Climate change projections based on the emission of greenhouse effect gases suggest an increase in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide, in up to 750 ppm. In this scenario, we have significant changes in plant development, and consequently, in agricultural systems. This study aims to evaluate the interaction between culture (Glycine max) and weed (Amaranthus viridis and Euphorbia heterophylla) in two conditions of CO2, 400 and 800 ppm. The results showed that the coexistence of culture with both weed species resulted in a mutual loss, with decrease in dry mass productivity of culture + weeds, in both conditions of CO2. However, when the culture is grown in association with E. heterophylla, total dry mass of culture + weed was smaller at 800 ppm. Soybean was more aggressive in comparison to the A. viridis in both the concentrations of CO2, but not in relation to the E. heterophylla.
Acid rain occurs when sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (Nox) gases react in the atmosphere with water, oxygen, and other chemicals to form various acidic compounds. The result is a mild solution of sulfuric acid and nitric acid. Soil has a greater buffering capacity than aquatic systems. However excessive amount of acids introduced by acid rains may disturb the entire soil chemistry. Acidity and harmful action of toxic elements damage vegetation while susceptible microbial species are eliminated. In present study, the effects of simulated sulphuric acid and nitric acid rains were investigated on crop Glycine max. The effect of acid rain on change in soil fertility was detected in which pH of control sample was 6.5 and pH of 1%H2SO4 and 1%HNO3 were 3.5. Nitrogen nitrate in soil was high in 1% HNO3 treated soil & Control sample. Ammonium nitrogen in soil was low in 1% HNO3 & H2SO4 treated soil. Ammonium nitrogen was medium in control and other samples. The effect of acid rain on seed germination on 3rd day of germination control sample growth was 7 cm, 0.1% HNO3 was 8cm, and 0.001% HNO3 & 0.001% H2SO4 was 6cm each. On 10th day fungal growth was observed in 1% and 0.1%H2SO4 concentrations, when all plants were dead. The effect of acid rain on crop productivity was investigated on 3rd day roots were developed in plants. On12th day Glycine max showed more growth in 0.1% HNO3, 0.001% HNO3 and 0.001% H2SO4 treated plants growth were same as compare to control plants. On 20th day development of discoloration of plant pigments were observed on acid treated plants leaves. On 38th day, 0.1, 0.001% HNO3 and 0.1, 0.001% H2SO4 treated plants and control plants were showing flower growth. On 42th day, acid treated Glycine max variety and control plants were showed seeds on plants. In Glycine max variety 0.1, 0.001% H2SO4, 0.1, 0.001% HNO3 treated plants were dead on 46th day and fungal growth was observed. The toxicological study was carried out on Glycine max plants exposed to 1% HNO3 cells were damaged more than 1% H2SO4. Leaf sections exposed to 0.001% HNO3 & H2SO4 showed less damaged of cells and pigmentation observed in entire slide when compare with control plant. The soil analysis was done to find microorganisms in HNO3 & H2SO4 treated Glycine max and control plants. No microorganism growth was observed in 1% HNO3 & H2SO4 but control plant showed microbial growth.