International Science Index

15
10007112
A Study on the Power Control of Wind Energy Conversion System
Abstract:
The present research presents a direct active and reactive power control (DPC) of a wind energy conversion system (WECS) for the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) based on a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) connected to electric power grid. The control strategy of the Rotor Side Converter (RSC) is targeted in extracting a maximum of power under fluctuating wind speed. A fuzzy logic speed controller (FLC) has been used to ensure the MPPT. The Grid Side Converter is directed in a way to ensure sinusoidal current in the grid side and a smooth DC voltage. To reduce fluctuations, rotor torque and voltage use of multilevel inverters is a good way to remove the rotor harmony.
Paper Detail
210
downloads
14
10007061
Exploring the Spatial Characteristics of Mortality Map: A Statistical Area Perspective
Abstract:

The analysis of geographic inequality heavily relies on the use of location-enabled statistical data and quantitative measures to present the spatial patterns of the selected phenomena and analyze their differences. To protect the privacy of individual instance and link to administrative units, point-based datasets are spatially aggregated to area-based statistical datasets, where only the overall status for the selected levels of spatial units is used for decision making. The partition of the spatial units thus has dominant influence on the outcomes of the analyzed results, well known as the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP). A new spatial reference framework, the Taiwan Geographical Statistical Classification (TGSC), was recently introduced in Taiwan based on the spatial partition principles of homogeneous consideration of the number of population and households. Comparing to the outcomes of the traditional township units, TGSC provides additional levels of spatial units with finer granularity for presenting spatial phenomena and enables domain experts to select appropriate dissemination level for publishing statistical data. This paper compares the results of respectively using TGSC and township unit on the mortality data and examines the spatial characteristics of their outcomes. For the mortality data between the period of January 1st, 2008 and December 31st, 2010 of the Taitung County, the all-cause age-standardized death rate (ASDR) ranges from 571 to 1757 per 100,000 persons, whereas the 2nd dissemination area (TGSC) shows greater variation, ranged from 0 to 2222 per 100,000. The finer granularity of spatial units of TGSC clearly provides better outcomes for identifying and evaluating the geographic inequality and can be further analyzed with the statistical measures from other perspectives (e.g., population, area, environment.). The management and analysis of the statistical data referring to the TGSC in this research is strongly supported by the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. An integrated workflow that consists of the tasks of the processing of death certificates, the geocoding of street address, the quality assurance of geocoded results, the automatic calculation of statistic measures, the standardized encoding of measures and the geo-visualization of statistical outcomes is developed. This paper also introduces a set of auxiliary measures from a geographic distribution perspective to further examine the hidden spatial characteristics of mortality data and justify the analyzed results. With the common statistical area framework like TGSC, the preliminary results demonstrate promising potential for developing a web-based statistical service that can effectively access domain statistical data and present the analyzed outcomes in meaningful ways to avoid wrong decision making.

Paper Detail
63
downloads
13
10006455
Sidelobe Reduction in Cognitive Radio Systems Using Hybrid Technique
Abstract:

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is one of the best candidates for dynamic spectrum access due to its flexibility of spectrum shaping. However, the high sidelobes of the OFDM signal that result in high out-of-band radiation, introduce significant interference to the users operating in its vicinity. This problem becomes more critical in cognitive radio (CR) system that enables the secondary users (SUs) users to access the spectrum holes not used by the primary users (PUs) at that time. In this paper, we present a generalized OFDM framework that has a capability of describing any sidelobe suppression techniques, despite of whether one or a number of techniques are used. Based on that framework, we propose cancellation carrier (CC) technique in conjunction with the generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC) to reduce the out-of-band radiation in the region where the licensed users are operating. Simulation results show that the proposed technique can reduce the out-of-band radiation better when compared with the existing techniques found in the literature.

Paper Detail
141
downloads
12
10005033
Vehicle Risk Evaluation in Low Speed Accidents: Consequences for Relevant Test Scenarios
Abstract:
Projects of accident research analysis are mostly focused on accidents involving personal damage. Property damage only has a high frequency of occurrence combined with high economic impact. This paper describes main influencing parameters for the extent of damage and presents a repair cost model. For a prospective evaluation method of the monetary effect of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), it is necessary to be aware of and quantify all influencing parameters. Furthermore, this method allows the evaluation of vehicle concepts in combination with an ADAS at an early point in time of the product development process. In combination with a property damage database and the introduced repair cost model relevant test scenarios for specific vehicle configurations and their individual property damage risk may be determined. Currently, equipment rates of ADAS are low and a purchase incentive for customers would be beneficial. The next ADAS generation will prevent property damage to a large extent or at least reduce damage severity. Both effects may be a purchasing incentive for the customer and furthermore contribute to increased traffic safety.
Paper Detail
367
downloads
11
10003892
Interfacing Photovoltaic Systems to the Utility Grid: A Comparative Simulation Study to Mitigate the Impact of Unbalanced Voltage Dips
Abstract:

This paper presents the modeling and the control of a grid-connected photovoltaic system (PVS). Firstly, the MPPT control of the PVS and its associated DC/DC converter has been analyzed in order to extract the maximum of available power. Secondly, the control system of the grid side converter (GSC) which is a three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) has been presented. A special attention has been paid to the control algorithms of the GSC converter during grid voltages imbalances. Especially, three different control objectives are to achieve; the mitigation of the grid imbalance adverse effects, at the point of common coupling (PCC), on the injected currents, the elimination of double frequency oscillations in active power flow, and the elimination of double frequency oscillations in reactive power flow. Simulation results of two control strategies have been performed via MATLAB software in order to demonstrate the particularities of each control strategy according to power quality standards.

Paper Detail
708
downloads
10
10003233
Using 3-Glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane Functionalized SiO2 Nanoparticles to Improve Flexural Properties of Glass Fibers/Epoxy Grid-Stiffened Composite Panels
Abstract:
Lightweight and efficient structures have the aim to enhance the efficiency of the components in various industries. Toward this end, composites are one of the most widely used materials because of durability, high strength and modulus, and low weight. One type of the advanced composites is grid-stiffened composite (GSC) structures, which have been extensively considered in aerospace, automotive, and aircraft industries. They are one of the top candidates for replacing some of the traditional components, which are used here. Although there are a good number of published surveys on the design aspects and fabrication of GSC structures, little systematic work has been reported on their material modification to improve their properties, to our knowledge. Matrix modification using nanoparticles is an effective method to enhance the flexural properties of the fibrous composites. In the present study, a silanecoupling agent (3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane/3-GPTS) was introduced onto the silica (SiO2) nanoparticle surface and its effects on the three-point flexural response of isogrid E-glass/epoxy composites were assessed. Based on the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) spectra, it was inferred that the 3-GPTS coupling agent was successfully grafted onto the surface of SiO2 nanoparticles after modification. Flexural test revealed an improvement of 16%, 14%, and 36% in stiffness, maximum load and energy absorption of the isogrid specimen filled with 3 wt.% 3- GPTS/SiO2 compared to the neat one. It would be worth mentioning that in these structures, considerable energy absorption was observed after the primary failure related to the load peak. In addition, 3- GPTMS functionalization had a positive effect on the flexural behavior of the multiscale isogrid composites. In conclusion, this study suggests that the addition of modified silica nanoparticles is a promising method to improve the flexural properties of the gridstiffened fibrous composite structures.
Paper Detail
1222
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9
10001882
Effect of Cow bone and Groundnut Shell Reinforced in Epoxy Resin on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of the Composites
Abstract:
It is an established fact that polymers have several physical limitations such as low stiffness and low resistance to impact on loading. Hence, polymers do not usually have requisite mechanical strength for application in various fields. The reinforcement by high strength fibers provides the polymer substantially enhanced mechanical properties and makes them more suitable for a large number of diverse applications. This research evaluates the effects of particulate Cow bone and Groundnut shell additions on the mechanical properties and microstructure of cow bone and groundnut shell reinforced epoxy composite in order to assess the possibility of using it as a material for engineering applications. Cow bone and groundnut shell particles reinforced with epoxy (CBRPC and GSRPC) was prepared by varying the cow bone and groundnut shell particles from 0-25 wt% with 5 wt% intervals. A Hybrid of the Cow bone and Groundnut shell (HGSCB) reinforce with epoxy was also prepared. The mechanical properties of the developed composites were investigated. Optical microscopy was used to examine the microstructure of the composites. The results revealed that mechanical properties did not increase uniformly with additions in filler but exhibited maximum properties at specific percentages of filler additions. From the Microscopic evaluation, it was discovered that homogeneity decreases with increase in % filler, this could be due to poor interfacial bonding.
Paper Detail
1943
downloads
8
10004821
Environmental Potentials within the Production of Asphalt Mixtures
Abstract:
The paper shows examples for the (environmental) optimization of production processes for asphalt mixtures applied for typical road pavements in Austria and Switzerland. The conducted “from-cradle-to-gate” LCA firstly analyzes the production one cubic meter of asphalt and secondly all material production processes for exemplary highway pavements applied in Austria and Switzerland. It is shown that environmental impacts can be reduced by the application of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and by the optimization of specific production characteristics, e.g. the reduction of the initial moisture of the mineral aggregate and the reduction of the mixing temperature by the application of low-viscosity and foam bitumen. The results of the LCA study demonstrate reduction potentials per cubic meter asphalt of up to 57 % (Global Warming Potential–GWP) and 77 % (Ozone depletion–ODP). The analysis per square meter of asphalt pavement determined environmental potentials of up to 40 % (GWP) and 56 % (ODP).
Paper Detail
433
downloads
7
9997780
Ranking of Performance Measures of GSCM towards Sustainability: Using Analytic Hierarchy Process
Abstract:

During recent years, the natural environment has become a challenging topic that business organizations must consider due to the economic and ecological impacts and increasing awareness of environment protection among society. Organizations are trying to achieve the goals of improvement in environment, low cost, high quality, flexibility and more customer satisfaction. Performance measurement frameworks are very useful to monitor the performance of any organization. The basic goal of this paper is to identify performance measures and ranking of these performance measures of GSCM performance measurement towards sustainability framework. Five perspectives (Environment, Economic, Social, Operational and Cost performances) and nineteen performance measures of GSCM performance towards sustainability have been have been identified from extensive literature review. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique has been utilized for ranking of these performance perspectives and measures. All pair comparisons in AHP have been made on the basis on the experts’ opinions (selected from academia and industry). Ranking of these performance perspectives and measures will help to understand the importance of environmental, economic, social, operational performances and cost performances in the supply chain.

Paper Detail
2325
downloads
6
13869
Target Signal Detection Using MUSIC Spectrum in Noise Environment
Abstract:
In this paper, a target signal detection method using multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm is proposed. The MUSIC algorithm is a subspace-based direction of arrival (DOA) estimation method. The algorithm detects the DOAs of multiple sources using the inverse of the eigenvalue-weighted eigen spectra. To apply the algorithm to target signal detection for GSC-based beamforming, we utilize its spectral response for the target DOA in noisy conditions. For evaluation of the algorithm, the performance of the proposed target signal detection method is compared with that of the normalized cross-correlation (NCC), the fixed beamforming, and the power ratio method. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm significantly outperforms the conventional ones in receiver operating characteristics(ROC) curves.
Paper Detail
1466
downloads
5
6045
Design, Simulation and Experimental Realization of Nonlinear Controller for GSC of DFIG System
Abstract:
In a wind power generator using doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), the three-phase pulse width modulation (PWM) voltage source converter (VSC) is used as grid side converter (GSC) and rotor side converter (RSC). The standard linear control laws proposed for GSC provides not only instablity against comparatively large-signal disturbances, but also the problem of stability due to uncertainty of load and variations in parameters. In this paper, a nonlinear controller is designed for grid side converter (GSC) of a DFIG for wind power application. The nonlinear controller is designed based on the input-output feedback linearization control method. The resulting closed-loop system ensures a sufficient stability region, make robust to variations in circuit parameters and also exhibits good transient response. Computer simulations and experimental results are presented to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.
Paper Detail
1384
downloads
4
13923
Analysis of Data Gathering Schemes for Layered Sensor Networks with Multihop Polling
Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate multihop polling and data gathering schemes in layered sensor networks in order to extend the life time of the networks. A network consists of three layers. The lowest layer contains sensors. The middle layer contains so called super nodes with higher computational power, energy supply and longer transmission range than sensor nodes. The top layer contains a sink node. A node in each layer controls a number of nodes in lower layer by polling mechanism to gather data. We will present four types of data gathering schemes: intermediate nodes do not queue data packet, queue single packet, queue multiple packets and aggregate data, to see which data gathering scheme is more energy efficient for multihop polling in layered sensor networks.

Paper Detail
926
downloads
3
14461
A Lifetime-Guaranteed Routing Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a routing scheme that guarantees the residual lifetime of wireless sensor networks where each sensor node operates with a limited budget of battery energy. The scheme maximizes the communications QoS while sustaining the residual battery lifetime of the network for a specified duration. Communication paths of wireless nodes are translated into a directed acyclic graph(DAG) and the maximum-flow algorithm is applied to the graph. The found maximum flow are assigned to sender nodes, so as to maximize their communication QoS. Based on assigned flows, the scheme determines the routing path and the transmission rate of data packet so that any sensor node on the path would not exhaust its battery energy before a specified duration.
Paper Detail
946
downloads
2
1294
Green Product Design for Mobile Phones
Abstract:
Nowadays, manufacturers are facing great challenges with regard to the production of green products due to the emerging issue of hazardous substance management (HSM). In particular, environmental legislation pressures have yielded to increased risk, manufacturing complexity and green components demands. The green principles were expanded to many departments within organization, including supply chain. Green supply chain management (GSCM) was emerging in the last few years. This idea covers every stage in manufacturing from the first to the last stage of life cycle. From product lifecycle concept, the cycle starts at the design of a product. QFD is a customer-driven product development tool, considered as a structured management approach for efficiently translating customer needs into design requirements and parts deployment, as well as manufacturing plans and controls in order to achieve higher customer satisfaction. This paper develops an Eco- QFD to provide a framework for designing Eco-mobile phone by integrating the life cycle analysis LCA into QFD throughout the entire product development process.
Paper Detail
1627
downloads
1
5869
Rhetorical Communication in the CogSci Discourse Community: The Cognitive Neurosciences (2004) in the Context of Scientific Dissemination
Abstract:
In recent years linguistic research has turned increasing attention to covert/overt strategies to modulate authorial stance and positioning in scientific texts, and to the recipients' response. This study discussed some theoretical implications of the use of rhetoric in scientific communication and analysed qualitative data from the authoritative The Cognitive Neurosciences III (2004) volume. Its genre-identity, status and readability were considered, in the social interactive context of contemporary disciplinary discourses – in their polyphony of traditional and new, emerging genres. Evidence was given of the ways its famous authors negotiate and shape knowledge and research results – explicitly appraising team work and promoting faith in the fast-paced progress of Cognitive Neuroscience, also through experiential metaphors – by presenting a set of examples, ordered according to their dominant rhetorical quality.
Paper Detail
828
downloads