International Science Index

16
10009033
Experimental Study of Tunable Layout Printed Fresnel Lens Structure Based on Dye Doped Liquid Crystal
Abstract:

In this article, we present a layout printing way for producing Fresnel zone on 1294-1b doped liquid crystal with Methyl-Red azo dye. We made a Fresnel zone mask with 25 zones and radius of 5 mm using lithography technique. With layout printing way, we recorded mask’s pattern on cell with λ=532 nm solid-state diode pump laser. By recording Fresnel zone pattern on cell and making Fresnel pattern on the surface of cell, odd and even zones, will form. The printed pattern, because of Azo dye’s photoisomerization, was permanent. Experimentally, we saw focal length tunability from 32 cm to 43 cm.

Paper Detail
13
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15
10008538
Development of Soft-Core System for Heart Rate and Oxygen Saturation
Abstract:

This paper is about the development of non-invasive heart rate and oxygen saturation in human blood using Altera NIOS II soft-core processor system. In today's world, monitoring oxygen saturation and heart rate is very important in hospitals to keep track of low oxygen levels in blood. We have designed an Embedded System On Peripheral Chip (SOPC) reconfigurable system by interfacing two LED’s of different wavelengths (660 nm/940 nm) with a single photo-detector to measure the absorptions of hemoglobin species at different wavelengths. The implementation of the interface with Finger Probe and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) was carried out using NIOS II soft-core system running on Altera NANO DE0 board having target as Cyclone IVE. This designed system is used to monitor oxygen saturation in blood and heart rate for different test subjects. The designed NIOS II processor based non-invasive heart rate and oxygen saturation was verified with another Operon Pulse oximeter for 50 measurements on 10 different subjects. It was found that the readings taken were very close to the Operon Pulse oximeter.

Paper Detail
134
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14
10007662
Residual Dipolar Couplings in NMR Spectroscopy Using Lanthanide Tags
Authors:
Abstract:

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is an indispensable technique used in structure determination of small and macromolecules to study their physical properties, elucidation of characteristic interactions, dynamics and thermodynamic processes. Quantum mechanics defines the theoretical description of NMR spectroscopy and treatment of the dynamics of nuclear spin systems. The phenomenon of residual dipolar coupling (RDCs) has become a routine tool for accurate structure determination by providing global orientation information of magnetic dipole-dipole interaction vectors within a common reference frame. This offers accessibility of distance-independent angular information and insights to local relaxation. The measurement of RDCs requires an anisotropic orientation medium for the molecules to partially align along the magnetic field. This can be achieved by introduction of liquid crystals or attaching a paramagnetic center. Although anisotropic paramagnetic tags continue to mark achievements in the biomolecular NMR of large proteins, its application in small organic molecules remains unspread. Here, we propose a strategy for the synthesis of a lanthanide tag and the measurement of RDCs in organic molecules using paramagnetic lanthanide complexes.

Paper Detail
210
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13
10005809
Hand Gesture Interpretation Using Sensing Glove Integrated with Machine Learning Algorithms
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a low cost design for a smart glove that can perform sign language recognition to assist the speech impaired people. Specifically, we have designed and developed an Assistive Hand Gesture Interpreter that recognizes hand movements relevant to the American Sign Language (ASL) and translates them into text for display on a Thin-Film-Transistor Liquid Crystal Display (TFT LCD) screen as well as synthetic speech. Linear Bayes Classifiers and Multilayer Neural Networks have been used to classify 11 feature vectors obtained from the sensors on the glove into one of the 27 ASL alphabets and a predefined gesture for space. Three types of features are used; bending using six bend sensors, orientation in three dimensions using accelerometers and contacts at vital points using contact sensors. To gauge the performance of the presented design, the training database was prepared using five volunteers. The accuracy of the current version on the prepared dataset was found to be up to 99.3% for target user. The solution combines electronics, e-textile technology, sensor technology, embedded system and machine learning techniques to build a low cost wearable glove that is scrupulous, elegant and portable.
Paper Detail
1214
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12
10004994
Phase Transition and Molecular Polarizability Studies in Liquid Crystalline Mixtures
Abstract:
In this work, two mixtures with equal concentrations of 1) 4ꞌ-(6-(4-(pentylamino) methyl)-3-hydroxyphenoxy) hexyloxy) biphenyl-4-carbonitrile+-4-((4-(hexyloxy) benzylidene) amino) phenyl 4-butoxy benzoate and 2) 4ꞌ - (6-(4-(hexylamino) methyl)-3-hydroxyphenoxy) hexyloxy) biphenyl-4-carbonitrile+-4-((4-(octyloxy) benzylidene) amino) phenyl 4-butoxy benzoate, have been prepared. The transition temperature and optical texture are observed by using thermal microscopy. Density and birefringence studies are carried out on the above liquid crystalline mixtures. Using density and refractive indices data, the molecular polarizabilities are evaluated by using well-known Vuks and Neugebauer models. The molecular polarizability is also evaluated theoretically by Lippincott δ function model. The results reveal that the polarizability values are same in both experimental and theoretical methods.
Paper Detail
446
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11
10004661
Equivalent Circuit Modelling of Active Reflectarray Antenna
Abstract:

This paper presents equivalent circuit modeling of active planar reflectors which can be used for the detailed analysis and characterization of reflector performance in terms of lumped components. Equivalent circuit representation has been proposed for PIN diodes and liquid crystal based active planar reflectors designed within X-band frequency range. A very close agreement has been demonstrated between equivalent circuit results, 3D EM simulated results as well as measured scattering parameter results. In the case of measured results, a maximum discrepancy of 1.05dB was observed in the reflection loss performance, which can be attributed to the losses occurred during measurement process.

Paper Detail
461
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10
10003429
Liquid Crystal Based Reconfigurable Reflectarray Antenna Design
Abstract:
This paper presents the design and analysis of Liquid Crystal (LC) based tunable reflectarray antenna with slot embedded patch element configurations within X-band frequency range. The slots are shown to modify the surface current distribution on the patch element of reflectarray which causes the resonant patch element to provide different resonant frequencies depending on the slot dimensions. The simulated results are supported and verified by waveguide scattering parameter measurements of different reflectarray unit cells. Different rectangular slots on patch element have been fabricated and a change in resonant frequency from 10.46GHz to 8.78GHz has been demonstrated as the width of the rectangular slot is varied from 0.2W to 0.6W. The rectangular slot in the center of the patch element has also been utilized for the frequency tunable reflectarray antenna design based on K-15 Nematic LC. For the active reflectarray antenna design, a frequency tunability of 1.2% from 10GHz to 9.88GHz has been demonstrated with a dynamic phase range of 103° provided by the measured scattering parameter results. Time consumed by liquid crystals for reconfiguration, which is one of the drawback of LC based design, has also been disused in this paper.
Paper Detail
743
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9
10000532
Pre-Analysis of Printed Circuit Boards Based On Multispectral Imaging for Vision Based Recognition of Electronics Waste
Abstract:

The increasing demand of gallium, indium and rare-earth elements for the production of electronics, e.g. solid state-lighting, photovoltaics, integrated circuits, and liquid crystal displays, will exceed the world-wide supply according to current forecasts. Recycling systems to reclaim these materials are not yet in place, which challenges the sustainability of these technologies. This paper proposes a multispectral imaging system as a basis for a vision based recognition system for valuable components of electronics waste. Multispectral images intend to enhance the contrast of images of printed circuit boards (single components, as well as labels) for further analysis, such as optical character recognition and entire printed circuit board recognition. The results show, that a higher contrast is achieved in the near infrared compared to ultraviolett and visible light.

Paper Detail
1776
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8
9999435
Design of Liquid Crystal Based Tunable Reflectarray Antenna Using Slot Embedded Patch Element Configurations
Abstract:

This paper presents the design and analysis of Liquid Crystal (LC) based tunable reflectarray antenna with different design configurations within X-band frequency range. The effect of LC volume used for unit cell element on frequency tunability and reflection loss performance has been investigated. Moreover different slot embedded patch element configurations have been proposed for LC based tunable reflectarray antenna design with enhanced performance. The detailed fabrication and measurement procedure for different LC based unit cells has been presented. The waveguide scattering parameter measured results demonstrated that by using the circular slot embedded patch elements, the frequency tunability and dynamic phase range can be increased from 180MHz to 200MHz and 120° to 124° respectively. Furthermore the circular slot embedded patch element can be designed at 10GHz resonant frequency with a patch volume of 2.71mm3 as compared to 3.47mm3 required for rectangular patch without slot.

Paper Detail
1650
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7
9999502
Design of Liquid Crystal Based Tunable Reflectarray Antenna Using Slot Embedded Patch Element Configurations
Abstract:

This paper presents the design and analysis of Liquid Crystal (LC) based tunable reflectarray antenna with different design configurations within X-band frequency range. The effect of LC volume used for unit cell element on frequency tunability and reflection loss performance has been investigated. Moreover different slot embedded patch element configurations have been proposed for LC based tunable reflectarray antenna design with enhanced performance. The detailed fabrication and measurement procedure for different LC based unit cells has been presented. The waveguide scattering parameter measured results demonstrated that by using the circular slot embedded patch elements, the frequency tunability and dynamic phase range can be increased from 180MHz to 200MHz and 120° to 124° respectively. Furthermore the circular slot embedded patch element can be designed at 10GHz resonant frequency with a patch volume of 2.71mm3 as compared to 3.47mm3 required for rectangular patch without slot.

Paper Detail
723
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6
9998765
Phase Diagram Including a Negative Pressure Region for a Thermotropic Liquid Crystal in a Metal Berthelot Tube
Authors:
Abstract:

Thermodynamic properties of liquids under negative pressures are interesting and important in fields of scienceand technology. Here, phase transitions of a thermotropic liquid crystal are investigatedin a range from positive to negative pressures with a metal Berthelot tube using a commercial pressure transducer.Two co-existinglines, namely crystal (Kr) –nematic (N), and isotropic liquid (I) - nematic (N) lines, weredrawn in a pressure - temperature plane. The I-N line was drawn to ca. -5 (MPa).

Paper Detail
1093
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5
8402
Memory Effects in Randomly Perturbed Nematic Liquid Crystals
Abstract:
We study the typical domain size and configuration character of a randomly perturbed system exhibiting continuous symmetry breaking. As a model system we use rod-like objects within a cubic lattice interacting via a Lebwohl–Lasher-type interaction. We describe their local direction with a headless unit director field. An example of such systems represents nematic LC or nanotubes. We further introduce impurities of concentration p, which impose the random anisotropy field-type disorder to directors. We study the domain-type pattern of molecules as a function of p, anchoring strength w between a neighboring director and impurity, temperature, history of samples. In simulations we quenched the directors either from the random or homogeneous initial configuration. Our results show that a history of system strongly influences: i) the average domain coherence length; and ii) the range of ordering in the system. In the random case the obtained order is always short ranged (SR). On the contrary, in the homogeneous case, SR is obtained only for strong enough anchoring and large enough concentration p. In other cases, the ordering is either of quasi long range (QLR) or of long range (LR). We further studied memory effects for the random initial configuration. With increasing external ordering field B either QLR or LR is realized.
Paper Detail
1010
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4
15374
Synthesis and Characterization of New Thermotropic Liquid Crystals Derived from 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde
Abstract:
A homologous series of aromatic esters, 4-nalkanoyloxybenzylidene- 4--bromoanilines, nABBA, consisting of two 1,4-disubstituted phenyl cores and a Schiff base central linkage was synthesized. All the members can be differed by the number of carbon atoms at terminal alkanoyloxy chain (CnH2n-1COO-, n = 2, 6, 18). The molecular structure of nABBA was confirmed with infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and electron-ionization mass (EI-MS) spectrometry. Mesomorphic properties were studied using differential scanning calorimetry and polarizing optical microscopy.
Paper Detail
1638
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3
7753
Voltage-Controllable Liquid Crystals Lens
Abstract:

This study investigates a voltage-controllable liquid crystals lens with a Fresnel zone electrode. When applying a proper voltage on the liquid crystal cell, a Fresnel-zone-distributed electric field is induced to direct liquid crystals aligned in a concentric structure. Owing to the concentrically aligned liquid crystals, a Fresnel lens is formed. We probe the Fresnel liquid crystal lens using a polarized incident beam with a wavelength of 632.8 nm, finding that the diffraction efficiency depends on the applying voltage. A remarkable diffraction efficiency of ~39.5 % is measured at the voltage of 0.9V. Additionally, a dual focus lens is fabricated by attaching a plane-convex lens to the Fresnel liquid crystals cell. The Fresnel LC lens and the dual focus lens may be applied for DVD/CD pick-up head, confocal microscopy system, or electrically-controlling optical systems.

Paper Detail
1568
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2
13319
Position Control of an AC Servo Motor Using VHDL and FPGA
Abstract:

In this paper, a new method of controlling position of AC Servomotor using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). FPGA controller is used to generate direction and the number of pulses required to rotate for a given angle. Pulses are sent as a square wave, the number of pulses determines the angle of rotation and frequency of square wave determines the speed of rotation. The proposed control scheme has been realized using XILINX FPGA SPARTAN XC3S400 and tested using MUMA012PIS model Alternating Current (AC) servomotor. Experimental results show that the position of the AC Servo motor can be controlled effectively. KeywordsAlternating Current (AC), Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), Liquid Crystal Display (LCD).

Paper Detail
3988
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1
6790
Simultaneous Determination of Reference Free-Stream Temperature and Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient
Abstract:
It is very important to determine reference temperature when convective temperature because it should be used to calculate the temperature potential. This paper deals with the development of a new method that can determine heat transfer coefficient and reference free stream temperature simultaneously, based on transient heat transfer experiments with using two narrow band thermo-tropic liquid crystals (TLC's). The method is validated through error analysis in terms of the random uncertainties in the measured temperatures. It is shown how the uncertainties in heat transfer coefficient and free stream temperature can be reduced. The general method described in this paper is applicable to many heat transfer models with unknown free stream temperature.
Paper Detail
953
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