Laminar mixed Convection heat transfer of a nanofluid with prescribed constant heat flux on the inner wall of horizontal annular tube has been studied numerically based on two-phase mixture model in different Rayleigh Numbers and Azimuth angles. Effects of applying of different volume fractions of Al2O3 nanoparticles in water as a base fluid on hydrodynamic and thermal behaviors of the fluid flow such as axial velocity, secondary flow, temperature, heat transfer coefficient and friction coefficient at the inner and outer wall region, has been investigated. Conservation equations in elliptical form has been utilized and solved in three dimensions for a steady flow. It is observed that, there is a good agreement between results in this work and previously published experimental and numerical works on mixed convection in horizontal annulus. These particles cause to increase convection heat transfer coefficient of the fluid, meanwhile there is no considerable effect on friction coefficient.
Experiments have been performed to investigate the radiation effects on mixed convection heat transfer for thermally developing airflow in vertical ducts with two differentially heated isothermal walls and two adiabatic walls. The investigation covers the Reynolds number Re = 800 to Re = 2900, heat flux varied from 256 W/m2 to 863 W/m2, hot wall temperature ranges from 27°C to 100 °C, aspect ratios 1 & 0.5 and the emissivity of internal walls are 0.05 and 0.85. In the present study, combined flow visualization was conducted to observe the flow patterns. The effect of surface temperature along the walls was studied to investigate the local Nusselt number variation within the duct. The result shows that flow condition and radiation significantly affect the total Nusselt number and tends to reduce the buoyancy condition.
In this paper, Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is used to study laminar flow with mixed convection heat transfer inside a two-dimensional inclined lid-driven rectangular cavity with aspect ratio AR = 3. Bottom wall of the cavity is maintained at lower temperature than the top lid, and its vertical walls are assumed insulated. Top lid motion results in fluid motion inside the cavity. Inclination of the cavity causes horizontal and vertical components of velocity to be affected by buoyancy force. To include this effect, calculation procedure of macroscopic properties by LBM is changed and collision term of Boltzmann equation is modified. A computer program is developed to simulate this problem using BGK model of lattice Boltzmann method. The effects of the variations of Richardson number and inclination angle on the thermal and flow behavior of the fluid inside the cavity are investigated. The results are presented as velocity and temperature profiles, stream function contours and isotherms. It is concluded that LBM has good potential to simulate mixed convection heat transfer problems.