International Science Index
Islam, Gender and Education in Contemporary Georgia: The Example of Kvemo Kartli
Religious minorities of Georgia include Muslims. Their composition is sufficiently miscellaneous, enclosing both ethnical viewpoint and belonging to the inner Islamic denomination. A majority of Muslims represent Azerbaijanis, who chiefly live in Kvemo Kartli (Bolnisi, Gardabani, Dmanisi, Tetri Tskaro, Marneuli and Tsalka). The catalyst for researchers of Islamic History is the geopolitical interests of Georgia, centuries-old contacts with the Islamic world, the not entirely trivial portion of Islam confessor population, the increasing influence of the Islamic factor in current religious-political processes in the world, the elevating procedure of Muslim religious self-consciousness in the Post-Soviet states, significant challenges of international terrorism, and perspectives of rapid globalization. The rise in the level of religious identity of Muslim citizens of Georgia (first of all of those who are not ethnic Georgians) is noticeable. New mosques have been constructed and, sometimes, even young people are being sent to the religious educational institutions of Muslim countries to gain a higher Islamic education. At a time when gender studies are substantive, the goal of which is to eliminate gender-based discrimination and violence in societies, it is essential in Georgia to conduct researches around the concrete problem – Islamic tradition, woman and education in Georgia. A woman’s right to education is an important indicator of women’s general status in a society. The appropriate resources, innovative analysis of Georgian ethnological materials, and surveying of the population (quantitative and qualitative research reports, working papers), condition the success of these researches. In the presented work, interrelation matters of Islam, gender and education in contemporary Georgia by the example of the Azerbaijani population in Kvemo Kartli during period 1992-2016 are studied. We researched the history of Muslim religious education centers in Tbilisi and Kvemo Kartli (Bolnisi, Gardabani, Dmanisi, Tetri Tskaro, Marneuli and Tsalka) in 1992-2016, on the one hand, and the results of sociological interrogation, on the other. As a result of our investigation, we found that Azeri women in the Kvemo Kartli (Georgia) region mostly receive their education in Georgia and Azerbaijan. Educational and Cultural Institutions are inaccessible for most Azeri women. The main reasons are the absence of educational and religious institutions at their places of residence and state policies towards Georgia’s Muslims.
Great Powers’ Proxy Wars in Middle East and Difficulty in Transition from Cold War to Cold Peace
The developments in the Middle East region have activated the involvement of a numerous diverse state and non-state actors in the regional affairs. The goals, positions, ideologies, different, and even contrast policy behaviors had procured the spreading and continuity of crisis. Non-state actors varying from Islamic organizations to takfiri-terrorist movements on one hand and regional and trans- regional actors, from another side, seek to reach their interests in the power struggle. Here, a research worthy question comes on the agenda: taking into consideration actors’ contradictory interests and constraints what are the regional peace and stability perspectives? Therein, different actors’ aims definition, their actions and behaviors, which affect instability, can be regarded as independent variables; whereas, on the contrary, Middle East peace and stability perspective analysis is a dependent variable. Though, this regional peace and war theory based research admits the significant influence of trans-regional actors, it asserts the roots of violence to derive from region itself. Consequently, hot war and conflict prevention and hot peace assurance in the Middle East region cannot be attained only by demands and approaches of trans-regional actors. Moreover, capacity of trans-regional actors is sufficient only for a cold war or cold peace to be reached in the region. Furthermore, within the framework of current conflict (struggle) between regional actors it seems to be difficult and even impossible to turn the cold war into a cold peace in the region.
Process Optimisation for Internal Cylindrical Rough Turning of Nickel Alloy 625 Weld Overlay
Nickel-based superalloys are generally known to be difficult to cut due to their strength, low thermal conductivity, and high work hardening tendency. Superalloy such as alloy 625 is often used in the oil and gas industry as a surfacing material to provide wear and corrosion resistance to components. The material is typically applied onto a metallic substrate through weld overlay cladding, an arc welding technique. Cladded surfaces are always rugged and carry a tough skin; this creates further difficulties to the machining process. The present work utilised design of experiment to optimise the internal cylindrical rough turning for weld overlay surfaces. An L27 orthogonal array was used to assess effects of the four selected key process variables: cutting insert, depth of cut, feed rate, and cutting speed. The optimal cutting conditions were determined based on productivity and the level of tool wear.
Flexural Properties of Halloysite Nanotubes-Polyester Nanocomposites Exposed to Aggressive Environment
This study aimed to investigate the effect of aggressive environment on the flexural properties of halloysite nanotubes-polyester nanocomposites. Results showed that the addition of halloysite nanotubes into polyester matrix was found to improve flexural properties of the nanocomposites in dry condition and after water-methanol exposure. Significant increase in surface roughness was also observed and measured by Alicona Infinite Focus optical microscope.
Molecular Characterization of Echinococcus granulosus through Amplification of 12S rRNA Gene and Cox1 Gene Fragments from Cattle in Chittagong, Bangladesh
The dog tapeworms Echinococcus granulosus develop hydatid cysts in various organs in human and domestic animals worldwide including Bangladesh. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the genotype of E. granulosus isolated from cattle using 12S rRNA and Cytochrome oxidase 1 (COX 1) genes. A total of 43 hydatid cyst samples were collected from 390 examined cattle samples derived from slaughterhouses. Among them, three cysts were fertile. Genomic DNA was extracted from germinal membrane and/or protoscoleces followed by PCR amplification of mitochondrial 12S rRNA and Cytochrome oxidase 1 gene fragments. The sequence data revealed existence of G1 (64.28%) and possible G3 (21.43%) genotypes for the first time in Bangladesh. The study indicates that common sheep strain G1 is the dominant subtype of E. granulosus in Chittagong region of Bangladesh. This will increase our understanding of the epidemiology of hydatidosis in the southern part of the country and will be useful to plan suitable control measures in the long run.
Influence of Vegetable Oil-Based Controlled Cutting Fluid Impinging Supply System on Micro Hardness in Machining of Ti-6Al-4V
A controlled cutting fluid impinging supply system (CUT-LIST) was developed to deliver an accurate amount of cutting fluid into the machining zone via well-positioned coherent nozzles based on a calculation of the heat generated. The performance of the CUT-LIST was evaluated against a conventional flood cutting fluid supply system during step shoulder milling of Ti-6Al-4V using vegetable oil-based cutting fluid. In this paper, the micro-hardness of the machined surface was used as the main criterion to compare the two systems. CUT-LIST provided significant reductions in cutting fluid consumption (up to 42%). Both systems caused increased micro-hardness value at 100 µm from the machined surface, whereas a slight reduction in micro-hardness of 4.5% was measured when using CUL-LIST. It was noted that the first 50 µm is the soft sub-surface promoted by thermal softening, whereas down to 100 µm is the hard sub-surface caused by the cyclic internal work hardening and then gradually decreased until it reached the base material nominal hardness. It can be concluded that the CUT-LIST has always given lower micro-hardness values near the machined surfaces in all conditions investigated.
The Impact of Cooperative Learning on Numerical Methods Course
Numerical Methods is a course that can be conducted using workshops and group discussion. This study has been implemented on undergraduate students of level two at the Faculty of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia. The Numerical Method course has been delivered to two Sections 1 and 2 with 44 and 22 students in each section, respectively. Systematic steps have been followed to apply the student centered learning approach in teaching Numerical Method course. Initially, the instructor has chosen the topic which was Euler’s Method to solve Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) to be learned. The students were then divided into groups with five members in each group. Initial instructions have been given to the group members to prepare their subtopics before meeting members from other groups to discuss the subtopics in an expert group inside the classroom. For the time assigned for the classroom discussion, the setting of the classroom was rearranged to accommodate the student centered learning approach. Teacher strength was by monitoring the process of learning inside and outside the class. The students have been assessed during the migrating to the expert groups, recording of a video explanation outside the classroom and during the final examination. Euler’s Method to solve the ODE was set as part of Question 3(b) in the final exam. It is observed that none of the students from both sections obtained a zero grade in Q3(b), compared to Q3(a) and Q3(c). Also, for Section 1(44 students), 29 students obtained the full mark of 7/7, while only 10 obtained 7/7 for Q3(a) and no students obtained 6/6 for Q3(c). Finally, we can recommend that the Numerical Method course be moved toward more student-centered Learning classrooms where the students will be engaged in group discussion rather than having a teacher one man show.
Risk Management in Islamic Banks: A Case Study of the Faisal Islamic Bank of Egypt
This paper discusses the risk management in Islamic banks and aims to determine the difference in the practices and methods of risk management in those banks compared to the conventional banks, and to make a case study of the biggest Islamic bank in Egypt (Faisal Islamic Bank of Egypt) to identify the most important financial risks faced and how to manage those risks. It was found that Islamic banks face two types of risks. The first type is similar to the risks in conventional banks; the second type is the additional risks which facing the Islamic banks only as a result of some Islamic modes of financing. With regard to the risk management, Islamic banks such as conventional banks applied the regulatory rules issued by the Central Banks and the Basel Committee; Islamic banks also applied the instructions and procedures issued by the Islamic Financial Services Board (IFSB). Also, Islamic banks are similar to the conventional banks in the practices and methods which they use to manage the risks. And there are some factors that may affect the risk management in Islamic banks, such as the size of the bank and the efficiency of the administration and the staff of the bank.
Development of Innovative Islamic Web Applications
The rich Islamic resources related to religious text,
Islamic sciences, and history are widely available in print and in
electronic format online. However, most of these works are only
available in Arabic language. In this research, an attempt is made
to utilize these resources to create interactive web applications in
Arabic, English and other languages. The system utilizes the Pattern
Recognition, Knowledge Management, Data Mining, Information
Retrieval and Management, Indexing, storage and data-analysis
techniques to parse, store, convert and manage the information from
authentic Arabic resources. These interactive web Apps provide
smart multi-lingual search, tree based search, on-demand information
matching and linking. In this paper, we provide details of application
architecture, design, implementation and technologies employed. We
also presented the summary of web applications already developed.
We have also included some screen shots from the corresponding web
sites. These web applications provide an Innovative On-line Learning
Systems (eLearning and computer based education).
The Relationship between Conceptual Organizational Culture and the Level of Tolerance in Employees
The aim of the present study is examining the relationship between conceptual organizational culture and the level of tolerance in employees of Islamic Azad University of Shahre Ghods. This research is a correlational and analytic-descriptive one. The samples included 144 individuals. A 24-item standard questionnaire of organizational culture by Cameron and Queen was used in this study. This questionnaire has six criteria and each criterion includes four items that each item indicates one cultural dimension. Reliability coefficient of this questionnaire was normed using Cronbach's alpha of 0.91. Also, the 25-item questionnaire of tolerance by Conor and Davidson was used. This questionnaire is in a five-degree Likert scale form. It has seven criteria and is designed to measure the power of coping with pressure and threat. It has the needed content reliability and its reliability coefficient is normed using Cronbach's alpha of 0.87. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariable regression. The results showed among various dimensions of organizational culture, there is a positive significant relationship between three dimensions (family, adhocracy, bureaucracy) and tolerance, there is a negative significant relationship between dimension of market and tolerance and components of organizational culture have the power of prediction and explaining the tolerance. In this explanation, the component of family is the most effective and the best predictor of tolerance.
West African Islamic Civilization: Sokoto Caliphate and Science Education
This study aims at surveying and analyzing the contribution of Sokoto scholars or Sokoto Caliphate in the development of science and technology in West Africa. Today, it is generally accepted that the 19th century Islamic revivalism in Hausaland was a very important revolution in the history of Hausa society and beyond. It is therefore, as a result of this movement or Jihad; the Hausaland (West Africa in general) witnessed several changes and transformations. These changes were in different sectors of life from politics, economy to social and religious aspect. It is these changes especially on religion that will be given considerations in this paper. The jihad resulted is the establishment of an Islamic state of Sokoto Caliphate, the revival Islam and development of learning and scholarship. During the existence of this Caliphate, a great deal of scholarship on Islamic laws were revived, written and documented by mostly, the three Jihad leaders; Usmanu Danfodiyo, his brother Abdullahi Fodiyo and his son Muhammad Bello. The trio had written more than one thousand books and made several verdicts on Islamic medicine. This study therefore, seeks to find out the contributions of these scholars or the Sokoto caliphate in the development of science in West Africa.
Promoting Gender Equality within Islamic Tradition via Contextualist Approach
The importance of advancing women’s rights is closely intertwined with the development of civil society and the institutionalization of democracy in Middle Eastern countries. There is indeed an intimate relationship between the process of democratization and promoting gender equality, since democracy necessitates equality between men and women. In order to advance the issue of gender equality, what is required is a solid theoretical framework which has its roots in the reexamination of pre-modern interpretation of certain Qurʾānic passages that seem to have given men more rights than it gives women. This paper suggests that those Muslim scholars who adopt a contextualist approach to the Qurʾānic text and its interpretation provide a solid theoretical background for improving women’s rights. Indeed, the aim of the paper is to discuss how the contextualist approach to the Qurʾānic text and its interpretation given by a number of prominent scholars is capable of promoting the issue of gender equality. The paper concludes that since (1) much of the gender inequality found in the primary sources of Islam as well as pre-modern Muslim writings is rooted in the natural cultural norms and standards of early Islamic societies and (2) since the context of today’s world is so different from that of the pre-modern era, the proposed models provide a solid theoretical framework for promoting women’s rights and gender equality.
Modeling and Control of a 4DoF Robotic Assistive Device for Hand Rehabilitation
For those who have lost the ability to move their hand, going through repetitious motions with the assistance of a therapist is the main method of recovery. We have been developed a robotic assistive device to rehabilitate the hand motions in place of the traditional therapy. The developed assistive device (RAD-HR) is comprised of four degrees of freedom enabling basic movements, hand function, and assists in supporting the hand during rehabilitation. We used a nonlinear computed torque control technique to control the RAD-HR. The accuracy of the controller was evaluated in simulations (MATLAB/Simulink environment). To see the robustness of the controller external disturbance as modelling uncertainty (±10% of joint torques) were added in each joints.
Effect of Weathering on the Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Sediments of the Hyper Saline Urmia Salt Lake, Iran
Urmia Salt Lake (USL) is a hypersaline lake in the northwest of Iran. It contains halite as main dissolved and precipitated mineral and the major mineral mixed with lake bed sediments. Other detrital minerals such as calcite, aragonite, dolomite, quartz, feldspars, augite are forming lake sediments. This study examined the impact of weathering of this sediments collected from 1.5 meters depth and augite placers. The study indicated that weathering of tephritic and adakite rocks of the Islamic Island at the immediate boundary of the lake play a main control of lake bed sediments and has produced a large volume of augite placer along the lake bank. Weathering increases from south to toward north with increasing distance from Islamic Island. Geochemistry of lake sediments demonstrated the enrichment of MgO, CaO, Sr with an elevated anomaly of Eu, possibly due to surface absorbance of Mn and Fe associated Sr elevation originating from adakite volcanic rocks in the vicinity of the lake basin. The study shows the local geology is the major factor in origin of lake sediments than chemical and biochemical produced mineral during diagenetic processes.
Effects of Canned Cycles and Cutting Parameters on Hole Quality in Cryogenic Drilling of Aluminum 6061-6T
The influence of canned cycles and cutting parameters on hole quality in cryogenic drilling has been investigated experimentally and analytically. A three-level, three-parameter experiment was conducted by using the design-of-experiment methodology. The three levels of independent input parameters were the following: for canned cycles—a chip-breaking canned cycle (G73), a spot drilling canned cycle (G81), and a deep hole canned cycle (G83); for feed rates—0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mm/rev; and for cutting speeds—60, 75, and 100 m/min. The selected work and tool materials were aluminum 6061-6T and high-speed steel (HSS), respectively. For cryogenic cooling, liquid nitrogen (LN2) was used and was applied externally. The measured output parameters were the three widely used quality characteristics of drilled holes—diameter error, circularity, and surface roughness. Pareto ANOVA was applied for analyzing the results. The findings revealed that the canned cycle has a significant effect on diameter error (contribution ratio 44.09%) and small effects on circularity and surface finish (contribution ratio 7.25% and 6.60%, respectively). The best results for the dimensional accuracy and surface roughness were achieved by G81. G73 produced the best circularity results; however, for dimensional accuracy, it was the worst level.
A Study of Islamic Stock Indices and Macroeconomic Variables
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship among the key macroeconomic variables and Islamic stock market in India. This study is based on the time series data of financial years 2009-2015 to explore the consistency of relationship between macroeconomic variables and Shariah Indices. The ADF (Augmented Dickey–Fuller Test Statistic) and PP (Phillips–Perron Test Statistic) tests are employed to check stationarity of the data. The study depicts the long run relationship between Shariah indices and macroeconomic variables by using the Johansen Co-integration test. BSE Shariah and Nifty Shariah have uni-direct Granger causality. The outcome of VECM is significantly confirming the applicability of best fitted model. Thus, Islamic stock indices are proficiently working for the development of Indian economy. It suggests that by keeping eyes on Islamic stock market which will be more interactive in the future with other macroeconomic variables.
Equity and Diversity in Bangladesh’s Primary Education: Struggling Indigenous Children
This paper describes how indigenous students face challenges with various school activities due to inadequate equity and diversity principles in mainstream primary schools in Bangladesh. This study focuses on indigenous students’ interactions with mainstream class teachers and students through teaching-learning activities at public primary schools. Ethnographic research methods guided data collection under a case study methodology in Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHTs) region where maximum indigenous peoples’ inhabitants. The participants (class teachers) shared information through in-depth interviews about their experiences in the four selecting schools. The authors also observed the effects of school activities by use of equity and diversity lens for indigenous students’ situations in those schools. The authors argue that the socio-economic situations of indigenous families are not supportive of the educational development of their children. Similarly, the Bangladesh government does not have enough initiative programs based on equity and diversity principles for fundamental education of indigenous children at rural schools level. Besides this, the conventional teaching system cannot improve the diversification among the students in classrooms. The principles of equity and diversity are not well embedded in professional development of teachers, and using teaching materials in classrooms. The findings suggest that implementing equitable education; there are needed to arrange teachers’ education with equitable knowledge and introducing diversified teaching materials, and implementing teaching through students centered activities that promote the diversification among the multicultural students.
The Effect of Corporate Social Responsibility in the National Commercial Bank in Saudi Arabia
The aim of the paper is to investigate the effect of
corporate social responsibility (CSR) CSR on the National
Commercial Bank (NCB) in Saudi Arabia. In order to achieve this, a
case study was made of the CSR activities of this bank from the
perspective of its branch managers. The NCB was chosen as it was
one of the first Saudi banks to engage in CSR and currently has a
wide range of CSR initiatives. A qualitative research method was
used. Open-ended questionnaires were administered to eighty branch
managers of the NCB, with fifty-five usable questionnaires returned
and twenty managers were interviewed as part of the primary
research. Data from both questionnaires and interviews were
analysed using qualitative content analysis. Six themes emerged from
the questionnaire findings were used to develop the interview
questions. These themes are the following: Awareness of employees
about CSR in the NCB; CSR activities as a type of investment;
Government and media support; Increased employee loyalty in the
NCB; Prestige and profit to the NCB; and View of CSR in Islam.
This paper makes a theoretical contribution in that it investigates and
increases understanding of the effect of CSR on the NCB in Saudi
Arabia. In addition, it makes a practical contribution by making
recommendations which can support the development of CSR in the
NCB. A limitation of the paper is that it is a case study of only one
bank. It is therefore recommended that future research could be
conducted with other banks in Saudi Arabia, or indeed, with a range
of other types of firm within the financial services area in Saudi
Arabia. In this way, the same issues could be explored but with a
greater potential generalisability of findings of CSR within the Saudi
Arabian financial services industry. In addition, this paper takes a
qualitative approach and it is suggested that future research be carried
out using mixed methods, which could provide a greater depth of
Modeling Salam Contract for Profit and Loss Sharing
Profit and loss sharing suggests an equitable sharing of risks and profits between the parts involved in a financial transaction. Salam is a contract in which advance payment is made for goods to be delivered at a future date. The purpose of this work is to price a new contract for profit and loss sharing based on Salam contract, using Khiyar Al Ghabn which is an agreement of choice in case of misrepresent facts.
Effects of Inlet Distorted Flows on the Performance of an Axial Compressor
Compressor fans in modern aircraft engines are of considerate importance, as they provide majority of thrust required by the aircraft. Their challenging environment is frequently subjected to non-uniform inflow conditions. These conditions could be either due to the flight operating requirements such as take-off and landing, wake interference from aircraft fuselage or cross-flow wind conditions. So, in highly maneuverable flights regimes of fighter aircrafts affects the overall performance of an engine. Since the flow in compressor of an aircraft application is highly sensitive because of adverse pressure gradient due to different flow orientations of the aircraft. Therefore, it is prone to unstable operations. This paper presents the study that focuses on axial compressor response to inlet flow orientations for the range of angles as 0 to 15 degrees. For this purpose, NASA Rotor-37 was taken and CFD mesh was developed. The compressor characteristics map was generated for the design conditions of pressure ratio of 2.106 with the rotor operating at rotational velocity of 17188.7 rpm using CFD simulating environment of ANSYS-CFX®. The grid study was done to see the effects of mesh upon computational solution. Then, the mesh giving the best results, (when validated with the available experimental NASA’s results); was used for further distortion analysis. The flow in the inlet nozzle was given angle orientations ranging from 0 to 15 degrees. The CFD results are analyzed and discussed with respect to stall margin and flow separations due to induced distortions.
Power Flow and Modal Analysis of a Power System Including Unified Power Flow Controller
The Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS)
technology is a new advanced solution that increases the reliability
and provides more flexibility, controllability, and stability of a power
system. The Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC), as the most
versatile FACTS device for regulating power flow, is able to control
respectively transmission line real power, reactive power, and node
voltage. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of the
UPFC on the load flow, the power losses, and the voltage stability
using NEPLAN software modules, Newton-Raphson load flow is
used for the power flow analysis and the modal analysis is used for
the study of the voltage stability. The simulation was carried out on
the IEEE 14-bus test system.
Debts and Debt-Based Sukuk Related to Risk Shifting Behavior
This paper elaborates risk shifting in debt financing system as the ultimate cause of the global financial crisis. In contrast, risk sharing in equity financing like sukuk helps the economic system to be better sustained. Nevertheless, some types of sukuk are haunted by the issue of imitation with bonds. The critics on the imitation issue not only have raised doubt on the ability of sukuk to diminish risk shifting behavior but also the ability of this Islamic financial instrument to ensure better future financial stability. Through that, this paper provides discussion on the possibility of sukuk to induce risk shifting and how equity financing may help sukuk to be free from risk shifting. This paper is important in the sense that sukuk receives a significant demand from investors throughout the world. For this instrument to be supportive in the future economic stability, the issue of imitation needs to be identified and addressed. Furthermore, critics cannot be focused on debts and its ability to gauge the financial flux but also to sukuk due to their structures similarity.
Properties of Fly Ash Brick Prepared in Local Environment of Bangladesh
Coal fly ash, an industrial by product of coal
combustion thermal power plants is considered as a hazardous
material and its improper disposal has become an environmental
issue. On the other hand, manufacturing conventional clay bricks
involves on consumption of large amount of clay and leads
substantial depletion of topsoil. This paper unveils the possibility of
using fly ash as a partial replacement of clay for brick manufacturing
considering the local technology practiced in Bangladesh. The effect
of fly ash with different replacing ratio (0%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and
50% by volume) of clay on properties of bricks was studied. Bricks
were made in the field parallel to ordinary bricks marked with
specific number for different percentage to identify them at time of
testing. No physical distortion is observed in fly ash brick after
burning in the kiln. Results from laboratory test show that
compressive strength of brick is decreased with the increase of fly
ash and maximum compressive strength is found to be 19.6 MPa at
20% of fly ash. In addition, water absorption of fly ash brick is
increased with the increase of fly ash. The abrasion value and
Specific gravity of coarse aggregate prepared from brick with fly ash
also studied and the results of this study suggests that 20% fly ash
can be considered as the optimum fly ash content for producing good
quality bricks utilizing present practiced technology.
Measured versus Default Interstate Traffic Data in New Mexico, USA
This study investigates how the site specific traffic
data differs from the Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design
Software default values. Two Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) stations were
installed in Interstate-40 (I-40) and Interstate-25 (I-25) to developed
site specific data. A computer program named WIM Data Analysis
Software (WIMDAS) was developed using Microsoft C-Sharp (.Net)
for quality checking and processing of raw WIM data. A complete
year data from November 2013 to October 2014 was analyzed using
the developed WIM Data Analysis Program. After that, the vehicle
class distribution, directional distribution, lane distribution, monthly
adjustment factor, hourly distribution, axle load spectra, average
number of axle per vehicle, axle spacing, lateral wander distribution,
and wheelbase distribution were calculated. Then a comparative
study was done between measured data and AASHTOWare default
values. It was found that the measured general traffic inputs for I-40
and I-25 significantly differ from the default values.
Weigh-in-Motion Data Analysis Software for Developing Traffic Data for Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design
Currently, there are few user friendly Weigh-in-
Motion (WIM) data analysis softwares available which can produce
traffic input data for the recently developed AASHTOWare pavement
Mechanistic-Empirical (ME) design software. However, these
softwares have only rudimentary Quality Control (QC) processes.
Therefore, they cannot properly deal with erroneous WIM data. As
the pavement performance is highly sensible to the quality of WIM
data, it is highly recommended to use more refined QC process on
raw WIM data to get a good result. This study develops a userfriendly
software, which can produce traffic input for the ME design
software. This software takes the raw data (Class and Weight data)
collected from the WIM station and processes it with a sophisticated
QC procedure. Traffic data such as traffic volume, traffic distribution,
axle load spectra, etc. can be obtained from this software; which can
directly be used in the ME design software.
Investigation of Compliance of the Prevailing Import Murabah'a to Sharia
One of prevailing modes of finance in emerging
Islamic banking system is Murabah’a. It means a financial dealing or
transaction in which seller tells cost of the goods to be sold to buyer.
Otherwise, the transaction would become invalid. In this mainstream,
import Murabah’a transaction is divergent in such a way that the cost
is not recognized and identified due to execution of import
transaction in foreign currency i.e. US Dollar and the next transaction
of Murabaha’a with the client is executed in local currency. Since this
transaction is executed in dual currency i.e. bank pays supplier in
foreign currency and executes Murabah’a with its client in local
currency and it is not allowed in according to Islamic Injunctions as
mentioned in hadith narrated by Hazrat Ibn-e-Umar (May Allah be
pleased with them) used to sell his camels with Dirhams and take
dinars instead and vice versa. Upon revealing before the Prophet
(Peace be upon him), he was advised that it must not be contingent in
the agreement and the ready rate would be applied and possession of
one of the consideration is compulsory. The solution in this regard is
that the import Murabah’a transaction should be in single currency
However, other currency can be paid in payment at the time of
payment in a very indispensable situation provided that ready rate
would be applied. Moreover, some of other solutions have also been
given in this regard.
Effect of Reynolds Number on Flow past a Square Cylinder in Presence of Upstream and Downstream Flat Plate at Small Gap Spacing
A two-dimensional numerical study for flow past a square cylinder in presence of flat plate both at upstream and downstream position is carried out using the single-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method for gap spacing 0.5 and 1. We select Reynolds numbers from 80 to 200. The wake structure mechanism within gap spacing and near wake region, vortex structures around and behind the main square cylinder in presence of flat plate are studied and compared with flow pattern around a single square cylinder. The results are obtained in form of vorticity contour, streamlines, power spectra analysis, time trace analysis of drag and lift coefficients. Four different types of flow patterns were observed in both configurations, named as (i) Quasi steady flow (QSF), (ii) steady flow (SF), (iii) shear layer reattachment (SLR), (iv) single bluff body (SBB). It is observed that upstream flat plate plays a vital role in significant drag reduction. On the other hand, rate of suppression of vortex shedding is high for downstream flat plate case at low Reynolds numbers. The reduction in mean drag force and root mean square value of drag force for upstream flat plate case are89.1% and 86.3% at (Re, g) = (80, 0.5d) and (120, 1d) and reduction for downstream flat plate case for mean drag force and root mean square value of drag force are 11.10% and 97.6% obtained at (180, 1d) and (180, 0.5d).
Arabic Literature as a Tool for Educational Transformation in Nigeria
This paper started with the definitions of literature,
Arabic literature, transformation and went further to highlight the
components of educational transformation. The general history of
Arabic literature was discussed with focus on how it undergoes some
transformations from pre-Islamic period through Quranic era,
Abbasid literature to renaissance period in which the modernization
of Arabic literature started in Egypt. It also traces the spread of
Arabic literature in Nigeria from the pre-colonial era during the
Kanuri rulers to Jihad of Usman Dan Fodio and the development of
literature which manifested to the Teacher’s Colleges and Bayero
University in Northern Nigeria. Also, the establishment of primary
and post-primary schools by Muslim organizations in many cities and
towns of the Western part of Nigeria. Literary criticism was also
discussed in line with Arabic literature. Poetry work of eminent poets
were cited to show its importance in line with educational
transformation in Nigerian literature and lessons from the cited
Arabic poetry works were also highlighted to include: motivation to
behave well and to tolerate others, better spirits of interaction, love
and co-existence among different sexes, religion etc. All these can
help in developing a better educational transformation in Nigeria
which can in turn help in how to conduct researches for national
development. The paper recommended compulsory Arabic literature
at all levels of the nations’ educational system as well as publication
of Arabic books and journals to encourage peace in this era of
conflicts and further transform Nigeria’s educational system for
Average Secrecy Mutual Information of the Non-Identically Independently Distributed Hoyt Fading Wireless Channels
In this paper, we consider a non-identically independently distributed (non-i.i.d.) Hoyt fading single-input multiple-out put (SIMO) channel, where the transmitter sends some confidential information to the legitimate receiver in presence of an eavesdropper. We formulated the probability of non-zero secrecy mutual information; secure outage probability and average secrecy mutual information (SMI) for the SIMO wireless communication system. The calculation has been carried out using small limit argument approximation (SLAA) on zeroth-order modified Bessel function of first kind. In our proposed model, an eavesdropper observes transmissions of information through another Hoyt fading channel. First, we derived the analytical expression for non-zero secrecy mutual information. Then, we find the secure outage probability to investigate the outage behavior of the proposed model. Finally, we find the average secrecy mutual information. We consider that the channel state information (CSI) is known to legitimate receiver.
Shariah Compliance Space Planning for Hotel Room Design
This paper illustrates the background of various
concepts, approaches, terminologies used to describe the basic
framework of an Islamic Hotel Room design. This paper reviews the
theoretical views in establishing a suitable and optimum environment
for Muslim as well as non-Muslim guests in hotel rooms while
according to shariah. It involves a few research methodologies that
requires the researcher to study on a few characteristics needed to
create more efficient rooms in terms of social interaction, economic
growth and other tolerable elements. This paper intends on revealing
the elements that are vital and may contribute for hotels in achieving
a more conclusive research on space planning for hotel rooms
focusing on the shariah and Muslim guests. Malaysia is an Islamic
country and has billion of tourists coming over for business and
recreational purposes. Therefore, having a righteous environment that
best suit this target user is important in terms of generating the
economy as well as providing a better understanding to the
community on the benefits of applying these qualities in a
conventional resort design.