São Pedro da Aldeia, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
This work provides details on the wind speed behavior within cities of Arraial do Cabo and São Pedro da Aldeia located in the Lakes Region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This region has one of the best potentials for wind power generation. In interurban layer, wind conditions are very complex and depend on physical geography, size and orientation of buildings and constructions around, population density, and land use. In the same context, the fundamental surface parameter that governs the production of flow turbulence in urban canyons is the surface roughness. Such factors can influence the potential for power generation from the wind within the cities. Moreover, the use of wind on a small scale is not fully utilized due to complexity of wind flow measurement inside the cities. It is difficult to accurately predict this type of resource. This study demonstrates how fuzzy logic can facilitate the assessment of the complexity of the wind potential inside the cities. It presents a decision support tool and its ability to deal with inaccurate information using linguistic variables created by the heuristic method. It relies on the already published studies about the variables that influence the wind speed in the urban environment. These variables were turned into the verbal expressions that are used in computer system, which facilitated the establishment of rules for fuzzy inference and integration with an application for smartphones used in the research. In the first part of the study, challenges of the sustainable development which are described are followed by incentive policies to the use of renewable energy in Brazil. The next chapter follows the study area characteristics and the concepts of fuzzy logic. Data were collected in field experiment by using qualitative and quantitative methods for assessment. As a result, a map of the various points is presented within the cities studied with its wind viability evaluated by a system of decision support using the method multivariate classification based on fuzzy logic.
Using Single Decision Tree to Assess the Impact of Cutting Conditions on Vibration
Vibration during machining process is crucial since it affects cutting tool, machine, and workpiece leading to a tool wear, tool breakage, and an unacceptable surface roughness. This paper applies a nonparametric statistical method, single decision tree (SDT), to identify factors affecting on vibration in machining process. Workpiece material (AISI 1045 Steel, AA2024 Aluminum alloy, A48-class30 Gray Cast Iron), cutting tool (conventional, cutting tool with holes in toolholder, cutting tool filled up with epoxy-granite), tool overhang (41-65 mm), spindle speed (630-1000 rpm), feed rate (0.05-0.075 mm/rev) and depth of cut (0.05-0.15 mm) were used as input variables, while vibration was the output parameter. It is concluded that workpiece material is the most important parameters for natural frequency followed by cutting tool and overhang.
Performance Assessment of Carbon Nano Tube Based Cutting Fluid in Machining Process
In machining, there is always a problem with heat generation and friction produced during the process as they consequently affect tool wear and surface finish. An instant heat transfer mechanism could protect the cutting tool edge and enhance the tool life by cooling the cutting edge of the tool. In the present work, carbon nanotube (CNT) based nano-cutting fluid is proposed for machining a hard-to-cut material. Tool wear and surface roughness are considered for the evaluation of the nano-cutting fluid in turning process. The performance of nanocoolant is assessed against the conventional coolant and dry machining conditions and it is observed that the proposed nanocoolant has produced better performance than the conventional coolant.
Multi-Objective Optimization of Electric Discharge Machining for Inconel 718
Electric discharge machining (EDM) is one of the most widely used non-conventional manufacturing process to shape difficult-to-cut materials. The process yield, in terms of material removal rate, surface roughness and tool wear rate, of EDM may considerably be improved by selecting the optimal combination(s) of process parameters. This paper employs Multi-response signal-to-noise (MRSN) ratio technique to find the optimal combination(s) of the process parameters during EDM of Inconel 718. Three cases v.i.z. high cutting efficiency, high surface finish, and normal machining have been taken and the optimal combinations of input parameters have been obtained for each case. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been employed to find the dominant parameter(s) in all three cases. The experimental verification of the obtained results has also been made. MRSN ratio technique found to be a simple and effective multi-objective optimization technique.
Effects of Canned Cycles and Cutting Parameters on Hole Quality in Cryogenic Drilling of Aluminum 6061-6T
The influence of canned cycles and cutting parameters on hole quality in cryogenic drilling has been investigated experimentally and analytically. A three-level, three-parameter experiment was conducted by using the design-of-experiment methodology. The three levels of independent input parameters were the following: for canned cycles—a chip-breaking canned cycle (G73), a spot drilling canned cycle (G81), and a deep hole canned cycle (G83); for feed rates—0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mm/rev; and for cutting speeds—60, 75, and 100 m/min. The selected work and tool materials were aluminum 6061-6T and high-speed steel (HSS), respectively. For cryogenic cooling, liquid nitrogen (LN2) was used and was applied externally. The measured output parameters were the three widely used quality characteristics of drilled holes—diameter error, circularity, and surface roughness. Pareto ANOVA was applied for analyzing the results. The findings revealed that the canned cycle has a significant effect on diameter error (contribution ratio 44.09%) and small effects on circularity and surface finish (contribution ratio 7.25% and 6.60%, respectively). The best results for the dimensional accuracy and surface roughness were achieved by G81. G73 produced the best circularity results; however, for dimensional accuracy, it was the worst level.
Effects of Upstream Wall Roughness on Separated Turbulent Flow over a Forward Facing Step in an Open Channel
The effect of upstream surface roughness over a
smooth forward facing step in an open channel was investigated
using a particle image velocimetry technique. Three different
upstream surface topographies consisting of hydraulically smooth
wall, sandpaper 36 grit and sand grains were examined. Besides the
wall roughness conditions, all other upstream flow characteristics
were kept constant. It was also observed that upstream roughness
decreased the approach velocity by 2% and 10% but increased the
turbulence intensity by 14% and 35% at the wall-normal distance
corresponding to the top plane of the step compared to smooth
upstream. The results showed that roughness decreased the
reattachment lengths by 14% and 30% compared to smooth upstream.
Although the magnitudes of maximum positive and negative
Reynolds shear stress in separated and reattached region were 0.02Ue
for all the cases, the physical size of both the maximum and
minimum contour levels were decreased by increasing upstream
Effects of Roughness on Forward Facing Step in an Open Channel
Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of roughness on the reattachment and redevelopment regions over a 12 mm forward facing step (FFS) in an open channel flow. The experiments were performed over an upstream smooth wall and a smooth FFS, an upstream wall coated with sandpaper 36 grit and a smooth FFS and an upstream rough wall produced from sandpaper 36 grit and a FFS coated with sandpaper 36 grit. To investigate only the wall roughness effects, Reynolds number, Froude number, aspect ratio and blockage ratio were kept constant. Upstream profiles showed reduced streamwise mean velocities close to the rough wall compared to the smooth wall, but the turbulence level was increased by upstream wall roughness. The reattachment length for the smooth-smooth wall experiment was 1.78h; however, when it is replaced with rough-smooth wall the reattachment length decreased to 1.53h. It was observed that the upstream roughness increased the physical size of contours of maximum turbulence level; however, the downstream roughness decreased both the size and magnitude of contours in the vicinity of the leading edge of the step. Quadrant analysis was performed to investigate the dominant Reynolds shear stress contribution in the recirculation region. The Reynolds shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy profiles after the reattachment showed slower recovery compared to the streamwise mean velocity, however all the profiles fairly collapse on their corresponding upstream profiles at x/h = 60. It was concluded that to obtain a complete collapse several more streamwise distances would be required.
Variation of Streamwise and Vertical Turbulence Intensity in a Smooth and Rough Bed Open Channel Flow
An experimental study with four different types of bed
conditions was carried out to understand the effect of roughness in
open channel flow at two different Reynolds numbers. The bed
conditions include a smooth surface and three different roughness
conditions, which were generated using sand grains with a median
diameter of 2.46 mm. The three rough conditions include a surface
with distributed roughness, a surface with continuously distributed
roughness and a sand bed with a permeable interface. A commercial
two-component fibre-optic LDA system was used to conduct the
velocity measurements. The variables of interest include the mean
velocity, turbulence intensity, correlation between the streamwise and
the wall normal turbulence, Reynolds shear stress and velocity triple
products. Quadrant decomposition was used to extract the magnitude
of the Reynolds shear stress of the turbulent bursting events. The
effect of roughness was evident throughout the flow depth. The
results show that distributed roughness has the greatest roughness
effect followed by the sand bed and the continuous roughness.
Compared to the smooth bed, the streamwise turbulence intensity
reduces but the vertical turbulence intensity increases at a location
very close to the bed due to the introduction of roughness. Although
the same sand grain is used to create the three different rough bed
conditions, the difference in the turbulence intensity is an indication
that the specific geometry of the roughness has an influence on
Numerical Analysis of Roughness Effect on Mini and Microchannels: Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer
A three-dimensional numerical simulation of flow
through mini and microchannels with designed roughness is
conducted here. The effect of the roughness height (surface
roughness), geometry, Reynolds number on the friction factor, and
Nusselt number is investigated. The study is carried out by
employing CFD software, CFX. Our work focuses on a water flow
inside a circular mini-channel of 1 mm and microchannels of 500 and
100 m in diameter. The speed entry varies from 0.1 m/s to 20 m/s.
The general trend can be observed that bigger sizes of roughness
element lead to higher flow resistance. It is found that the friction
factor increases in a nonlinear fashion with the increase in obstruction
height. Particularly, the effect of roughness can no longer be ignored
at relative roughness height higher than 3%. A significant increase in
Poiseuille number is detected for all configurations considered. The
same observation can be done for Nusselt number. The transition
zone between laminar and turbulent flow depends on the channel
Analytical Modelling of Surface Roughness during Compacted Graphite Iron Milling Using Ceramic Inserts
This study investigates the effects of the lead angle
and chip thickness variation on surface roughness during the
machining of compacted graphite iron using ceramic cutting tools
under dry cutting conditions. Analytical models were developed for
predicting the surface roughness values of the specimens after the
face milling process. Experimental data was collected and imported
to the artificial neural network model. A multilayer perceptron model
was used with the back propagation algorithm employing the input
parameters of lead angle, cutting speed and feed rate in connection
with chip thickness. Furthermore, analysis of variance was employed
to determine the effects of the cutting parameters on surface
roughness. Artificial neural network and regression analysis were
used to predict surface roughness. The values thus predicted were
compared with the collected experimental data, and the
corresponding percentage error was computed. Analysis results
revealed that the lead angle is the dominant factor affecting surface
roughness. Experimental results indicated an improvement in the
surface roughness value with decreasing lead angle value from 88° to
Analysis of Surface Hardness, Surface Roughness, and Near Surface Microstructure of AISI 4140 Steel Worked with Turn-Assisted Deep Cold Rolling Process
In the present study, response surface methodology has been used to optimize turn-assisted deep cold rolling process of AISI 4140 steel. A regression model is developed to predict surface hardness and surface roughness using response surface methodology and central composite design. In the development of predictive model, deep cold rolling force, ball diameter, initial roughness of the workpiece, and number of tool passes are considered as model variables. The rolling force and the ball diameter are the significant factors on the surface hardness and ball diameter and numbers of tool passes are found to be significant for surface roughness. The predicted surface hardness and surface roughness values and the subsequent verification experiments under the optimal operating conditions confirmed the validity of the predicted model. The absolute average error between the experimental and predicted values at the optimal combination of parameter settings for surface hardness and surface roughness is calculated as 0.16% and 1.58% respectively. Using the optimal processing parameters, the surface hardness is improved from 225 to 306 HV, which resulted in an increase in the near surface hardness by about 36% and the surface roughness is improved from 4.84µm to 0.252 µm, which resulted in decrease in the surface roughness by about 95%. The depth of compression is found to be more than 300µm from the microstructure analysis and this is in correlation with the results obtained from the microhardness measurements. Taylor hobson talysurf tester, micro vickers hardness tester, optical microscopy and X-ray diffractometer are used to characterize the modified surface layer.
Effect of Chemical Additive on Fixed Abrasive Polishing of LBO Crystal with Non-water Based Slurry
Non-water based fixed abrasive polishing was adopted
to manufacture LBO crystal for nano precision surface quality because
of its deliquescent. Ethyl alcohol was selected as the non-water based
slurry solvent and ethanediamine, lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide was
added in the slurry as a chemical additive, respectively. Effect of
different additives with non-water based slurry on material removal
rate, surface topography, microscopic appearances, and surface
roughness were investigated in fixed abrasive polishing of LBO
crystal. The results show the best surface quality of LBO crystal with
surface roughness Sa 8.2 nm and small damages was obtained by
non-water based slurry with lactic acid. Non-water based fixed
abrasive polishing can achieve nano precision surface quality of LBO
crystal with high material removal.
Enhancement and Characterization of Titanium Surfaces with Sandblasting and Acid Etching for Dental Implants
Titanium and its alloys have been used extensively over the past 25 years as biomedical materials in orthopedic and dental applications because of their good mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. It is known that the surface properties of titanium implants can enhance the cellular response and play an important role in Osseo integration. The rate and quality of Osseo integration in titanium implants are related to their surface properties. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of sandblasting and acid etching on surface morphology, roughness, the wettability of titanium. The surface properties will be characterized by scanning electron microscopy and contact angle and roughness measurements. The results show that surface morphology, roughness, and wettability were changed and enhanced by these treatments.
Heat Transfer and Friction Factor Study for Triangular Duct Solar Air Heater Having Discrete V-Shaped Ribs
Solar energy is a good option among renewable
energy resources due to its easy availability and abundance. The
simplest and most efficient way to utilize solar energy is to convert it
into thermal energy and this can be done with the help of solar
collectors. The thermal performance of such collectors is poor due to
less heat transfer from the collector surface to air. In this work,
experimental investigations of single pass solar air heater having
triangular duct and provided with roughness element on the underside
of the absorber plate. V-shaped ribs are used for investigation having
three different values of relative roughness pitch (p/e) ranges from 4-
16 for a fixed value of angle of attack (α), relative roughness height
(e/Dh) and a relative gap distance (d/x) values are 60°, 0.044 and 0.60
respectively. Result shows that considerable augmentation in heat
transfer has been obtained by providing roughness.
Sinusoidal Roughness Elements in a Square Cavity
Numerical studies were conducted using Lattice
Boltzmann Method (LBM) to study the natural convection in a square
cavity in the presence of roughness. An algorithm based on a single
relaxation time Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) model of Lattice
Boltzmann Method (LBM) was developed. Roughness was
introduced on both the hot and cold walls in the form of sinusoidal
roughness elements. The study was conducted for a Newtonian fluid
of Prandtl number (Pr) 1.0. The range of Ra number was explored
from 10^3 to 10^6 in a laminar region. Thermal and hydrodynamic
behavior of fluid was analyzed using a differentially heated square
cavity with roughness elements present on both the hot and cold wall.
Neumann boundary conditions were introduced on horizontal walls
with vertical walls as isothermal. The roughness elements were at the
same boundary condition as corresponding walls. Computational
algorithm was validated against previous benchmark studies
performed with different numerical methods, and a good agreement
was found to exist. Results indicate that the maximum reduction in
the average heat transfer was 16.66 percent at Ra number 10^5.
Nanoindentation of Thin Films Prepared by Physical Vapor Deposition
These Monolayer and multilayer coatings of CrN and
AlCrN deposited on 100Cr6 (AISI 52100) substrate by PVD
magnetron sputtering system. The microstructures of the coatings
were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM
analysis revealed the presence of domes and craters that are
uniformly distributed over all surfaces of the various layers.
Nanoindentation measurement of CrN coating showed maximum
hardness (H) and modulus (E) of 14 GPa and 190 GPa, respectively.
The measured H and E values of AlCrN coatings were found to be 30
GPa and 382 GPa, respectively. The improved hardness in both the
coatings was attributed mainly to a reduction in crystallite size and
decrease in surface roughness. The incorporation of Al into the CrN
coatings has improved both hardness and Young’s modulus.
A Rapid and Cost-Effective Approach to Manufacturing Modeling Platform for Fused Deposition Modeling
This study presents a cost-effective approach for rapid
fabricating modeling platforms utilized in fused deposition modeling
system. A small-batch production of modeling platforms about 20
pieces can be obtained economically through silicone rubber mold
using vacuum casting without applying the plastic injection molding.
The air venting systems is crucial for fabricating modeling platform
using vacuum casting. Modeling platforms fabricated can be used for
building rapid prototyping model after sandblasting. This study offers
industrial value because it has both time-effectiveness and
A Novel Method to Manufacture Superhydrophobic and Insulating Polyester Nanofibers via a Meso-Porous Aerogel Powder
In this research, waterglass based aerogel powder was
prepared by sol–gel process and ambient pressure drying. Inspired by
limited dust releasing, aerogel powder was introduced to the PET
electrospinning solution in an attempt to create required bulk and
surface structure for the nanofibers to improve their hydrophobic and
insulation properties. The samples evaluation was carried out by
measuring density, porosity, contact angle, heat transfer, FTIR, BET,
and SEM. According to the results, porous silica aerogel powder was
fabricated with mean pore diameter of 24 nm and contact angle of
145.9º. The results indicated the usefulness of the aerogel powder
confined into nanofibers to control surface roughness for
manipulating superhydrophobic nanowebs with water contact angle
of 147º. It can be due to a multi-scale surface roughness which was
created by nanowebs structure itself and nanofibers surface
irregularity in presence of the aerogels while a layer of fluorocarbon
created low surface energy. The wettability of a solid substrate is an
important property that is controlled by both the chemical
composition and geometry of the surface. Also, a decreasing trend in
the heat transfer was observed from 22% for the nanofibers without
any aerogel powder to 8% for the nanofibers with 4% aerogel
powder. The development of thermal insulating materials has become
increasingly more important than ever in view of the fossil energy
depletion and global warming that call for more demanding energysaving
Burnishing of Aluminum-Magnesium-Graphite Composites
Burnishing is increasingly used as a finishing operation to improve surface roughness and surface hardness. This can be achieved by applying a hard ball or roller onto metallic surfaces under pressure, in order to achieve many advantages in the metallic surface. In the present work, the feed rate, speed and force have been considered as the basic burnishing parameters to study the surface roughness and surface hardness of metallic matrix composites. The considered metal matrix composites were made from Aluminum-Magnesium-Graphite with five different weight percentage of graphite. Both effects of burnishing parameters mentioned above and the graphite percentage on the surface hardness and surface roughness of the metallic matrix composites were studied. The results of this investigation showed that the surface hardness of the metallic composites increases with the increase of the burnishing force and decreases with the increase in the burnishing feed rate and burnishing speed. The surface roughness of the metallic composites decreases with the increasing of the burnishing force, feed rate, and speed to certain values, then it starts to increase. On the other hand, the increase in the weight percentage of the graphite in the considered composites causes a decrease in the surface hardness and an increase in the surface roughness.
Impact of Machining Parameters on the Surface Roughness of Machined PU Block
Machining parameters are very important in
determining the surface quality of any material. In the past decade,
some new engineering materials were developed for the
manufacturing industry which created a need to conduct an
investigation on the impact of the said parameters on their surface
roughness. Polyurethane (PU) block is widely used in the automotive
industry to manufacture parts such as checking fixtures that are used
to verify the dimensional accuracy of automotive parts. In this paper,
the design of experiment (DOE) was used to investigate on the effect
of the milling parameters on the PU block. Furthermore, an analysis
of the machined surface chemical composition was done using
scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was found that the surface
roughness of the PU block is severely affected when PU undergoes a
flood machining process instead of a dry condition. In addition the
stepover and the silicon content were found to be the most significant
parameters that influence the surface quality of the PU block.
Numerical Simulation of the Kurtosis Effect on the EHL Problem
In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
model has been developed for studying the effect of surface
roughness profile on the EHL problem. The cylinders contact
geometry, meshing and calculation of the conservation of mass and
momentum equations are carried out using the commercial software
packages ICEMCFD and ANSYS Fluent. The user defined functions
(UDFs) for density, viscosity and elastic deformation of the cylinders
as the functions of pressure and temperature are defined for the CFD
model. Three different surface roughness profiles are created and
incorporated into the CFD model. It is found that the developed CFD
model can predict the characteristics of fluid flow and heat transfer in
the EHL problem, including the main parameters such as pressure
distribution, minimal film thickness, viscosity, and density changes.
The results obtained show that the pressure profile at the center of the
contact area directly relates to the roughness amplitude. A rough
surface with kurtosis value of more than 3 has greater influence over
the fluctuated shape of pressure distribution than in other cases.
Fuzzy Based Visual Texture Feature for Psoriasis Image Analysis
This paper proposes a rotational invariant texture
feature based on the roughness property of the image for psoriasis
image analysis. In this work, we have applied this feature for image
classification and segmentation. The fuzzy concept is employed to
overcome the imprecision of roughness. Since the psoriasis lesion is
modeled by a rough surface, the feature is extended for calculating
the Psoriasis Area Severity Index value. For classification and
segmentation, the Nearest Neighbor algorithm is applied. We have
obtained promising results for identifying affected lesions by using
the roughness index and severity level estimation.
Opto-Mechanical Characterization of Aspheric Lenses from the Hybrid Method
Aspheric optical components are an alternative to the use of conventional lenses in the implementation of imaging systems for the visible range. Spherical lenses are capable of producing aberrations. Therefore, they are not able to focus all the light into a single point. Instead, aspherical lenses correct aberrations and provide better resolution even with compact lenses incorporating a small number of lenses.
Metrology of these components is very difficult especially when the resolution requirements increase and insufficient or complexity of conventional tools requires the development of specific approaches to characterization.
This work is part of the problem existed because the objectives are the study and comparison of different methods used to measure surface rays hybrid aspherical lenses.
CAD-Based Modelling of Surface Roughness in Face Milling
The quality of machined surfaces is an important characteristic of cutting processes and surface roughness has strong effects on the performance of sliding, moving components. The ability to forecast these values for a given process has been of great interests among researchers for a long time. Different modeling procedures and algorithms have been worked-out, and each has its own advantages and drawbacks. A new method will be introduced in this paper which will make it possible to calculate both the profile (2D) and surface (3D) parameters of theoretical roughness in the face milling of plain surfaces. This new method is based on an expediently developed CAD model, and uses a professional program for the roughness evaluation. Cutting experiments were performed on 42CrMo4 specimens in order to validate the accuracy of the model. The results have revealed that the method is able to predict surface roughness with good accuracy.
Influence of Initial Surface Roughness on Severe Wear Volume for SUS304 Austenitic Stainless Steels
Simultaneous measurements of the curves for wear versus distance, wear rate versus distance, and coefficient of friction versus distance were performed in situ to distinguish the transition from severe running-in wear to mild wear. The effects of the initial surface roughness on the severe running-in wear volume were investigated. Disk-on-plate friction and wear tests were carried out with SUS304 austenitic stainless steel in contact with itself under repeated dry sliding conditions at room temperature. The wear volume was dependent on the initial surface roughness. The wear volume when the initial surfaces on the plate and disk had dissimilar roughness was lower than that when these surfaces had similar roughness. For the dissimilar roughness, the wear volume decreased with decreasing initial surface roughness and reached a minimum; it stayed nearly constant as the roughness was less than the mean size of the oxide particles.
Determination of Surface Roughness by Ball Burnishing Process Using Factorial Techniques
Burnishing is a method of finishing and hardening
machined parts by plastic deformation of the surface. Experimental
work based on central composite second order rotatable design has
been carried out on a lathe machine to establish the effects of ball
burnishing parameters on the surface roughness of brass material.
Analysis of the results by the analysis of variance technique and the
F-test show that the parameters considered, have significant effects
on the surface roughness.