International Science Index
Assessment of Occupational Exposure and Individual Radio-Sensitivity in People Subjected to Ionizing Radiation
The estimation of accumulated radiation doses in people professionally exposed to ionizing radiation was performed using methods of biological (chromosomal aberrations frequency in lymphocytes) and physical (radionuclides analysis in urine, whole-body radiation meter, individual thermoluminescent dosimeters) dosimetry. A group of 84 "A" category employees after their work in the territory of former Semipalatinsk test site (Kazakhstan) was investigated. The dose rate in some funnels exceeds 40 μSv/h. After radionuclides determination in urine using radiochemical and WBC methods, it was shown that the total effective dose of personnel internal exposure did not exceed 0.2 mSv/year, while an acceptable dose limit for staff is 20 mSv/year. The range of external radiation doses measured with individual thermo-luminescent dosimeters was 0.3-1.406 µSv. The cytogenetic examination showed that chromosomal aberrations frequency in staff was 4.27±0.22%, which is significantly higher than at the people from non-polluting settlement Tausugur (0.87±0.1%) (р ≤ 0.01) and citizens of Almaty (1.6±0.12%) (р≤ 0.01). Chromosomal type aberrations accounted for 2.32±0.16%, 0.27±0.06% of which were dicentrics and centric rings. The cytogenetic analysis of different types group radiosensitivity among «professionals» (age, sex, ethnic group, epidemiological data) revealed no significant differences between the compared values. Using various techniques by frequency of dicentrics and centric rings, the average cumulative radiation dose for group was calculated, and that was 0.084-0.143 Gy. To perform comparative individual dosimetry using physical and biological methods of dose assessment, calibration curves (including own ones) and regression equations based on general frequency of chromosomal aberrations obtained after irradiation of blood samples by gamma-radiation with the dose rate of 0,1 Gy/min were used. Herewith, on the assumption of individual variation of chromosomal aberrations frequency (1–10%), the accumulated dose of radiation varied 0-0.3 Gy. The main problem in the interpretation of individual dosimetry results is reduced to different reaction of the objects to irradiation - radiosensitivity, which dictates the need of quantitative definition of this individual reaction and its consideration in the calculation of the received radiation dose. The entire examined contingent was assigned to a group based on the received dose and detected cytogenetic aberrations. Radiosensitive individuals, at the lowest received dose in a year, showed the highest frequency of chromosomal aberrations (5.72%). In opposite, radioresistant individuals showed the lowest frequency of chromosomal aberrations (2.8%). The cohort correlation according to the criterion of radio-sensitivity in our research was distributed as follows: radio-sensitive (26.2%) — medium radio-sensitivity (57.1%), radioresistant (16.7%). Herewith, the dispersion for radioresistant individuals is 2.3; for the group with medium radio-sensitivity — 3.3; and for radio-sensitive group — 9. These data indicate the highest variation of characteristic (reactions to radiation effect) in the group of radio-sensitive individuals. People with medium radio-sensitivity show significant long-term correlation (0.66; n=48, β ≥ 0.999) between the values of doses defined according to the results of cytogenetic analysis and dose of external radiation obtained with the help of thermoluminescent dosimeters. Mathematical models based on the type of violation of the radiation dose according to the professionals radiosensitivity level were offered.
Using SNAP and RADTRAD to Establish the Analysis Model for Maanshan PWR Plant
In this study, we focus on the establishment of the analysis model for Maanshan PWR nuclear power plant (NPP) by using RADTRAD and SNAP codes with the FSAR, manuals, and other data. In order to evaluate the cumulative dose at the Exclusion Area Boundary (EAB) and Low Population Zone (LPZ) outer boundary, Maanshan NPP RADTRAD/SNAP model was used to perform the analysis of the DBA LOCA case. The analysis results of RADTRAD were similar to FSAR data. These analysis results were lower than the failure criteria of 10 CFR 100.11 (a total radiation dose to the whole body, 250 mSv; a total radiation dose to the thyroid from iodine exposure, 3000 mSv).
Verification of Sr-90 Determination in Water and Spruce Needles Samples Using IAEA-TEL-2016-04 ALMERA Proficiency Test Samples
Determination of 90Sr in environmental samples has been widely developed with several radioanlytical methods and radiation measurement techniques since 90Sr is one of the most hazardous radionuclides produced from nuclear reactors. Liquid extraction technique using di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) to separate and purify 90Y and Cherenkov counting using liquid scintillation counter to determine 90Y in secular equilibrium to 90Sr was developed and performed at our institute, the Office of Atoms for Peace. The approach is inexpensive, non-laborious, and fast to analyse 90Sr in environmental samples. To validate our analytical performance for the accurate and precise criteria, determination of 90Sr using the IAEA-TEL-2016-04 ALMERA proficiency test samples were performed for statistical evaluation. The experiment used two spiked tap water samples and one naturally contaminated spruce needles sample from Austria collected shortly after the Chernobyl accident. Results showed that all three analyses were successfully passed in terms of both accuracy and precision criteria, obtaining “Accepted” statuses. The two water samples obtained the measured results of 15.54 Bq/kg and 19.76 Bq/kg, which had relative bias 5.68% and -3.63% for the Maximum Acceptable Relative Bias (MARB) 15% and 20%, respectively. And the spruce needles sample obtained the measured results of 21.04 Bq/kg, which had relative bias 23.78% for the MARB 30%. These results confirm our analytical performance of 90Sr determination in water and spruce needles samples using the same developed method.
The Long-Term Leaching Behaviour of 137Cs, 60Co and 152Eu Radionuclides Incorporated in Mortar Matrices Made from Natural Aggregates and Recycled Aggregates
During the interim storage or final disposal of low level waste, migration/diffusion of radionuclides can occur when the waste comes in contact with water. The long-term leaching behaviour into surrounding fluid (demineralized water) of 137Cs, 60Co and 152Eu radionuclides, artificially incorporated in mortar matrices made from natural aggregates (river sand) and recycled radioactive concrete was studied. Results presented in this work are obtained in two years of mortar testing and will be used for the safety increasing in the storage of low level radioactive waste. The study involved the influence of curing time, type and size distribution of the aggregates on leaching behaviour. The mortar samples were immersed in distilled water for 30 days. The leached activity of the mortar samples was measured on samples from the immersing water and analyzed through a gamma-ray spectrometry method using an HPGe detector with a GESPECOR code for efficiency evaluation. The long-term leaching behaviour of the radionuclides was evaluated from the leaching data calculating the apparent diffusion coefficient.
Radon-222 Concentration and Potential Risk to Workers of Al-Jalamid Phosphate Mines, North Province, Saudi Arabia
Usually, phosphate deposits contain 238U and 232Th in addition to their decay products. Due to their different pathways in the environment, the 238U/232Th activity concentration ratio usually found to be greater than unity in phosphate sediments. The presence of these radionuclides creates a potential need to control exposure of workers in the mining and processing activities of the phosphate minerals in accordance with IAEA safety standards. The greatest dose to workers comes from exposure to radon, especially 222Rn from the uranium series, and has to be controlled. In this regard, radon (222Rn) was measured in the atmosphere (indoor and outdoor) of Al-Jalamid phosphate-mines working area using a portable radon-measurement instrument RAD7, in a purpose of radiation protection. Radon was measured in 61 sites inside the open phosphate mines, the phosphate upgrading facility (offices and rooms of the workers, and in some open-air sites) and in the dwellings of the workers residence-village that lies at about 3 km from the mines working area. The obtained results indicated that the average indoor radon concentration was about 48.4 Bq/m3. Inside the upgrading facility, the average outdoor concentrations were 10.8 and 9.7 Bq/m3 in the concentrate piles and crushing areas, respectively. It was 12.3 Bq/m3 in the atmosphere of the open mines. These values are comparable with the global average values. Based on the average values, the annual effective dose due to radon inhalation was calculated and risk estimates have been done. The average annual effective dose to workers due to the radon inhalation was estimated by 1.32 mSv. The potential excess risk of lung cancer mortality that could be attributed to radon, when considering the lifetime exposure, was estimated by 53.0x10-4. The results have been discussed in detail.
Electrokinetic Remediation of Uranium Contaminated Soil by Ion Exchange Membranes
The contamination of significant quantities of soils and sediments with uranium and other actinide elements as a result of nuclear activity poses many environmental risks. The electrokinetic process is one of the most promising remediation techniques for sludge, sediment, and saturated or unsaturated soils contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. However, secondary waste is a major concern for soil contaminated with nuclides. To minimize the generation of secondary wastes, this study used the anion and cation exchange membranes to improve the performance of the experimental apparatus. Remediation experiments of uranium-contaminated soil were performed with different agents. The results show that using acetic acid and EDTA as chelating agents clearly enhances the migration ability of the uranium. The ion exchange membranes (IEMs) used in the experiments not only reduce secondary wastes, but also, keep the soil pH stable.
Experimental and Analytical Dose Assessment of Patient's Family Members Treated with I-131
Radiation exposure to the patient's family members is one of the major concerns during thyroid cancer radionuclide therapy. The aim of this study was to measure the total effective dose of the family members by means of thermoluminescence personal dosimeter, and compare with those calculated by analytical methods. Eighty-five adult family members of fifty-one patients volunteered to participate in this research study. Considering the minimum and maximum range of dose rate from 15 µsv/h to 120 µsv/h at patients' release time, the calculated mean and median dose values of family members were 0.45 mSv and 0.28 mSv, respectively. Moreover, almost all family members’ doses were measured to be less than the dose constraint of 5 mSv recommended by Basic Safety Standards. Considering the influence parameters such as patient dose rate and administrated activity, the total effective doses of family members were calculated by TEDE and NRC formulas and compared with those of experimental results. The results indicated that, it is fruitful to use the quantitative calculations for releasing patients treated with I-131 and correct estimation of patients' family doses.
Natural Radioactivity in Foods Consumed in Turkey
This study aims to determine the natural radioactivity levels in some foodstuffs produced in Turkey. For this purpose, 48 different foods samples were collected from different land parcels throughout the country. All samples were analyzed to designate both gross alpha and gross beta radioactivities and the radionuclides’ concentrations. The gross alpha radioactivities were measured as below 1 Bq kg-1 in most of the samples, some of them being due to the detection limit of the counting system. The gross beta radioactivity levels ranged from 1.8 Bq kg-1 to 453 Bq kg-1, larger levels being observed in leguminous seeds while the highest level being in haricot bean. The concentrations of natural radionuclides in the foodstuffs were investigated by the method of gamma spectroscopy. High levels of 40K were measured in all the samples, the highest activities being again in leguminous seeds. Low concentrations of 238U and 226Ra were found in some of the samples, which are comparable to the reported results in the literature. Based on the activity concentrations obtained in this study, average annual effective dose equivalents for the radionuclides 226Ra, 238U, and 40K were calculated as 77.416 µSv y-1, 0.978 µSv y-1, and 140.55 µSv y-1, respectively.
Distribution of Gamma Radiation Levels in Core Sediment Samples in Gulf of Izmir: Eastern Aegean Sea, Turkey
Since the development of the industrial revolution, industrial plants and settlements have spread widely along coastlines. This concentration of development brings environmental pollution to the seas. This study focuses on the Gulf of Izmir, a natural gulf of the Eastern Aegean Sea, located west of Turkey. Investigating marine current sediment is extremely important to detect pollution. This study considered natural radioactivity pollution of the marine environment. Ground drilling cores (the depth of each sediment is different) were taken from four different locations in the Gulf of izmir, Karşıyaka (12.5-13.5 m), Inciralti (6.5-7.5 m), Cesmealti (4.5-5 m) and Bayrakli (10-12 m). These sediment cores were put in preserving bags with weight around 1 kg, and were dried at room temperature to remove moisture. The samples were then sieved into fine powder (100 mesh), and these samples were relocated to 1000 mL polyethylene Marinelli beakers. The prepared sediments were stored for 40 days to reach radioactive equilibrium between uranium and thorium. Gamma spectrometry measurement of each sample was made using an HPGe (High-Purity Germanium) semiconductor detector. In this study, the results display that the average concentrations of the activity values are 8.4 ± 0.23 Bq kg-1, 19.6 ± 0.51 Bq kg-1, 8 ± 0.96 Bq kg-1, 1.93 ± 0.3 Bq kg-1, and 77.4 ± 0.96 Bq kg-1, respectively.
Pressure Relief in Prosthetic Sockets through Hole Implementation Using Different Materials
Below-knee amputees commonly experience
asymmetrical gait patterns. It is generally believed that ischemia is
related to the formation of pressure sores due to uneven distribution
of forces. Micro-vascular responses can reveal local malnutrition.
Changes in local skin blood supply under various external loading
conditions have been studied for a number of years. Radionuclide
clearance, photo-plethysmography, trans-cutaneous oxygen tension
along with other studies showed that the blood supply would be
influenced by the epidermal forces, and the rate and the amount of
blood supply would decrease with increased epidermal loads being
shear forces or normal forces. Several cases of socket designs were
investigated using Finite Element Model (FEM) and Design of
Experiment (DOE) to increase flexibility and minimize the pressure
at the limb/socket interface using ultra high molecular weight
polyethylene (UHMWPE) and polyamide 6 (PA6) or Duraform. The
pressure reliefs at designated areas where reducing thickness is
involved are seen to be critical in determination of amputees’ comfort
and are very important to clinical applications. Implementing a hole
between the Patellar Tendon (PT) and Distal Tibia (DT) would
decrease stiffness and increase prosthesis range of motion where
flexibility is needed. In addition, displacement and prosthetic energy
storage increased without compromising mechanical efficiency and
prosthetic design integrity.
Preliminary Dosimetric Evaluation of a New Therapeutic 177Lu Complex for Human Based on Biodistribution Data in Rats
Abstract—[Tris (1,10-phenanthroline) lanthanum(III)]
trithiocyanate is a new compound that has shown high ability for
stopping the synthesis of DNA and also acting as a photosensitizer.
Nowadays, the radiation dose assessment resource (RADAR) method
is known as the most common method for absorbed dose calculation.
177Lu was produced by (n, gamma) reaction in a research reactor.
177Lu-PL3 was prepared in the optimized condition. The
radiochemical yield was checked by ITLC method. The
biodistribution of the complex was investigated by intravenously
injection to wild-type rats via their tail veins. In this study, the
absorbed dose of 177Lu-PL3 to human organs was estimated by
RADAR method. 177Lu was prepared with a specific activity of 2.6-3
GBq.mg-1 and radionuclide purity of 99.98 %. Final preparation of
the radiolabelled complex showed high radiochemical purity of >
99%. The results show that liver and spleen have received the highest
absorbed dose of 1.051 and 0.441 mSv/MBq, respectively. The
absorbed dose values for these two dose-limiting tissues suggest
more biological studies special in tumor-bearing animals.
Geochemistry of Natural Radionuclides Associated with Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) in a Coal Mining Area in Southern Brazil
Coal is an important non-renewable energy source of
and can be associated with radioactive elements. In Figueira city,
Paraná state, Brazil, it was recorded high uranium activity near the
coal mine that supplies a local thermoelectric power plant. In this
context, the radon activity (Rn-222, produced by the Ra-226 decay in
the U-238 natural series) was evaluated in groundwater, river water
and effluents produced from the acid mine drainage in the coal reject
dumps. The samples were collected in August 2013 and in February
2014 and analyzed at LABIDRO (Laboratory of Isotope and
Hydrochemistry), UNESP, Rio Claro city, Brazil, using an alpha
spectrometer (AlphaGuard) adjusted to evaluate the mean radon
activity concentration in five cycles of 10 minutes. No radon activity
concentration above 100 Bq.L-1, which was a previous critic value
established by the World Health Organization. The average radon
activity concentration in groundwater was higher than in surface
water and in effluent samples, possibly due to the accumulation of
uranium and radium in the aquifer layers that favors the radon
trapping. The lower value in the river waters can indicate dilution and
the intermediate value in the effluents may indicate radon absorption
in the coal particles of the reject dumps. The results also indicate that
the radon activities in the effluents increase with the sample
acidification, possibly due to the higher radium leaching and the
subsequent radon transport to the drainage flow. The water samples
of Laranjinha River and Ribeirão das Pedras stream, which,
respectively, supply Figueira city and receive the mining effluent,
exhibited higher pH values upstream the mine, reflecting the acid
mine drainage discharge. The radionuclides transport indicates the
importance of monitoring their activity concentration in natural
waters due to the risks that the radioactivity can represent to human
Radionuclides Transport Phenomena in Vadose Zone
Radioactive waste management is fundamental to safeguard population and environment by radiological risks. Environmental assessment of a site, where nuclear activities are located, allows understanding the hydro geological system and the radionuclides transport in groundwater and subsoil. Use of dedicated software is the basis of transport phenomena investigation and for dynamic scenarios prediction; this permits to understand the evolution of accidental contamination events, but at the same time the potentiality of the software itself can be verified. The aim of this paper is to perform a numerical analysis by means of HYDRUS 1D code, so as to evaluate radionuclides transport in a nuclear site in Piedmont region (Italy). In particular, the behavior in vadose zone was investigated. An iterative assessment process was performed for risk assessment of radioactive contamination. The analysis therein developed considers the following aspects: i) hydro geological site characterization; ii) individuation of the main intrinsic and external site factors influencing water flow and radionuclides transport phenomena; iii) software potential for radionuclides leakage simulation purposes.
Regulation of Transfer of 137cs by Polymeric Sorbents for Grow Ecologically Sound Biomass
Soil contamination with radiocesium has a long-term radiological impact due to its long physical half-life (30.1 years for 137Cs and 2 years for 134Cs) and its high biological availability. 137Cs causes the largest concerns because of its deleterious effect on agriculture and stock farming, and, thus, human life for decades. One of the important aspects of the problem of contaminated soils remediation is understand of protective actions aimed at the reduction of biological migration of radionuclides in soil-plant system. The most effective way to bind radionuclides is the use of selective sorbents. The proposed research mainly aims to achieve control on transfer of 137Cs in a system growing media – plant due to counter ions variation in the polymeric sorbents. As research object Japanese basil - Perilla frutescens was chosen. Productivity of plants depending on the presence (control-without presence of polymer) and type of polymer material, as well as content of 137Cs in plant material has been determined. The character of different polymers influences on the 137Cs migration in growing media – plant system as well as accumulation in the plants has been cleared up.
Restriction of Iodine Release under Severe Accident Conditions at NPP MIR.1200
Iodine radionuclides in accident releases under severe
accident conditions at NPP with VVER are the most radiationimportant
with a view to population dose generation at the beginning
of the accident. To decrease radiation consequences of severe
accidents the technical solutions for severe accidents management
have been proposed in MIR.1200 project, with consideration of the
measures for suppression of volatile iodine forms generation in the
containment. Behavior dynamics of different iodine forms in the
containment under severe accident conditions has been analyzed for
the purpose of these technical solutions justification.
Cultivation of Thymus by In Vitro And Hydroponics Combined Method
Our results showed that for the growth of qualitative
seedling and vegetative raw material of ðó. marschallianus Willd. and
T. serphyllum L. it is more profitable to use the in vitro and
hydroponics combined method. In in vitro culture it is possible to do
micro-propagation whole year with 98-99% rhizogenesis. 30000
micro-plants were obtained from one explant during 9 months.
Hydroponic conditions provide the necessary microclimate for
microplants where the survival rate without acclimatization was
93.3%. The essential oil content in hydroponic dry herb of both
species in vegetative and blossom phase was 1.3% whereas in wild
plants it was 1.2%, the content of extractive substances and vitamin
C also exceeded wild plants. Our biochemical and radiochemical
investigations indicated that the medicinal raw materials obtained
from hydroponic and wild plants of Thymus species correspond to
the demands of SPh XI, and the content of artificial radionuclides
does not exceed the MACL.
Determination of the Specific Activity of Soil and Fertilizers in Sergipe - Brazil
Measurements of radioactivity in the environment is of great importance to monitor and control the levels of radiation to which man is exposed directly or indirectly. It is necessary to show that regardless of working or being close to nuclear power plants, people are daily in contact with some amount of radiation from the actual environment and food that are ingested, contradicting the view of most of them. The aim of this study was to analyze the rate of natural and artificial radiation from radionuclides present in cement, soil and fertilizers used in Sergipe State – Brazil. The radionuclide activitiesmeasured all samples arebelow the Brazilian limit of the exclusion and exemption criteria from the requirement of radiation protection.It was detected Be-7 in organic fertilizers that means a short interval between the brewing processes for use in agriculture. It was also detected an unexpected Cs-137 in some samples; however its activities does not represent risk for the population. Th-231 was also found in samples of soil and cement in the state of Sergipe that is an unprecedented result.
Dose due the Incorporation of Radionuclides Using Teeth as Bioindicators nearby Caetité Uranium Mines
Uranium mining and processing in Brazil occur in a
northeastern area near to Caetité-BA. Several Non-Governmental
Organizations claim that uranium mining in this region is a pollutant
causing health risks to the local population,but those in charge of the
complex extraction and production of“yellow cake" for generating
fuel to the nuclear power plants reject these allegations. This study
aimed at identifying potential problems caused by mining to the
population of Caetité. In this, work,the concentrations of 238U, 232Th
and 40K radioisotopes in the teeth of the Caetité population were
determined by ICP-MS. Teeth are used as bioindicators of
incorporated radionuclides. Cumulative radiation doses in the
skeleton were also determined. The concentration values were below
0.008 ppm, and annual effective dose due to radioisotopes are below
to the reference values. Therefore, it is not possible to state that the
mining process in Caetité increases pollution or radiation exposure in
a meaningful way.
Migration and Accumulation of Artificial Radionuclides in the System Water-Soil-Plants Depending on Polymers Applying
The possibility of radionuclides-related contamination
of lands at agricultural holdings defines the necessity to apply special
protective measures in plant growing. The aim of researches is to
elucidate the influence of polymers applying on biological migration
of man-made anthropogenic radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs in the
system water - soil – plant. The tests are being carried out under field
conditions with and without application of polymers in root-inhabited
media in more radioecological tension zone (with the radius of 7 km
from the Armenian Nuclear Power Plant). The polymers on the base
of K+, Caµ, KµCaµ ions were tested. Productivity of pepper
depending on the presence and type of polymer material, content of
artificial radionuclides in waters, soil and plant material has been
determined. The character of different polymers influence on the
artificial radionuclides migration and accumulation in the system
water-soil-plant and accumulation in the plants has been cleared up.
Study of Peptide Fragment of Alpha-Fetoprotein as a Radionuclide Vehicle
Alpfa-fetoprotein and its fragments may be an important vehicle for targeted delivery of radionuclides to the tumor. We investigated the effect of conditions on the labeling of biologically active synthetic peptide based on the (F-afp) with technetium-99m. The influence of the nature of the buffer solution, pH, concentration of reductant, concentration of the peptide and the reaction temperature on the yield of labeling was examined. As a result, the following optimal conditions for labeling of (F-afp) are found: pH 8.5 (phosphate and bicarbonate buffers) and pH from 1.7 to 7.0 (citrate buffer). The reaction proceeds with sufficient yield at room temperature for 30 min at the concentration of SnCl2 and (Fafp) (F-afp) is to be less than 10 mkg/ml and 25 mkg/ml, respectively. Investigations of the test drug accumulation in the tumor cells of human breast cancer were carried out. Results can be assumed that the in vivo study of the (F-afp) in experimental tumor lesions will show concentrations sufficient for imaging these lesions by SPECT.
The Sequestration of Heavy Metals Contaminating the Wonderfonteinspruit Catchment Area using Natural Zeolite
For more than 120 years, gold mining formed the
backbone the South Africa-s economy. The consequence of mine
closure was observed in large-scale land degradation and widespread
pollution of surface water and groundwater. This paper investigates
the feasibility of using natural zeolite in removing heavy metals
contaminating the Wonderfonteinspruit Catchment Area (WCA), a
water stream with high levels of heavy metals and radionuclide
pollution. Batch experiments were conducted to study the adsorption
behavior of natural zeolite with respect to Fe2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+.
The data was analysed using the Langmuir and Freudlich isotherms.
Langmuir was found to correlate the adsorption of Fe2+, Mn2+, Ni2+,
and Zn2+ better, with the adsorption capacity of 11.9 mg/g, 1.2 mg/g,
1.3 mg/g, and 14.7 mg/g, respectively. Two kinetic models namely,
pseudo-first order and pseudo second order were also tested to fit the
data. Pseudo-second order equation was found to be the best fit for
the adsorption of heavy metals by natural zeolite. Zeolite
functionalization with humic acid increased its uptake ability.
Production of As Isotopes in the Interaction of natGe with 14-30 MeV Protons
Cross sections of As radionuclides in the interaction of natGe with 14-30 MeV protons have been deduced by off-line y-ray spectroscopy to find optimal reaction channels leading to radiotracers for positron emission tomography. The experimental results were compared with the previous results and those estimated by the compound nucleus reaction model.