International Science Index
Dynamic State Estimation with Optimal PMU and Conventional Measurements for Complete Observability
This paper presents a Generalized Binary Integer Linear Programming (GBILP) method for optimal allocation of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) and to generate Dynamic State Estimation (DSE) solution with complete observability. The GBILP method is formulated with Zero Injection Bus (ZIB) constraints to reduce the number of locations for placement of PMUs in the case of normal and single line contingency. The integration of PMU and conventional measurements is modeled in DSE process to estimate accurate states of the system. To estimate the dynamic behavior of the power system with proposed method, load change up to 40% considered at a bus in the power system network. The proposed DSE method is compared with traditional Weighted Least Squares (WLS) state estimation method in presence of load changes to show the impact of PMU measurements. MATLAB simulations are carried out on IEEE 14, 30, 57, and 118 bus systems to prove the validity of the proposed approach.
Beef Cattle Farmers Perception toward Urea Mineral Molasses Block
Urea Mineral Molasses Block is very important for beef cattle, because it can increase beef production. The purpose of this research was to know beef cattle farmers’ perception towards Urea Mineral Molasses Block (UMMB). This research was conducted in Gowa Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia in 2016. The population of this research were all beef cattle farmers. Sample was chosen through purposive sampling. Data were collected through observation and face to face with deep interview using questionnaire. Variables of perception consisted of relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, observability and triability. There were 10 questions. The answer for each question was scored by 1, 2, 3 which refer to disagree, agree enough, strongly agree. The data were analyzed descriptively using frequency distribution. The research revealed that beef cattle farmers’ perception towards UMMB was categorized as strongly agree.
Stochastic Control of Decentralized Singularly Perturbed Systems
Designing a controller for stochastic decentralized interconnected large scale systems usually involves a high degree of complexity and computation ability. Noise, observability, and controllability of all system states, connectivity, and channel bandwidth are other constraints to design procedures for distributed large scale systems. The quasi-steady state model investigated in this paper is a reduced order model of the original system using singular perturbation techniques. This paper results in an optimal control synthesis to design an observer based feedback controller by standard stochastic control theory techniques using Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) approach and Kalman filter design with less complexity and computation requirements. Numerical example is given at the end to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.
Selection of Wind Farms to Add Virtual Inertia Control to Assist the Power System Frequency Regulation
Due to the randomness and uncertainty of wind energy, modern power systems integrating large-scale wind generation will be significantly impacted in terms of system performance and technical challenges. System inertia with high wind penetration is decreasing when conventional thermal generators are gradually replaced by wind turbines, which do not naturally contribute to inertia response. The power imbalance caused by wind power or demand fluctuations leads to the instability of system frequency. Accordingly, the need to attach the supplementary virtual inertia control to wind farms (WFs) strongly arises. When multi-wind farms are connected to the grid simultaneously, the selection of which critical WFs to install the virtual inertia control is greatly important to enhance the stability of system frequency. By building the small signal model of wind power systems considering frequency regulation, the installation locations are identified by the geometric measures of the mode observability of WFs. In addition, this paper takes the impacts of grid topology and selection of feedback control signals into consideration. Finally, simulations are conducted on a multi-wind farms power system and the results demonstrate that the designed virtual inertia control method can effectively assist the frequency regulation.
Customer Adoption and Attitudes in Mobile Banking in Sri Lanka
This paper intends to identify and analyze customer adoption and attitudes towards mobile banking facilities. The study uses six perceived characteristics of innovation that can be used to form a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward an innovation, namely: Relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trailability, risk, and observability. Collected data were analyzed using Pearson Chi-Square test. The results showed that mobile bank users were predominantly males. There is a growing trend among young, educated customers towards converting to mobile banking in Sri Lanka. The research outcomes suggested that all the six factors are statistically highly significant in influencing mobile banking adoption and attitude formation towards mobile banking in Sri Lanka. The major reasons for adopting mobile banking services are the accessibility and availability of services regardless of time and place. Over the 75 percent of the respondents mentioned that savings in time and effort and low financial costs of conducting mobile banking were advantageous. Issue of security was found to be the most important factor that motivated consumer adoption and attitude formation towards mobile banking. Main barriers to mobile banking were the lack of technological skills, the traditional cash‐carry banking culture, and the lack of awareness and insufficient guidance to using mobile banking.
Optimal Placement of Phasor Measurement Units Using Gravitational Search Method
This paper presents a methodology using
Gravitational Search Algorithm for optimal placement of Phasor
Measurement Units (PMUs) in order to achieve complete
observability of the power system. The objective of proposed
algorithm is to minimize the total number of PMUs at the power
system buses, which in turn minimize installation cost of the PMUs.
In this algorithm, the searcher agents are collection of masses which
interact with each other using Newton’s laws of gravity and motion.
This new Gravitational Search Algorithm based method has been
applied to the IEEE 14-bus, IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 118-bus test
systems. Case studies reveal optimal number of PMUs with better
observability by proposed method.
On the Representation of Actuator Faults Diagnosis and Systems Invertibility
In this work, the main problem considered is the
detection and the isolation of the actuator fault. A new formulation of
the linear system is generated to obtain the conditions of the actuator
fault diagnosis. The proposed method is based on the representation
of the actuator as a subsystem connected with the process system in
cascade manner. The designed formulation is generated to obtain the
conditions of the actuator fault detection and isolation. Detectability
conditions are expressed in terms of the invertibility notions. An
example and a comparative analysis with the classic formulation
illustrate the performances of such approach for simple actuator fault
diagnosis by using the linear model of nuclear reactor.
An Anonymity-Based Secure On-Demand Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
Privacy and Security have emerged as an important research issue in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) due to its unique nature such as scarce of resources and absence of centralized authority. There are number of protocols have been proposed to provide privacy and security for data communication in an adverse environment, but those protocols are compromised in many ways by the attackers. The concept of anonymity (in terms of unlinkability and unobservability) and pseudonymity has been introduced in this paper to ensure privacy and security. In this paper, a Secure Onion Throat (SOT) protocol is proposed to provide complete anonymity in an adverse environment. The SOT protocol is designed based on the combination of group signature and onion routing with ID-based encryption for route discovery. The security analysis demonstrates the performance of SOT protocol against all categories of attacks. The simulation results ensure the necessity and importance of the proposed SOT protocol in achieving such anonymity.
Identifying the Kinematic Parameters of Hexapod Machine Tool
Hexapod Machine Tool (HMT) is a parallel robot
mostly based on Stewart platform. Identification of kinematic
parameters of HMT is an important step of calibration procedure. In
this paper an algorithm is presented for identifying the kinematic
parameters of HMT using inverse kinematics error model. Based on
this algorithm, the calibration procedure is simulated. Measurement
configurations with maximum observability are decided as the first
step of this algorithm for a robust calibration. The errors occurring in
various configurations are illustrated graphically. It has been shown
that the boundaries of the workspace should be searched for the
maximum observability of errors. The importance of using
configurations with sufficient observability in calibrating hexapod
machine tools is verified by trial calibration with two different
groups of randomly selected configurations. One group is selected to
have sufficient observability and the other is in disregard of the
observability criterion. Simulation results confirm the validity of the
proposed identification algorithm.
Measurement Scheme Improving for State Estimation Using Stochastic Tabu Search
This paper proposes the stochastic tabu search (STS)
for improving the measurement scheme for power system state
estimation. If the original measured scheme is not observable, the
additional measurements with minimum number of measurements are
added into the system by STS so that there is no critical measurement
pair. The random bit flipping and bit exchanging perturbations are
used for generating the neighborhood solutions in STS. The Pδ
observable concept is used to determine the network observability.
Test results of 10 bus, IEEE 14 and 30 bus systems are shown that
STS can improve the original measured scheme to be observable
without critical measurement pair. Moreover, the results of STS are
superior to deterministic tabu search (DTS) in terms of the best
COTT – A Testability Framework for Object-Oriented Software Testing
Testable software has two inherent properties – observability and controllability. Observability facilitates observation of internal behavior of software to required degree of detail. Controllability allows creation of difficult-to-achieve states prior to execution of various tests. In this paper, we describe COTT, a Controllability and Observability Testing Tool, to create testable object-oriented software. COTT provides a framework that helps the user to instrument object-oriented software to build the required controllability and observability. During testing, the tool facilitates creation of difficult-to-achieve states required for testing of difficultto- test conditions and observation of internal details of execution at unit, integration and system levels. The execution observations are logged in a test log file, which are used for post analysis and to generate test coverage reports.
A Self Adaptive Genetic Based Algorithm for the Identification and Elimination of Bad Data
The identification and elimination of bad
measurements is one of the basic functions of a robust state estimator
as bad data have the effect of corrupting the results of state
estimation according to the popular weighted least squares method.
However this is a difficult problem to handle especially when dealing
with multiple errors from the interactive conforming type. In this
paper, a self adaptive genetic based algorithm is proposed. The
algorithm utilizes the results of the classical linearized normal
residuals approach to tune the genetic operators thus instead of
making a randomized search throughout the whole search space it is
more likely to be a directed search thus the optimum solution is
obtained at very early stages(maximum of 5 generations). The
algorithm utilizes the accumulating databases of already computed
cases to reduce the computational burden to minimum. Tests are
conducted with reference to the standard IEEE test systems. Test
results are very promising.
Optimized Data Fusion in an Intelligent Integrated GPS/INS System Using Genetic Algorithm
Most integrated inertial navigation systems (INS) and
global positioning systems (GPS) have been implemented using the
Kalman filtering technique with its drawbacks related to the need for
predefined INS error model and observability of at least four
satellites. Most recently, a method using a hybrid-adaptive network
based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) has been proposed which is
trained during the availability of GPS signal to map the error
between the GPS and the INS. Then it will be used to predict the
error of the INS position components during GPS signal blockage.
This paper introduces a genetic optimization algorithm that is used to
update the ANFIS parameters with respect to the INS/GPS error
function used as the objective function to be minimized. The results
demonstrate the advantages of the genetically optimized ANFIS for
INS/GPS integration in comparison with conventional ANFIS
specially in the cases of satellites- outages. Coping with this problem
plays an important role in assessment of the fusion approach in land
A Critical Survey of Reusability Aspects for Component-Based Systems
The last decade has shown that object-oriented
concept by itself is not that powerful to cope with the rapidly
changing requirements of ongoing applications. Component-based
systems achieve flexibility by clearly separating the stable parts of
systems (i.e. the components) from the specification of their
composition. In order to realize the reuse of components effectively
in CBSD, it is required to measure the reusability of components.
However, due to the black-box nature of components where the
source code of these components are not available, it is difficult to
use conventional metrics in Component-based Development as these
metrics require analysis of source codes. In this paper, we survey
few existing component-based reusability metrics. These metrics
give a border view of component-s understandability, adaptability,
and portability. It also describes the analysis, in terms of quality
factors related to reusability, contained in an approach that aids
significantly in assessing existing components for reusability.