The present paper deals with a numerical simulation of temperature field inside a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) components. The temperature distribution is investigated using a co-flow planar SOFC comprising the air and fuel channel and two-ceramic electrodes, anode and cathode, separated by a dense ceramic electrolyte. The Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is used for the numerical simulation of the physical problem. The effects of inlet temperature, anode thermal conductivity and current density on temperature distribution are discussed. It was found that temperature distribution is very sensitive to the inlet temperature and the current density.
Oil in water (O/W) emulsions are utilized extensively for cooling and lubricating cutting tools during parts machining. A robust Lattice Boltzmann (LBM) thermal-surfactants model, which provides a useful platform for exploring complex emulsions’ characteristics under variety of flow conditions, is used here for the study of the fluid behavior during conventional tools cooling. The transient thermal capabilities of the model are employed for simulating the effects of the flow conditions of O/W emulsions on the cooling of cutting tools. The model results show that the temperature outcome is slightly affected by reversing the direction of upper plate (workpiece). On the other hand, an important increase in effective viscosity is seen which supports better lubrication during the work.
Numerical studies were conducted using Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to study the natural convection in a square cavity in the presence of roughness. An algorithm based on a single relaxation time Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) model of Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) was developed. Roughness was introduced on both the hot and cold walls in the form of sinusoidal roughness elements. The study was conducted for a Newtonian fluid of Prandtl number (Pr) 1.0. The range of Ra number was explored from 10^3 to 10^6 in a laminar region. Thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of fluid was analyzed using a differentially heated square cavity with roughness elements present on both the hot and cold wall. Neumann boundary conditions were introduced on horizontal walls with vertical walls as isothermal. The roughness elements were at the same boundary condition as corresponding walls. Computational algorithm was validated against previous benchmark studies performed with different numerical methods, and a good agreement was found to exist. Results indicate that the maximum reduction in the average heat transfer was 16.66 percent at Ra number 10^5.
Numerical investigation of flow around a square cylinder are presented using the multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann methods at different Reynolds numbers. A detail analysis are given in terms of time-trace analysis of drag and lift coefficients, power spectra analysis of lift coefficient, vorticity contours visualizations, streamlines and phase diagrams. A number of physical quantities mean drag coefficient, drag coefficient, Strouhal number and root-mean-square values of drag and lift coefficients are calculated and compared with the well resolved experimental data and numerical results available in open literature. The Reynolds numbers affected the physical quantities.
Numerical calculations of flow around a square cylinder are presented using the multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method at Reynolds number 150. The effects of upstream locations, downstream locations and blockage are investigated systematically. A detail analysis are given in terms of time-trace analysis of drag and lift coefficients, power spectra analysis of lift coefficient, vorticity contours visualizations and phase diagrams. A number of physical quantities mean drag coefficient, drag coefficient, Strouhal number and root-mean-square values of drag and lift coefficients are calculated and compared with the well resolved experimental data and numerical results available in open literature. The results had shown that the upstream, downstream and height of the computational domain are at least 7.5, 37.5 and 12 diameters of the cylinder, respectively.
In this paper, the 1-D conduction-radiation problem is solved by the lattice Boltzmann method. The effects of various parameters such as the scattering albedo, the conduction–radiation parameter and the wall emissivity are studied. In order to check on the accuracy of the numerical technique employed for the solution of the considered problem, the present numerical code was validated with the published study. The found results are in good agreement with those published
A new algorithm based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is proposed as a potential solver for one-dimensional heat and mass transfer for isothermal carbonization of wood particles. To check the validity of this algorithm, the LBM results have been compared with the published data and a good agreement is obtained. Then, the model is used to study the effect of reactor temperature and particle size on the evolution of the local temperature and mass loss inside the wood particle.
The radiation effect within the solid anode, electrolyte, and cathode SOFC layers problem has been investigated in this paper. Energy equation is solved by the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The Rosseland method is used to model the radiative transfer in the electrodes. The Schuster-Schwarzschild method is used to model the radiative transfer in the electrolyte. Without radiative effect, the found results are in good agreement with those published. The obtained results show that the radiative effect can be neglected.
A numerical study based on the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is proposed to solve one, two and three dimensional heat and mass transfer for isothermal carbonization of thick wood particles. To check the validity of the proposed model, computational results have been compared with the published data and a good agreement is obtained. Then, the model is used to study the effect of reactor temperature and thermal boundary conditions, on the evolution of the local temperature and the mass distributions of the wood particle during carbonization
Thermal radiation plays a very important role in the heat transfer combination through the various components of the SOFC fuel cell operating at high temperatures. Lattice Boltzmann method is used for treating conduction-radiation heat transfer in the electrolyte. The thermal radiation heat transfer is coupled to the overall energy conservation equations through the divergence of the local radiative flux. The equation of energy in one dimension is numerically resolved by using the Lattice Boltzmann method. A computing program (FORTRAN) is developed locally for this purpose in order to obtain fields of temperature in every element of the cell. The parameters investigated are: functioning temperature, cell voltages and electrolyte thickness. The results show that the radiation effect increases with increasing the electrolyte thickness, also increases with increasing the functioning temperature and decreases with the increase of the voltage of the cell.
This paper examines the natural convection in a square enclosure filled with a water-Al2O3 nanofluid and is subjected to a magnetic field. The side walls of the cavity have spatially varying sinusoidal temperature distributions. The horizontal walls are adiabatic. Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is applied to solve the coupled equations of flow and temperature fields. This study has been carried out for the pertinent parameters in the following ranges: Rayleigh number of the base fluid, Ra=103 to 106, Hartmann number varied from Ha=0 to 90, phase deviation (γ=0, π/4, π/2, 3π/4 and π) and the solid volume fraction of the nanoparticles between Ø = 0 and 6%. The results show that the heat transfer rate increases with an increase of the Rayleigh number but it decreases with an increase of the Hartmann number. For γ=π/2 and Ra=105 the magnetic field augments the effect of nanoparticles. At Ha=0, the greatest effects of nanoparticles are obtained at γ = 0 and π/4 for Ra=104 and 105 respectively.
The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) with double populations is applied to solve the steady-state laminar natural convective heat transfer in a triangular cavity filled with water. The bottom wall is heated, the vertical wall is cooled, and the inclined wall is kept adiabatic. The buoyancy effect was modeled by applying the Boussinesq approximation to the momentum equation. The fluid velocity is determined by D2Q9 LBM and the energy equation is discritized by D2Q4 LBM to compute the temperature field. Comparisons with previously published work are performed and found to be in excellent agreement. Numerical results are obtained for a wide range of parameters: the Rayleigh number from to and the inclination angle from 0° to 360°. Flow and thermal fields were exhibited by means of streamlines and isotherms. It is observed that inclination angle can be used as a relevant parameter to control heat transfer in right-angled triangular enclosures.
A numerical investigation is performed for non Newtonian fluids flow between two concentric cylinders. The D2Q9 lattice Boltzmann model developed from the Bhatangar-Gross-Krook (LBGK) approximation is used to obtain the flow field for fluids obeying to the power-law model. The inner and outer cylinders rotate in the same and the opposite direction while the end walls are maintained at rest. The combined effects of the Reynolds number (Re) of the inner and outer cylinders, the radius ratio (η) as well as the power-law index (n) on the flow characteristics are analyzed for an annular space of a finite aspect ratio (Γ). Two flow modes are obtained: a primary mode (laminar stable regime) and a secondary mode (laminar unstable regime). The so obtained flow structures are different from one mode to another. The transition critical Reynolds number Rec from the primary to the secondary mode is analyzed for the co-courant and counter-courant flows. This critical value increases as n increases. The prediction of the swirling flow of non Newtonians fluids in axisymmetric geometries is shown in the present work.
The hydrodynamic and thermal lattice Boltzmann methods are applied to investigate the turbulent convective heat transfer in the wavy channel flows. In this study, the turbulent phenomena are modeling by large-eddy simulations with the Smagorinsky model. As a benchmark, the laminar and turbulent backward-facing step flows are simulated first. The results give good agreement with other numerical and experimental data. For wavy channel flows, the distribution of Nusselt number and the skin-friction coefficients are calculated to evaluate the heat transfer effect and the drag force. It indicates that the vortices at the trough would affect the magnitude of drag and weaken the heat convection effects on the wavy surface. In turbulent cases, if the amplitude of the wavy boundary is large enough, the secondary vortices would be generated at troughs and contribute to the heat convection. Finally, the effects of different Re on the turbulent transport phenomena are discussed.
Although water only takes a little percentage in the total mass of soil, it indeed plays an important role to the strength of structure. Moisture transfer can be carried out by many different mechanisms which may involve heat and mass transfer, thermodynamic phase change, and the interplay of various forces such as viscous, buoyancy, and capillary forces. The continuum models are not well suited for describing those phenomena in which the connectivity of the pore space or the fracture network, or that of a fluid phase, plays a major role. However, Lattice Boltzmann methods (LBMs) are especially well suited to simulate flows around complex geometries. Lattice Boltzmann methods were initially invented for solving fluid flows. Recently, fluid with multicomponent and phase change is also included in the equations. By comparing the numerical result with experimental result, the Lattice Boltzmann methods with phase change will be optimized.
In this manuscript, the LBM is applied for simulating of Mixed Convection in a Lid-Driven cavity with an open side. The cavity horizontal walls are insulated while the west Lid-driven wall is maintained at a uniform temperature higher than the ambient. Prandtl number (Pr) is fixed to 0.71 (air) while Reynolds number (Re) , Richardson number (Ri) and aspect ratio (A) of the cavity are changed in the range of 50-150 , of 0.1-10 and of 1-4 , respectively. The numerical code is validated for the standard square cavity, and then the results of an open ended cavity are presented. Result shows by increasing of aspect ratio, the average Nusselt number (Nu) on lid- driven wall decreases and with same Reynolds number (Re) by increasing of aspect ratio (A), Richardson number plays more important role in heat transfer rate.
In the present study, the lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is applied for simulating of Natural Convection in an inclined open ended cavity. The cavity horizontal walls are insulated while the west wall is maintained at a uniform temperature higher than the ambient. Prandtl number is fixed to 0.71 (air) while Rayligh numbers, aspect ratio of the cavity are changed in the range of 103 to 104 and of 1-4, respectively. The numerical code is validated for the previously results for open ended cavities, and then the results of an inclined open ended cavity for various angles of rotating open ended cavity are presented. Result shows by increasing of aspect ratio, the average Nusselt number on hot wall decreases for all rotation angles. When gravity acceleration direction is opposite of standard gravity direction the convection heat transfer has a manner same as conduction.
In this paper, Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is used to study laminar flow with mixed convection heat transfer inside a two-dimensional inclined lid-driven rectangular cavity with aspect ratio AR = 3. Bottom wall of the cavity is maintained at lower temperature than the top lid, and its vertical walls are assumed insulated. Top lid motion results in fluid motion inside the cavity. Inclination of the cavity causes horizontal and vertical components of velocity to be affected by buoyancy force. To include this effect, calculation procedure of macroscopic properties by LBM is changed and collision term of Boltzmann equation is modified. A computer program is developed to simulate this problem using BGK model of lattice Boltzmann method. The effects of the variations of Richardson number and inclination angle on the thermal and flow behavior of the fluid inside the cavity are investigated. The results are presented as velocity and temperature profiles, stream function contours and isotherms. It is concluded that LBM has good potential to simulate mixed convection heat transfer problems.
In this paper, fluid flow patterns of steady incompressible flow inside shear driven cavity are studied. The numerical simulations are conducted by using lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for different Reynolds numbers. In order to simulate the flow, derivation of macroscopic hydrodynamics equations from the continuous Boltzmann equation need to be performed. Then, the numerical results of shear-driven flow inside square and triangular cavity are compared with results found in literature review. Present study found that flow patterns are affected by the geometry of the cavity and the Reynolds numbers used.