International Science Index
Modern Pedagogy Techniques for DC Motor Speed Control
Based on a survey conducted for second and third year students of the electrical engineering department at Maharishi Markandeshwar University, India, it was found that around 92% of students felt that it would be better to introduce a virtual environment for laboratory experiments. Hence, a need was felt to perform modern pedagogy techniques for students which consist of a virtual environment using MATLAB/Simulink. In this paper, a virtual environment for the speed control of a DC motor is performed using MATLAB/Simulink. The various speed control methods for the DC motor include the field resistance control method and armature voltage control method. The performance analysis of the DC motor is hence analyzed.
Computer-Aided Teaching of Transformers for Undergraduates
In the era of technological advancement, use of computer technology has become inevitable. Hence it has become the need of the hour to integrate software methods in engineering curriculum as a part to boost pedagogy techniques. Simulations software is a great help to graduates of disciplines such as electrical engineering. Since electrical engineering deals with high voltages and heavy instruments, extra care must be taken while operating with them. The viable solution would be to have appropriate control. The appropriate control could be well designed if engineers have knowledge of kind of waveforms associated with the system. Though these waveforms can be plotted manually, but it consumes a lot of time. Hence aid of simulation helps to understand steady state of system and resulting in better performance. In this paper computer, aided teaching of transformer is carried out using MATLAB/Simulink. The test carried out on a transformer includes open circuit test and short circuit respectively. The respective parameters of transformer are then calculated using the values obtained from open circuit and short circuit test respectively using Simulink.
Inter-Area Oscillation Monitoring in Maghrebian Power Grid Using Phasor Measurement Unit
In the inter-connected power systems, a phenomenon called inter-area oscillation may be caused by several defects. In this paper, a study of the Maghreb countries inter-area power networks oscillation has been investigated. The inter-area oscillation monitoring can be enhanced by integrating Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) technology installed in different places. The data provided by PMU and recorded by PDC will be used for the monitoring, analysis, and control purposes. The proposed approach has been validated by simulation using MATLAB/Simulink.
Rotor Side Speed Control Methods Using MATLAB/Simulink for Wound Induction Motor
In recent advancements in electric machine and drives, wound rotor motor is extensively used. The merit of using wound rotor induction motor is to control speed/torque characteristics by inserting external resistance. Wound rotor induction motor can be used in the cases such as (a) low inrush current, (b) load requiring high starting torque, (c) lower starting current is required, (d) loads having high inertia, and (e) gradual built up of torque. Examples include conveyers, cranes, pumps, elevators, and compressors. This paper includes speed control of wound induction motor using MATLAB/Simulink for rotor resistance and slip power recovery method. The characteristics of these speed control methods are hence analyzed.
Estimation of the Temperatures in an Asynchronous Machine Using Extended Kalman Filter
In order to monitor the thermal behavior of an
asynchronous machine with squirrel cage rotor, a 9th-order extended
Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm is implemented to estimate the
temperatures of the stator windings, the rotor cage and the stator
core. The state-space equations of EKF are established based on
the electrical, mechanical and the simplified thermal models of an
asynchronous machine. The asynchronous machine with simplified
thermal model in Dymola is compiled as DymolaBlock, a physical
model in MATLAB/Simulink. The coolant air temperature, three-phase
voltages and currents are exported from the physical model and are
processed by EKF estimator as inputs. Compared to the temperatures
exported from the physical model of the machine, three parts of
temperatures can be estimated quite accurately by the EKF estimator.
The online EKF estimator is independent from the machine control
algorithm and can work under any speed and load condition if the
stator current is nonzero current system.
Integration of Virtual Learning of Induction Machines for Undergraduates
In context of understanding problems faced by undergraduate students while carrying out laboratory experiments dealing with high voltages, it was found that most of the students are hesitant to work directly on machine. The reason is that error in the circuitry might lead to deterioration of machine and laboratory instruments. So, it has become inevitable to include modern pedagogic techniques for undergraduate students, which would help them to first carry out experiment in virtual system and then to work on live circuit. Further advantages include that students can try out their intuitive ideas and perform in virtual environment, hence leading to new research and innovations. In this paper, virtual environment used is of MATLAB/Simulink for three-phase induction machines. The performance analysis of three-phase induction machine is carried out using virtual environment which includes Direct Current (DC) Test, No-Load Test, and Block Rotor Test along with speed torque characteristics for different rotor resistances and input voltage, respectively. Further, this paper carries out computer aided teaching of basic Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) drive circuitry. Hence, this paper gave undergraduates a clearer view of experiments performed on virtual machine (No-Load test, Block Rotor test and DC test, respectively). After successful implementation of basic tests, VSI circuitry is implemented, and related harmonic distortion (THD) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of current and voltage waveform are studied.
Simulation of a Control System for an Adaptive Suspension System for Passenger Vehicles
In the process to cope with the challenges faced by the automobile industry in providing ride comfort, the electronics and control systems play a vital role. The control systems in an automobile monitor various parameters, controls the performances of the systems, thereby providing better handling characteristics. The automobile suspension system is one of the main systems that ensure the safety, stability and comfort of the passengers. The system is solely responsible for the isolation of the entire automobile from harmful road vibrations. Thus, integration of the control systems in the automobile suspension system would enhance its performance. The diverse road conditions of India demand the need of an efficient suspension system which can provide optimum ride comfort in all road conditions. For any passenger vehicle, the design of the suspension system plays a very important role in assuring the ride comfort and handling characteristics. In recent years, the air suspension system is preferred over the conventional suspension systems to ensure ride comfort. In this article, the ride comfort of the adaptive suspension system is compared with that of the passive suspension system. The schema is created in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The system is controlled by a proportional integral differential controller. Tuning of the controller was done with the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, since it suited the problem best. Ziegler-Nichols and Modified Ziegler-Nichols tuning methods were also tried and compared. Both the static responses and dynamic responses of the systems were calculated. Various random road profiles as per ISO 8608 standard are modelled in the MATLAB environment and their responses plotted. Open-loop and closed loop responses of the random roads, various bumps and pot holes are also plotted. The simulation results of the proposed design are compared with the available passive suspension system. The obtained results show that the proposed adaptive suspension system is efficient in controlling the maximum over shoot and the settling time of the system is reduced enormously.
Optimal Tuning of Linear Quadratic Regulator Controller Using a Particle Swarm Optimization for Two-Rotor Aerodynamical System
This paper presents an optimal state feedback controller based on Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) for a two-rotor aero-dynamical system (TRAS). TRAS is a highly nonlinear multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system with two degrees of freedom and cross coupling. There are two parameters that define the behavior of LQR controller: state weighting matrix and control weighting matrix. The two parameters influence the performance of LQR. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is proposed to optimally tune weighting matrices of LQR. The major concern of using LQR controller is to stabilize the TRAS by making the beam move quickly and accurately for tracking a trajectory or to reach a desired altitude. The simulation results were carried out in MATLAB/Simulink. The system is decoupled into two single-input single-output (SISO) systems. Comparing the performance of the optimized proportional, integral and derivative (PID) controller provided by INTECO, results depict that LQR controller gives a better performance in terms of both transient and steady state responses when PSO is performed.
Optimization of the Control Scheme for Human Extremity Exoskeleton
In order to design a suitable control scheme for human extremity exoskeleton, the interaction force control scheme with traditional PI controller was presented, and the simulation study of the electromechanical system of the human extremity exoskeleton was carried out by using a MATLAB/Simulink module. By analyzing the simulation calculation results, it was shown that the traditional PI controller is not very suitable for every movement speed of human body. So, at last the fuzzy self-adaptive PI controller was presented to solve this problem. Eventually, the superiority and feasibility of the fuzzy self-adaptive PI controller was proved by the simulation results and experimental results.
Modeling and Control of a 4DoF Robotic Assistive Device for Hand Rehabilitation
For those who have lost the ability to move their hand, going through repetitious motions with the assistance of a therapist is the main method of recovery. We have been developed a robotic assistive device to rehabilitate the hand motions in place of the traditional therapy. The developed assistive device (RAD-HR) is comprised of four degrees of freedom enabling basic movements, hand function, and assists in supporting the hand during rehabilitation. We used a nonlinear computed torque control technique to control the RAD-HR. The accuracy of the controller was evaluated in simulations (MATLAB/Simulink environment). To see the robustness of the controller external disturbance as modelling uncertainty (±10% of joint torques) were added in each joints.
Integration of Unified Power Flow Controller with Backup Energy Supply System for Enhancing Power System Stability
An electrical power system has some negative aspects such as flickering and deviations of voltage/power. This can be eliminated using energy storage devices that will provide a backup energy at the time of voltage/power deviations. Energy-storage devices get charging when system voltage/power is higher than reference value and discharging when system voltage/power is lower than reference value, it is acting as catalysts to provide energy boost. In this paper, a dynamic control of Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) integrated with superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is developed to improve the power quality, power oscillation damping, and dynamic voltage stability through the transmission line. UPFC inter-connected to SMES through an interface with DC-DC chopper. This inter-connected system is capable of injecting (absorbing) the real and reactive power into (from) the system at the beginning of stability problems. In this paper, the simulation results of UPFC integrated with SMES and UPFC integrated with fuel cells (FCs) are compared using MATLAB/Simulink software package.
Single Phase 13-Level D-STATCOM Inverter with Distributed System
The global energy consumption is increasing persistently and need for distributed power generation through renewable energy is essential. To meet the power requirements for consumers without any voltage fluctuations and losses, modeling and design of multilevel inverter with Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) capability is presented. The presented inverter is provided with 13-level cascaded H-bridge topology of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBTs) connected along with inbuilt Distributed Static Synchronous Compensators (DSTATCOM). The DSTATCOM device provides control of power factor stability at local feeder lines and the inverter eliminates Total Harmonic Distortion (THD). The 13-level inverter utilizes 52 switches of each H-bridge is fed with single DC sources separately and the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique is used for switching IGBTs. The control strategy implemented for inverter transmits active power to grid as well as it maintains power factor to be stable with achievement of steady state power transmission. Significant outcome of this project is improvement of output voltage quality with steady state power transmission with low THD. Simulation of inverter with DSTATCOM is performed using MATLAB/Simulink environment. The scaled prototype model of proposed inverter is built and its results were validated with simulated results.
Low Voltage Ride through Capability Techniques for DFIG-Based Wind Turbines
Due to the drastic increase of the wind turbines installed capacity; the grid codes are increasing the restrictions aiming to treat the wind turbines like other conventional sources sooner. In this paper, an intensive review has been presented for different techniques used to add low voltage ride through capability to Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) wind turbine. A system model with 1.5 MW DFIG wind turbine is constructed and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK to explore the effectiveness of the reviewed techniques.
Islanding Detection Techniques for Synchronous Distributed Generation
The issue of unintentional islanding detection of grid connected synchronous distributed generation (SDG) remains the most challenging task faced by the distributed generation (DG) industry as SDG is highly capable of prolonging an island. This paper gives an insight of anti-islanding detection techniques mainly applied for SDG. Different techniques conclude that it is challenging to point out a generic method for a distinct purpose as the application of particular practice depends on nature of the end use and system dependent elements. Also, the setup and operational cost affect the selection of anti-islanding technique to achieve minimal compromising between cost and system quality. A test bench is created in the MATLAB/Simulink® to demonstrate the results of a 33 kV system. The results are highly satisfactory and they are according to the current practices.
Dynamic Performance Analysis of Distribution/ Sub-Transmission Networks with High Penetration of PV Generation
More PV systems have been connected to the electrical network each year. As the number of PV systems increases, some issues affecting grid operations have been identified. This paper studied the impacts related to changes in solar irradiance on a distribution/sub-transmission network, considering variations due to moving clouds and daily cycles. Using MATLAB/Simulink software, a solar farm of 30 MWp was built and then implemented to a test network. From simulations, it has been determined that irradiance changes can have a significant impact on the grid by causing voltage fluctuations outside the allowable thresholds. This work discussed some local control strategies and grid reinforcements to mitigate the negative effects of the irradiance changes on the grid.
Modeling and Simulation Methods Using MATLAB/Simulink
This paper investigates the challenges involved in mathematical modeling of plant simulation models ensuring the performance of the plant models much closer to the real time physical model. The paper includes the analysis performed and investigation on different methods of modeling, design and development for plant model. Issues which impact the design time, model accuracy as real time model, tool dependence are analyzed. The real time hardware plant would be a combination of multiple physical models. It is more challenging to test the complete system with all possible test scenarios. There are possibilities of failure or damage of the system due to any unwanted test execution on real time.
Power Factor Correction Based on High Switching Frequency Resonant Power Converter
This paper presents Buck-Boost converter topology to maintain the input power factor by using the power factor stage control and regulation stage control. Suppose, if we are using the RL load the power factor will be reduced due to the presence of total harmonic distortion in the current wave. To improve the power factor the current waveform should follow the fundamental component of the voltage waveform. These can be achieved by using the high -frequency power converter. Based on the resonant circuit the converter is able to perform the function of Buck, Boost, and buck-boost converter. Here ,we have used Buck-Boost converter, because, the buck-boost converter has more advantages than the boost converter. Here the switching action of the power converter can take place by using the external zero comparator PFC stage control. The power converter consisting of the resonant circuit which is used to control the output voltage gain of the converter. The power converter is operated at a very high switching frequency in the range of 400KHz in order to overcome the switching losses of the power converter. Due to presence of high switching frequency, the power factor will improve. Therefore, the total harmonics distortion present in the current waveform has also reduced. These results has generated in the form of simulation by using MATLAB/SIMULINK software. Similar to the Buck and Boost converters, the operation of the Buck-Boost has best understood, in terms of the inductor's "reluctance" for allowing rapid change in current, which also reduces the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) in the input current waveform, which can improve the input Power factor, based on the type of load used.
Intelligent Maximum Power Point Tracking Using Fuzzy Logic for Solar Photovoltaic Systems Under Non-Uniform Irradiation Conditions
Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) has played a vital role to enhance the efficiency of solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation under varying atmospheric temperature and solar irradiation. However, it is hard to track the maximum power point using conventional linear controllers due to the natural inheritance of nonlinear I-V and P-V characteristics of solar PV systems. Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is suitable for nonlinear system control applications and eliminating oscillations, circuit complexities present in the conventional perturb and observation and incremental conductance methods respectively. Hence, in this paper, FLC is proposed for tracking exact MPPT of solar PV power generation system under varying solar irradiation conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed FLC-based MPPT controller is validated through simulation and analysis using MATLAB/Simulink.
Transient Stability Improvement in Multi-Machine System Using Power System Stabilizer (PSS) and Static Var Compensator (SVC)
Increasingly complex modern power systems require
stability, especially for transient and small disturbances. Transient
stability plays a major role in stability during fault and large
disturbance. This paper compares a power system stabilizer (PSS)
and static Var compensator (SVC) to improve damping oscillation
and enhance transient stability. The effectiveness of a PSS connected
to the exciter and/or governor in damping electromechanical
oscillations of isolated synchronous generator was tested. The SVC
device is a member of the shunt FACTS (flexible alternating current
transmission system) family, utilized in power transmission systems.
The designed model was tested with a multi-machine system
consisting of four machines six bus, using MATLAB/SIMULINK
software. The results obtained indicate that SVC solutions are better
Enhancement of the Performance of Al-Qatraneh 33-kV Transmission Line Using STATCOM: A Case Study
This paper presents a case study of using STATCOM to enhance the performance of Al-Qatraneh 33-kV transmission line. The location of the STATCOM was identified by maintaining minimum voltage drops at the 110 load nodes. The transmission line and the 110 load nodes have been modeled by MATLAB/Simulink. The suggested STATCOM and its location will increase the transmission capability of this transmission line and overcome the overload expected in the year 2020. The annual percentage loading rise has been considered as 14.35%. A graphical representation of the line-to-line voltages and the voltage drops at different load nodes is illustrated.
Model Predictive Control of Three Phase Inverter for PV Systems
This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC)
of a utility interactive three phase inverter (TPI) for a photovoltaic
(PV) system at commercial level. The proposed model uses phase
locked loop (PLL) to synchronize the TPI with the power electric
grid (PEG) and performs MPC control in a dq reference frame. TPI
model consists of a boost converter (BC), maximum power point
tracking (MPPT) control, and a three-leg voltage source inverter
(VSI). The operational model of VSI is used to synthesize the
sinusoidal current and track the reference. The model is validated
using a 35.7 kW PV system in Matlab/Simulink. Implementation
results show simplicity and accuracy, as well as reliability of the
A Group Setting of IED in Microgrid Protection Management System
There are a number of Distributed Generations (DGs)
installed in microgrid, which may have diverse path and direction of
power flow or fault current. The overcurrent protection scheme for the
traditional radial type distribution system will no longer meet the
needs of microgrid protection. Integrating the Intelligent Electronic
Device (IED) and a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
(SCADA) with IEC 61850 communication protocol, the paper
proposes a Microgrid Protection Management System (MPMS) to
protect power system from the fault. In the proposed method, the
MPMS performs logic programming of each IED to coordinate their
tripping sequence. The GOOSE message defined in IEC 61850 is used
as the transmission information medium among IEDs. Moreover, to
cope with the difference in fault current of microgrid between
grid-connected mode and islanded mode, the proposed MPMS applies
the group setting feature of IED to protect system and robust
adaptability. Once the microgrid topology varies, the MPMS will
recalculate the fault current and update the group setting of IED.
Provided there is a fault, IEDs will isolate the fault at once. Finally, the
Matlab/Simulink and Elipse Power Studio software are used to
simulate and demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.
Simulink Library for Reference Current Generation in Active DC Traction Substations
This paper is focused on the reference current
calculation in the compensation mode of the active DC traction
substations. The so-called p-q theory of the instantaneous reactive
power is used as theoretical foundation. The compensation goal of
total compensation is taken into consideration for the operation under
both sinusoidal and nonsinusoidal voltage conditions, through the
two objectives of unity power factor and perfect harmonic
cancelation. Four blocks of reference current generation implement
the conceived algorithms and they are included in a specific Simulink
library, which is useful in a DSP dSPACE-based platform working
under Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results validate the
correctness of the implementation and fulfillment of the
The Transient Reactive Power Regulation Capability of SVC for Large Scale WECS Connected to Distribution Networks
The recent interest in alternative and renewable
energy systems results in increased installed capacity ratio of such
systems in total energy production of the world. Specifically, Wind
Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) draw significant attention
among possible alternative energy options, recently. On the contrary
of the positive points of penetrating WECS in all over the world in
terms of environment protection, energy independence of the
countries, etc., there are significant problems to be solved for the grid
connection of large scale WECS. The reactive power regulation,
voltage variation suppression, etc. can be presented as major issues to
be considered in this regard. Thus, this paper evaluates the
application of a Static VAr Compensator (SVC) unit for the reactive
power regulation and operation continuity of WECS during a fault
condition. The system is modeled employing the IEEE 13 node test
system. Thus, it is possible to evaluate the system performance with
an overall grid simulation model close to real grid systems. The
overall simulation model is developed in
MATLAB/Simulink/SimPowerSystems® environments and the
obtained results effectively match the target of the provided study.
A Teaching Learning Based Optimization for Optimal Design of a Hybrid Energy System
This paper introduces a method to optimal design of a
hybrid Wind/Photovoltaic/Fuel cell generation system for a typical
domestic load that is not located near the electricity grid. In this
configuration the combination of a battery, an electrolyser, and a
hydrogen storage tank are used as the energy storage system. The aim
of this design is minimization of overall cost of generation scheme
over 20 years of operation. The Matlab/Simulink is applied for
choosing the appropriate structure and the optimization of system
sizing. A teaching learning based optimization is used to optimize the
cost function. An overall power management strategy is designed for
the proposed system to manage power flows among the different
energy sources and the storage unit in the system. The results have
been analyzed in terms of technical and economic. The simulation
results indicate that the proposed hybrid system would be a feasible
solution for stand-alone applications at remote locations.
SVC and DSTATCOM Comparison for Voltage Improvement in RDS Using ANFIS
This paper investigates the performance comparison of SVC (Static VAR Compensator) and DSTATCOM (Distribution Static Synchronous Compensator) to improve voltage stability in Radial Distribution System (RDS) which are efficient FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission System) devices that are capable of controlling the active and reactive power flows in a power system line by appropriately controlling parameters using ANFIS. Simulations are carried out in MATLAB/Simulink environment for the IEEE-4 bus system to test the ability of increasing load. It is found that these controllers significantly increase the margin of load in the power systems.
Tracking Performance Evaluation of Robust Back-Stepping Control Design for a Nonlinear Electrohydraulic Servo System
Electrohydraulic servo system have been used in industry in a wide number of applications. Its dynamics are highly nonlinear and also have large extent of model uncertainties and external disturbances. In this paper, a robust back-stepping control (RBSC) scheme is proposed to overcome the problem of disturbances and system uncertainties effectively and to improve the tracking performance of EHS systems. In order to implement the proposed control scheme, the system uncertainties in EHS systems are considered as total leakage coefficient and effective oil volume. In addition, in order to obtain the virtual controls for stabilizing system, the update rule for the system uncertainty term is induced by the Lyapunov control function (LCF). To verify the performance and robustness of the proposed control system, computer simulation of the proposed control system using Matlab/Simulink Software is executed. From the computer simulation, it was found that the RBSC system produces the desired tracking performance and has robustness to the disturbances and system uncertainties of EHS systems.
Tracking Performance Evaluation of Robust Back-Stepping Control Design for a Nonlinear Electrohydraulic Servo System
Electrohydraulic servo system have been used in
industry in a wide number of applications. Its dynamics are highly
nonlinear and also have large extent of model uncertainties and
external disturbances. In this paper, a robust back-stepping control
(RBSC) scheme is proposed to overcome the problem of disturbances
and system uncertainties effectively and to improve the tracking
performance of EHS systems. In order to implement the proposed
control scheme, the system uncertainties in EHS systems are
considered as total leakage coefficient and effective oil volume. In
addition, in order to obtain the virtual controls for stabilizing system,
the update rule for the system uncertainty term is induced by
the Lyapunov control function (LCF). To verify the performance and
robustness of the proposed control system, computer simulation of
the proposed control system using Matlab/Simulink Software
is executed. From the computer simulation, it was found that the
RBSC system produces the desired tracking performance and has
robustness to the disturbances and system uncertainties of EHS
Power Control of DFIG in WECS Using Backstipping and Sliding Mode Controller
This paper presents a power control for a Doubly Fed
Induction Generator (DFIG) using in Wind Energy Conversion
System (WECS) connected to the grid. The proposed control strategy
employs two nonlinear controllers, Backstipping (BSC) and slidingmode
controller (SMC) scheme to directly calculate the required
rotor control voltage so as to eliminate the instantaneous errors of
active and reactive powers. In this paper the advantages of BSC and
SMC are presented, the performance and robustness of this two
controller’s strategy are compared between them. First, we present a
model of wind turbine and DFIG machine, then a synthesis of the
controllers and their application in the DFIG power control.
Simulation results on a 1.5MW grid-connected DFIG system are
provided by MATLAB/Simulink.
Study of Two MPPTs for Photovoltaic Systems Using Controllers Based in Fuzzy Logic and Sliding Mode
In this study, we proposed two techniques to track the
maximum power point (MPPT) of a photovoltaic system. The first is
an intelligent control technique, and the second is robust used for
variable structure system. In fact the characteristics I-V and P–V of
the photovoltaic generator depends on the solar irradiance and
temperature. These climate changes cause the fluctuation of
maximum power point; a maximum power point tracking technique
(MPPT) is required to maximize the output power. For this we have
adopted a control by fuzzy logic (FLC) famous for its stability and
robustness. And a Siding Mode Control (SMC) widely used for
variable structure system. The system comprises a photovoltaic panel
(PV), a DC-DC converter, which is considered as an adaptation stage
between the PV and the load. The modelling and simulation of the
system is developed using MATLAB/Simulink. SMC technique
provides a good tracking speed in fast changing irradiation and when
the irradiation changes slowly or it is constant the panel power of
FLC technique presents a much smoother signal with less