International Science Index
The Effect of Ultrasound on Permeation Flux and Changes in Blocking Mechanisms during Dead-End Microfiltration of Carrot Juice
Carrot juice is one of the most nutritious foods that are consumed around the world. Large particles in carrot juice causing turbid appearance make some problems in the concentration process such as off-flavor due to the large particles burnt on the walls of evaporators. Microfiltration (MF) is a pressure driven membrane separation method that can clarify fruit juices without enzymatic treatment. Fouling is the main problem in the membrane process causing reduction of permeate flux. Ultrasound as a cleaning technique was applied at 20 kHz to reduce fouling in membrane clarification of carrot juice using dead-end MF system with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. Results showed that application of ultrasound waves reduce diphasic characteristic of carrot juice and permeate flux increased. Evaluation of different membrane fouling mechanisms showed that application of ultrasound waves changed creation time of each fouling mechanism. Also, its behavior was changed with varying transmembrane pressure.
Improving Gas Separation Performance of Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) Based Membranes Containing Ionic Liquid
Polymer based membranes are one of the low-cost technologies available for the gas separation. Three major elements required for a commercial gas separating membrane are high permeability, high selectivity, and good mechanical strength. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is a commercially available fluoropolymer and a widely used membrane material in gas separation devices since it possesses remarkable thermal, chemical stability, and excellent mechanical strength. The PVDF membrane was chemically modified by soaking in different ionic liquids and dried. The thermal behavior of modified membranes was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetry (TGA), and the results clearly show the best affinity between the ionic liquid and the polymer support. The porous structure of the PVDF membranes was clearly seen in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The CO₂ permeability of blended membranes was explored in comparison with the unmodified matrix. The ionic liquid immobilized in the hydrophobic PVDF support exhibited good performance for separations of CO₂/N₂. The improved permeability of modified membrane (PVDF-IL) is attributed to the high concentration of nitrogen rich imidazolium moieties.
Radiation Effects in the PVDF/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites
Exposure to ionizing radiation has been found to induce changes in poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) homopolymers. The high dose gamma irradiation process induces the formation of C=C and C=O bonds in its [CH2-CF2]n main chain. The irradiation also provokes crosslinking and chain scission. All these radio-induced defects lead to changes in the PVDF crystalline structure. As a consequence, it is common to observe a decrease in the melting temperature (TM) and melting latent heat (LM) and some changes in its ferroelectric features. We have investigated the possibility of preparing nanocomposites of PVDF with graphene oxide (GO) through the radio-induction of molecular bonds. In this work, we discuss how the gamma radiation interacts with the nanocomposite crystalline structure.
Paper-Based Colorimetric Sensor Utilizing Peroxidase-Mimicking Magnetic Nanoparticles Conjugated with Aptamers
We developed a paper-based colorimetric sensor utilizing magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with aptamers (MNP-Apts) against E. coli O157:H7. The MNP-Apts were applied to a test sample solution containing the target cells, and the solution was simply dropped onto PVDF (polyvinylidene difluoride) membrane. The membrane moves the sample radially to form the sample spots of different compounds as concentric rings, thus the MNP-Apts on the membrane enabled specific recognition of the target cells through a color ring generation by MNP-promoted colorimetric reaction of TMB (3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine) and H2O2. This method could be applied to rapidly and visually detect various bacterial pathogens in less than 1 h without cell culturing.
Design of a Pulse Generator Based on a Programmable System-on-Chip (PSoC) for Ultrasonic Applications
This paper describes the design of a pulse generator based on the Programmable System-on-Chip (PSoC) module. In this module, using programmable logic is possible to implement different pulses which are required for ultrasonic applications, either in a single channel or multiple channels. This module can operate with programmable frequencies from 3-74 MHz; its programming may be versatile covering a wide range of ultrasonic applications. It is ideal for low-power ultrasonic applications where PZT or PVDF transducers are used.
Preliminary Studies of MWCNT/PVDF Polymer Composites
The combination of multi–walled carbon nanotubes
(MWCNTs) with polymers offers an attractive route to reinforce the
macromolecular compounds as well as the introduction of new
properties based on morphological modifications or electronic
interactions between the two constituents. As they are only a few
nanometers in dimension, it offers ultra-large interfacial area per
volume between the nano-element and polymer matrix. Nevertheless,
the use of MWCNTs as a rough material in different applications has
been largely limited by their poor processability, insolubility, and
infusibility. Studies concerning the nanofiller reinforced polymer
composites are justified in an attempt to overcome these limitations.
This work presents one preliminary study of MWCNTs dispersion
into the PVDF homopolymer. For preparation, the composite
components were diluted in n,n-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) with
mechanical agitation assistance. After complete dilution, followed by
slow evaporation of the solvent at 60°C, the samples were dried.
Films of about 80 μm were obtained. FTIR and UV-Vis
spectroscopic techniques were used to characterize the
nanocomposites. The appearance of absorption bands in the FTIR
spectra of nanofilled samples, when compared to the spectrum of
pristine PVDF samples, are discussed and compared with the UV-Vis
Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Crystalline Structure of Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride)
The irradiation of polymeric materials has received
much attention because it can produce diverse changes in chemical
structure and physical properties. Thus, studying the chemical and
structural changes of polymers is important in practice to achieve
optimal conditions for the modification of polymers. The effect of
gamma irradiation on the crystalline structure of poly(vinylidene
fluoride) (PVDF) has been investigated using differential scanning
calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction techniques (XRD). Gamma
irradiation was carried out in atmosphere air with doses between 100
kGy at 3,000 kGy with a Co-60 source. In the melting thermogram of
the samples irradiated can be seen a bimodal melting endotherm is
detected with two melting temperature. The lower melting
temperature is attributed to melting of crystals originally present and
the higher melting peak due to melting of crystals reorganized upon
heat treatment. These results are consistent with those obtained by
XRD technique showing increasing crystallinity with increasing
irradiation dose, although the melting latent heat is decreasing.
Characterization of Gamma Irradiated PVDF and PVDF/Graphene Oxide Composites by Spectroscopic Techniques
The combination of the properties of graphene oxide
(OG) and PVDF homopolymer makes their combined composite
materials as multifunctional systems with great potential. Knowledge
of the molecular structure is essential for better use. In this work, the
degradation of PVDF polymer exposed to gamma irradiation in
oxygen atmosphere in high dose rate has been studied and compared
to degradation of PVDF/OG composites. The samples were irradiated
with a Co-60 source at constant dose rate, with doses ranging from
100 kGy to 1,000 kGy. In FTIR data shown that the formation of
oxidation products was at the both samples with formation of
carbonyl and hydroxyl groups amongst the most prevalent products
in the pure PVDF samples. In the other hand, the composites samples
exhibit less presence of degradation products with predominant
formation of carbonyl groups, these results also seen in the UV-Vis
analysis. The results show that the samples of composites may have
greater resistance to the irradiation process, since they have less
degradation products than pure PVDF samples seen by spectroscopic
Static Study of Piezoelectric Bimorph Beams with Delamination Zone
The FOSDT (the First Order Shear Deformation
Theory) is taking into consideration to study the static behavior of a
bimorph beam, with a delamination zone between the upper and the
lower layer. The effect of limit conditions and lengths of the
delamination zone are presented in this paper, with a PVDF
piezoelectric material application. A FEM “Finite Element Method”
is used to discretize the beam. In the axial displacement, a
displacement field appears in the debonded zone with inverse effect
between the upper and the lower layer was observed.
Harvesting of Kinetic Energy of the Raindrops
This paper presents a methodology to harvest the kinetic energy of the raindrops using piezoelectric devices. In the study 1m×1m PVDF (Polyvinylidene fluoride) piezoelectric membrane, which is fixed by the four edges, is considered for the numerical simulation on deformation of the membrane due to the impact of the raindrops. Then according to the drop size of the rain, the simulation is performed classifying the rainfall types into three categories as light stratiform rain, moderate stratiform rain and heavy thundershower. The impact force of the raindrop is dependent on the terminal velocity of the raindrop, which is a function of raindrop diameter. The results were then analyzed to calculate the harvestable energy from the deformation of the piezoelectric membrane.
Selective and Facilitated Transport of Vanadium (VO2 +) Ion through Supported Liquid Membrane and Effects of Membrane Characteristics
A new supported liquid membrane (SLM) system for
the selective transport of VO2
+ ions was prepared in this present
work. The SLM was a thin porous polyvinylidene difluoride
(PVDF) membrane soaked with Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid
(D2EHPA) as mobile carrier in Xylene as organic solvent.
D2EHPA acts as a highly selective carrier for the uphill transport of
+ ions through the SLM. The transport of VO2
+ ions reached to
64%. In the presence of P2O7-2 ion as suitable masking agent in the
feed solution, the interfering effects of other cations were eliminated.
Design, Modeling and Fabrication of a Tactile Sensor and Display System for Application in Laparoscopic Surgery
One of the major disadvantages of the minimally
invasive surgery (MIS) is the lack of tactile feedback to the surgeon.
In order to identify and avoid any damage to the grasped complex
tissue by endoscopic graspers, it is important to measure the local
softness of tissue during MIS. One way to display the measured
softness to the surgeon is a graphical method. In this paper, a new
tactile sensor has been reported. The tactile sensor consists of an
array of four softness sensors, which are integrated into the jaws of a
modified commercial endoscopic grasper. Each individual softness
sensor consists of two piezoelectric polymer Polyvinylidene Fluoride
(PVDF) films, which are positioned below a rigid and a compliant
cylinder. The compliant cylinder is fabricated using a micro molding
technique. The combination of output voltages from PVDF films is
used to determine the softness of the grasped object. The theoretical
analysis of the sensor is also presented.
A method has been developed with the aim of reproducing the
tactile softness to the surgeon by using a graphical method. In this
approach, the proposed system, including the interfacing and the data
acquisition card, receives signals from the array of softness sensors.
After the signals are processed, the tactile information is displayed
by means of a color coding method. It is shown that the degrees of
softness of the grasped objects/tissues can be visually differentiated
and displayed on a monitor.
Piezoelectric Transducer Modeling: with System Identification (SI) Method
System identification is the process of creating
models of dynamic process from input- output signals. The aim of
system identification can be identified as “ to find a model with
adjustable parameters and then to adjust them so that the predicted
output matches the measured output". This paper presents a method
of modeling and simulating with system identification to achieve the
maximum fitness for transformation function. First by using
optimized KLM equivalent circuit for PVDF piezoelectric transducer
and assuming different inputs including: sinuside, step and sum of
sinusides, get the outputs, then by using system identification
toolbox in MATLAB, we estimate the transformation function from
inputs and outputs resulted in last program. Then compare the fitness
of transformation function resulted from using ARX,OE(Output-
Error) and BJ(Box-Jenkins) models in system identification toolbox
and primary transformation function form KLM equivalent circuit.