International Science Index
Optimal ECG Sampling Frequency for Multiscale Entropy-Based HRV
Multiscale entropy (MSE) is an extensively used index to provide a general understanding of multiple complexity of physiologic mechanism of heart rate variability (HRV) that operates on a wide range of time scales. Accurate selection of electrocardiogram (ECG) sampling frequency is an essential concern for clinically significant HRV quantification; high ECG sampling rate increase memory requirements and processing time, whereas low sampling rate degrade signal quality and results in clinically misinterpreted HRV. In this work, the impact of ECG sampling frequency on MSE based HRV have been quantified. MSE measures are found to be sensitive to ECG sampling frequency and effect of sampling frequency will be a function of time scale.
Automatic Classification of Periodic Heart Sounds Using Convolutional Neural Network
This paper presents an automatic normal and abnormal heart sound classification model developed based on deep learning algorithm. MITHSDB heart sounds datasets obtained from the 2016 PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge database were used in this research with the assumption that the electrocardiograms (ECG) were recorded simultaneously with the heart sounds (phonocardiogram, PCG). The PCG time series are segmented per heart beat, and each sub-segment is converted to form a square intensity matrix, and classified using convolutional neural network (CNN) models. This approach removes the need to provide classification features for the supervised machine learning algorithm. Instead, the features are determined automatically through training, from the time series provided. The result proves that the prediction model is able to provide reasonable and comparable classification accuracy despite simple implementation. This approach can be used for real-time classification of heart sounds in Internet of Medical Things (IoMT), e.g. remote monitoring applications of PCG signal.
Wireless Based System for Continuous Electrocardiography Monitoring during Surgery
This paper presents a system designed for wireless acquisition, the recording of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals and the monitoring of the heart’s health during surgery. This wireless recording system allows us to visualize and monitor the state of the heart’s health during a surgery, even if the patient is moved from the operating theater to post anesthesia care unit. The acquired signal is transmitted via a Bluetooth unit to a PC where the data are displayed, stored and processed. To test the reliability of our system, a comparison between ECG signals processed by a conventional ECG monitoring system (Datex-Ohmeda) and by our wireless system is made. The comparison is based on the shape of the ECG signal, the duration of the QRS complex, the P and T waves, as well as the position of the ST segments with respect to the isoelectric line. The proposed system is presented and discussed. The results have confirmed that the use of Bluetooth during surgery does not affect the devices used and vice versa. Pre- and post-processing steps are briefly discussed. Experimental results are also provided.
Electromyography Pattern Classification with Laplacian Eigenmaps in Human Running
Electromyography (EMG) is one of the most important interfaces between humans and robots for rehabilitation. Decoding this signal helps to recognize muscle activation and converts it into smooth motion for the robots. Detecting each muscle’s pattern during walking and running is vital for improving the quality of a patient’s life. In this study, EMG data from 10 muscles in 10 subjects at 4 different speeds were analyzed. EMG signals are nonlinear with high dimensionality. To deal with this challenge, we extracted some features in time-frequency domain and used manifold learning and Laplacian Eigenmaps algorithm to find the intrinsic features that represent data in low-dimensional space. We then used the Bayesian classifier to identify various patterns of EMG signals for different muscles across a range of running speeds. The best result for vastus medialis muscle corresponds to 97.87±0.69 for sensitivity and 88.37±0.79 for specificity with 97.07±0.29 accuracy using Bayesian classifier. The results of this study provide important insight into human movement and its application for robotics research.
Electrocardiogram Signal Denoising Using a Hybrid Technique
This paper presents an efficient method of electrocardiogram signal denoising based on a hybrid approach. Two techniques are brought together to create an efficient denoising process. The first is an Adaptive Dual Threshold Filter (ADTF) and the second is the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). The presented approach is based on three steps of denoising, the DWT decomposition, the ADTF step and the highest peaks correction step. This paper presents some application of the approach on some electrocardiogram signals of the MIT-BIH database. The results of these applications are promising compared to other recently published techniques.
Heart-Rate Resistance Electrocardiogram Identification Based on Slope-Oriented Neural Networks
For electrocardiogram (ECG) biometrics system, it is a tedious process to pre-install user’s high-intensity heart rate (HR) templates in ECG biometric systems. Based on only resting enrollment templates, it is a challenge to identify human by using ECG with the high-intensity HR caused from exercises and stress. This research provides a heartbeat segment method with slope-oriented neural networks against the ECG morphology changes due to high intensity HRs. The method has overall system accuracy at 97.73% which includes six levels of HR intensities. A cumulative match characteristic curve is also used to compare with other traditional ECG biometric methods.
Sparse Coding Based Classification of Electrocardiography Signals Using Data-Driven Complete Dictionary Learning
In this paper, a data-driven dictionary approach is proposed for the automatic detection and classification of cardiovascular abnormalities. Electrocardiography (ECG) signal is represented by the trained complete dictionaries that contain prototypes or atoms to avoid the limitations of pre-defined dictionaries. The data-driven trained dictionaries simply take the ECG signal as input rather than extracting features to study the set of parameters that yield the most descriptive dictionary. The approach inherently learns the complicated morphological changes in ECG waveform, which is then used to improve the classification. The classification performance was evaluated with ECG data under two different preprocessing environments. In the first category, QT-database is baseline drift corrected with notch filter and it filters the 60 Hz power line noise. In the second category, the data are further filtered using fast moving average smoother. The experimental results on QT database confirm that our proposed algorithm shows a classification accuracy of 92%.
Heart Rate Variability Analysis for Early Stage Prediction of Sudden Cardiac Death
In present scenario, cardiovascular problems are growing challenge for researchers and physiologists. As heart disease have no geographic, gender or socioeconomic specific reasons; detecting cardiac irregularities at early stage followed by quick and correct treatment is very important. Electrocardiogram is the finest tool for continuous monitoring of heart activity. Heart rate variability (HRV) is used to measure naturally occurring oscillations between consecutive cardiac cycles. Analysis of this variability is carried out using time domain, frequency domain and non-linear parameters. This paper presents HRV analysis of the online dataset for normal sinus rhythm (taken as healthy subject) and sudden cardiac death (SCD subject) using all three methods computing values for parameters like standard deviation of node to node intervals (SDNN), square root of mean of the sequences of difference between adjacent RR intervals (RMSSD), mean of R to R intervals (mean RR) in time domain, very low-frequency (VLF), low-frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and ratio of low to high frequency (LF/HF ratio) in frequency domain and Poincare plot for non linear analysis. To differentiate HRV of healthy subject from subject died with SCD, k –nearest neighbor (k-NN) classifier has been used because of its high accuracy. Results show highly reduced values for all stated parameters for SCD subjects as compared to healthy ones. As the dataset used for SCD patients is recording of their ECG signal one hour prior to their death, it is therefore, verified with an accuracy of 95% that proposed algorithm can identify mortality risk of a patient one hour before its death. The identification of a patient’s mortality risk at such an early stage may prevent him/her meeting sudden death if in-time and right treatment is given by the doctor.
HRV Analysis Based Arrhythmic Beat Detection Using kNN Classifier
Health diseases have a vital significance affecting human being's life and life quality. Sudden death events can be prevented owing to early diagnosis and treatment methods. Electrical signals, taken from the human being's body using non-invasive methods and showing the heart activity is called Electrocardiogram (ECG). The ECG signal is used for following daily activity of the heart by clinicians. Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is a physiological parameter giving the variation between the heart beats. ECG data taken from MITBIH Arrhythmia Database is used in the model employed in this study. The detection of arrhythmic heart beats is aimed utilizing the features extracted from the HRV time domain parameters. The developed model provides a satisfactory performance with ~89% accuracy, 91.7 % sensitivity and 85% specificity rates for the detection of arrhythmic beats.
Implementation of a Web-Based Wireless ECG Measuring and Recording System
Measuring the Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is an
essential process for the diagnosis of the heart diseases. The ECG
signal has the information of the degree of how much the heart
performs its functions. In medical diagnosis and treatment systems,
Decision Support Systems processing the ECG signal are being
developed for the use of clinicians while medical examination. In this
study, a modular wireless ECG (WECG) measuring and recording
system using a single board computer and e-Health sensor platform
is developed. In this designed modular system, after the ECG signal
is taken from the body surface by the electrodes first, it is filtered and
converted to digital form. Then, it is recorded to the health database
using Wi-Fi communication technology. The real time access of the
ECG data is provided through the internet utilizing the developed
Physiological and Psychological Influence on Office Workers during Demand Response
In recent years, the power system has been changed
and a flexible power pricing system such as demand response has been
sought in Japan. The demand response system works simply in the
household sector and the owner as the decision-maker, can benefit
from power saving. On the other hand, the execution of demand
response in the office building is more complex than in the household
because various people such as owners, building administrators and
occupants are involved in the decision-making process. While the
owners benefit from demand saving, the occupants are exposed to
restricted benefits of a demand-saved environment. One of the reasons
is that building systems are usually under centralized management and
each occupant cannot choose freely whether to participate in demand
response or not. In addition, it is unclear whether incentives give
occupants the motivation to participate. However, the recent
development of IT and building systems enables the personalized
control of the office environment where each occupant can control the
lighting level or temperature individually. Therefore, it can be possible
to have a system which each occupant can make a decision of whether
or not to participate in demand response in the office building. This study investigates personal responses to demand response
requests, under the condition where each occupant can adjust their
brightness individually in their workspace. Once workers participate
in the demand response, their desk-lights are automatically turned off.
The participation rates in the demand response events are compared
among four groups, which are divided by different motivation, the
presence, or absence of incentives and the method of participation. The
result shows that there are significant differences of participation rates
in demand response event between four groups. The method of
participation has a large effect on the participation rate. The “Opt-out”
groups where the occupants are automatically enrolled in a demand
response event if they do not express non-participation have the
highest participation rate in the four groups. Incentives also have an
effect on the participation rate. This study also reports on the impact of low illumination office
environment on the occupants, such as stress or fatigue. The
electrocardiogram and the questionnaire are used to investigate the
autonomic nervous activity and subjective fatigue symptoms of the
occupants. There is no big difference between dim workspace during
demand response event and bright workspace in autonomic nervous
activity and fatigue.
A Pole Radius Varying Notch Filter with Transient Suppression for Electrocardiogram
Noise removal techniques play a vital role in the performance of electrocardiographic (ECG) signal processing systems. ECG signals can be corrupted by various kinds of noise such as baseline wander noise, electromyographic interference, and powerline interference. One of the significant challenges in ECG signal processing is the degradation caused by additive 50 or 60 Hz powerline interference. This work investigates the removal of power line interference and suppression of transient response for filtering noise corrupted ECG signals. We demonstrate the effectiveness of infinite impulse response (IIR) notch filter with time varying pole radius for improving the transient behavior. The temporary change in the pole radius of the filter diminishes the transient behavior. Simulation results show that the proposed IIR filter with time varying pole radius outperforms traditional IIR notch filters in terms of mean square error and transient suppression.
A Study of Cardio Pulmonary Changes during Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is a commonly performed diagnostic and therapeutic procedure and has many adverse effects like cardiopulmonary complications, complications related to sedation, infectious complications, bleeding and perforation. So this study was undertaken to evaluate important variables like patient’s age, gender and stage of the procedure in relation to the cardiopulmonary changes during diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy by monitoring oxygen saturation, blood pressure, heart rate and electrocardiogram. This is a prospective longitudinal hospital based study involving a total of 140 consecutive patients, at Sri. B. M. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre. Cardiopulmonary changes during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy are more common in the age groups of 51-60 years, with equal frequency in both male and female. Oxygen saturation levels decreased by about 4% in both sexes during introduction of endoscopy. Mild to moderate hypoxia was found in 32% of the study group. Severe hypoxia was found in 5% of the patients, mostly in those patients who are above 50 years of age. Tachycardia was noted in 88% of the study group patients. Blood pressure increased to hypertension levels in 22 patients (15.7%) which returned to normal within few minutes after the procedure. S-T depression was noticed in 4% of patients and T wave inversion in 8% of patients during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. All these changes disappeared after 10 minutes after the endoscopy. Cardiopulmonary changes are common during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Maximum changes in oxygen saturation, heart rate and blood pressure occurred immediately after the introduction of endoscope. The cardiopulmonary changes did not manifest into any identifiable clinical symptoms. The rate of recovery was faster in younger age groups and women.
Detecting Abnormal ECG Signals Utilising Wavelet Transform and Standard Deviation
ECG contains very important clinical information about the cardiac activities of the heart. Often the ECG signal needs to be captured for a long period of time in order to identify abnormalities in certain situations. Such signal apart of a large volume often is characterised by low quality due to the noise and other influences. In order to extract features in the ECG signal with time-varying characteristics at first need to be preprocessed with the best parameters. Also, it is useful to identify specific parts of the long lasting signal which have certain abnormalities and to direct the practitioner to those parts of the signal. In this work we present a method based on wavelet transform, standard deviation and variable threshold which achieves 100% accuracy in identifying the ECG signal peaks and heartbeat as well as identifying the standard deviation, providing a quick reference to abnormalities.
Comparative Study of QRS Complex Detection in ECG
The processing of the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal consists essentially in the detection of the characteristic points of
signal which are an important tool in the diagnosis of heart diseases. The most suitable are the detection of R waves. In this paper, we
present various mathematical tools used for filtering ECG using digital filtering and Discreet Wavelet Transform (DWT) filtering. In
addition, this paper will include two main R peak detection methods
by applying a windowing process: The first method is based on calculations derived, the second is a time-frequency method based on
Dyadic Wavelet Transform DyWT.
MITAutomatic ECG Beat Tachycardia Detection Using Artificial Neural Network
The application of Neural Network for disease
diagnosis has made great progress and is widely used by physicians.
An Electrocardiogram carries vital information about heart activity and physicians use this signal for cardiac disease diagnosis which
was the great motivation towards our study. In our work, tachycardia
features obtained are used for the training and testing of a Neural
Network. In this study we are using Fuzzy Probabilistic Neural
Networks as an automatic technique for ECG signal analysis. As
every real signal recorded by the equipment can have different
artifacts, we needed to do some preprocessing steps before feeding it
to our system. Wavelet transform is used for extracting the
morphological parameters of the ECG signal. The outcome of the
approach for the variety of arrhythmias shows the represented
approach is superior than prior presented algorithms with an average
accuracy of about %95 for more than 7 tachy arrhythmias.
Hospital Based Electrocardiogram Sensor Grid
The technological concepts such as wireless hospital
and portable cardiac telemetry system require the development of
physiological signal acquisition devices to be easily integrated into
the hospital database. In this paper we present the low cost, portable
wireless ECG acquisition hardware that transmits ECG signals to a
dedicated computer.The front end of the system obtains and
processes incoming signals, which are then transmitted via a
microcontroller and wireless Bluetooth module. A monitoring
purpose Bluetooth based end user application integrated with patient
database management module is developed for the computers. The
system will act as a continuous event recorder, which can be used to
follow up patients who have been resuscitatedfrom cardiac arrest,
ventricular tachycardia but also for diagnostic purposes for patients
with arrhythmia symptoms. In addition, cardiac information can be
saved into the patient-s database of the hospital.
An Improved QRS Complex Detection for Online Medical Diagnosis
This paper presents the work of signal discrimination
specifically for Electrocardiogram (ECG) waveform. ECG signal is
comprised of P, QRS, and T waves in each normal heart beat to
describe the pattern of heart rhythms corresponds to a specific
individual. Further medical diagnosis could be done to determine any
heart related disease using ECG information. The emphasis on QRS
Complex classification is further discussed to illustrate the
importance of it. Pan-Tompkins Algorithm, a widely known
technique has been adapted to realize the QRS Complex
classification process. There are eight steps involved namely
sampling, normalization, low pass filter, high pass filter (build a band
pass filter), derivation, squaring, averaging and lastly is the QRS
detection. The simulation results obtained is represented in a
Graphical User Interface (GUI) developed using MATLAB.
Capacitive ECG Measurement by Conductive Fabric Tape
Capacitive electrocardiogram (ECG) measurement is an attractive approach for long-term health monitoring. However, there is little literature available on its implementation, especially for multichannel system in standard ECG leads. This paper begins from the design criteria for capacitive ECG measurement and presents a multichannel limb-lead capacitive ECG system with conductive fabric tapes pasted on a double layer PCB as the capacitive sensors. The proposed prototype system incorporates a capacitive driven-body (CDB) circuit to reduce the common-mode power-line interference (PLI). The presented prototype system has been verified to be stable by theoretic analysis and practical long-term experiments. The signal quality is competitive to that acquired by commercial ECG machines. The feasible size and distance of capacitive sensor have also been evaluated by a series of tests. From the test results, it is suggested to be greater than 60 cm2 in sensor size and be smaller than 1.5 mm in distance for capacitive ECG measurement.
Combination of Different Classifiers for Cardiac Arrhythmia Recognition
This paper describes a new supervised fusion (hybrid)
electrocardiogram (ECG) classification solution consisting of a new
QRS complex geometrical feature extraction as well as a new version
of the learning vector quantization (LVQ) classification algorithm
aimed for overcoming the stability-plasticity dilemma. Toward this
objective, after detection and delineation of the major events of ECG
signal via an appropriate algorithm, each QRS region and also its
corresponding discrete wavelet transform (DWT) are supposed as
virtual images and each of them is divided into eight polar sectors.
Then, the curve length of each excerpted segment is calculated
and is used as the element of the feature space. To increase the
robustness of the proposed classification algorithm versus noise,
artifacts and arrhythmic outliers, a fusion structure consisting of
five different classifiers namely as Support Vector Machine (SVM),
Modified Learning Vector Quantization (MLVQ) and three Multi
Layer Perceptron-Back Propagation (MLP–BP) neural networks with
different topologies were designed and implemented. The new proposed
algorithm was applied to all 48 MIT–BIH Arrhythmia Database
records (within–record analysis) and the discrimination power of the
classifier in isolation of different beat types of each record was
assessed and as the result, the average accuracy value Acc=98.51%
was obtained. Also, the proposed method was applied to 6 number
of arrhythmias (Normal, LBBB, RBBB, PVC, APB, PB) belonging
to 20 different records of the aforementioned database (between–
record analysis) and the average value of Acc=95.6% was achieved.
To evaluate performance quality of the new proposed hybrid learning
machine, the obtained results were compared with similar peer–
reviewed studies in this area.
Analysis of Noise Level Effects on Signal-Averaged Electrocardiograms
Noise level has critical effects on the diagnostic
performance of signal-averaged electrocardiogram (SAECG), because
the true starting and end points of QRS complex would be masked by
the residual noise and sensitive to the noise level. Several studies and
commercial machines have used a fixed number of heart beats
(typically between 200 to 600 beats) or set a predefined noise level
(typically between 0.3 to 1.0 μV) in each X, Y and Z lead to perform
SAECG analysis. However different criteria or methods used to
perform SAECG would cause the discrepancies of the noise levels
among study subjects. According to the recommendations of 1991
ESC, AHA and ACC Task Force Consensus Document for the use of
SAECG, the determinations of onset and offset are related closely to
the mean and standard deviation of noise sample. Hence this study
would try to perform SAECG using consistent root-mean-square
(RMS) noise levels among study subjects and analyze the noise level
effects on SAECG. This study would also evaluate the differences
between normal subjects and chronic renal failure (CRF) patients in
the time-domain SAECG parameters.
The study subjects were composed of 50 normal Taiwanese and 20
CRF patients. During the signal-averaged processing, different RMS
noise levels were adjusted to evaluate their effects on three time
domain parameters (1) filtered total QRS duration (fQRSD), (2) RMS
voltage of the last QRS 40 ms (RMS40), and (3) duration of the low
amplitude signals below 40 μV (LAS40). The study results
demonstrated that the reduction of RMS noise level can increase
fQRSD and LAS40 and decrease the RMS40, and can further increase
the differences of fQRSD and RMS40 between normal subjects and
CRF patients. The SAECG may also become abnormal due to the
reduction of RMS noise level. In conclusion, it is essential to establish
diagnostic criteria of SAECG using consistent RMS noise levels for
the reduction of the noise level effects.
A Trainable Neural Network Ensemble for ECG Beat Classification
This paper illustrates the use of a combined neural
network model for classification of electrocardiogram (ECG) beats.
We present a trainable neural network ensemble approach to develop
customized electrocardiogram beat classifier in an effort to further
improve the performance of ECG processing and to offer
individualized health care.
We process a three stage technique for detection of premature
ventricular contraction (PVC) from normal beats and other heart
diseases. This method includes a denoising, a feature extraction and a
classification. At first we investigate the application of stationary
wavelet transform (SWT) for noise reduction of the
electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. Then feature extraction module
extracts 10 ECG morphological features and one timing interval
feature. Then a number of multilayer perceptrons (MLPs) neural
networks with different topologies are designed.
The performance of the different combination methods as well as
the efficiency of the whole system is presented. Among them,
Stacked Generalization as a proposed trainable combined neural
network model possesses the highest recognition rate of around 95%.
Therefore, this network proves to be a suitable candidate in ECG
signal diagnosis systems. ECG samples attributing to the different
ECG beat types were extracted from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia
database for the study.
Identification of Cardiac Arrhythmias using Natural Resonance Complex Frequencies
An electrocardiogram (ECG) feature extraction system
based on the calculation of the complex resonance frequency
employing Prony-s method is developed. Prony-s method is applied
on five different classes of ECG signals- arrhythmia as a finite sum
of exponentials depending on the signal-s poles and the resonant
complex frequencies. Those poles and resonance frequencies of the
ECG signals- arrhythmia are evaluated for a large number of each
arrhythmia. The ECG signals of lead II (ML II) were taken from
MIT-BIH database for five different types. These are the ventricular
couplet (VC), ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular bigeminy
(VB), and ventricular fibrillation (VF) and the normal (NR). This
novel method can be extended to any number of arrhythmias.
Different classification techniques were tried using neural networks
(NN), K nearest neighbor (KNN), linear discriminant analysis (LDA)
and multi-class support vector machine (MC-SVM).
A Novel Compression Algorithm for Electrocardiogram Signals based on Wavelet Transform and SPIHT
Electrocardiogram (ECG) data compression algorithm
is needed that will reduce the amount of data to be transmitted, stored
and analyzed, but without losing the clinical information content. A
wavelet ECG data codec based on the Set Partitioning In Hierarchical
Trees (SPIHT) compression algorithm is proposed in this paper. The
SPIHT algorithm has achieved notable success in still image coding.
We modified the algorithm for the one-dimensional (1-D) case and
applied it to compression of ECG data.
By this compression method, small percent root mean square
difference (PRD) and high compression ratio with low
implementation complexity are achieved. Experiments on selected
records from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database revealed that the
proposed codec is significantly more efficient in compression and in
computation than previously proposed ECG compression schemes.
Compression ratios of up to 48:1 for ECG signals lead to acceptable
results for visual inspection.
Robust Detection of R-Wave Using Wavelet Technique
Electrocardiogram (ECG) is considered to be the
backbone of cardiology. ECG is composed of P, QRS & T waves and
information related to cardiac diseases can be extracted from the
intervals and amplitudes of these waves. The first step in extracting
ECG features starts from the accurate detection of R peaks in the
QRS complex. We have developed a robust R wave detector using
wavelets. The wavelets used for detection are Daubechies and
Symmetric. The method does not require any preprocessing therefore,
only needs the ECG correct recordings while implementing the
detection. The database has been collected from MIT-BIH arrhythmia
database and the signals from Lead-II have been analyzed. MatLab
7.0 has been used to develop the algorithm. The ECG signal under
test has been decomposed to the required level using the selected
wavelet and the selection of detail coefficient d4 has been done based
on energy, frequency and cross-correlation analysis of decomposition
structure of ECG signal. The robustness of the method is apparent
from the obtained results.
A Combinatorial Model for ECG Interpretation
A new, combinatorial model for analyzing and inter-
preting an electrocardiogram (ECG) is presented. An application of
the model is QRS peak detection. This is demonstrated with an
online algorithm, which is shown to be space as well as time efficient.
Experimental results on the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database show that
this novel approach is promising. Further uses for this approach are
discussed, such as taking advantage of its small memory requirements
and interpreting large amounts of pre-recorded ECG data.
Extraction of Fetal Heart Rate and Fetal Heart Rate Variability from Mother's ECG Signal
This paper describes a new method for extracting the fetal heart rate (fHR) and the fetal heart rate variability (fHRV) signal non-invasively using abdominal maternal electrocardiogram (mECG) recordings. The extraction is based on the fundamental frequency (Fourier-s) theorem. The fundamental frequency of the mother-s electrocardiogram signal (fo-m) is calculated directly from the abdominal signal. The heart rate of the fetus is usually higher than that of the mother; as a result, the fundamental frequency of the fetal-s electrocardiogram signal (fo-f) is higher than that of the mother-s (fo-f > fo-m). Notch filters to suppress mother-s higher harmonics were designed; then a bandpass filter to target fo-f and reject fo-m is implemented. Although the bandpass filter will pass some other frequencies (harmonics), we have shown in this study that those harmonics are actually carried on fo-f, and thus have no impact on the evaluation of the beat-to-beat changes (RR intervals). The oscillations of the time-domain extracted signal represent the RR intervals. We have also shown in this study that zero-to-zero evaluation of the periods is more accurate than the peak-to-peak evaluation. This method is evaluated both on simulated signals and on different abdominal recordings obtained at different gestational ages.
Multiwavelet and Biological Signal Processing
In this paper we are to find the optimum multiwavelet for compression of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals and then, selecting it for using with SPIHT codec. At present, it is not well known which multiwavelet is the best choice for optimum compression of ECG. In this work, we examine different multiwavelets on 24 sets of ECG data with entirely different characteristics, selected from MIT-BIH database. For assessing the functionality of the different multiwavelets in compressing ECG signals, in addition to known factors such as Compression Ratio (CR), Percent Root Difference (PRD), Distortion (D), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) in compression literature, we also employed the Cross Correlation (CC) criterion for studying the morphological relations between the reconstructed and the original ECG signal and Signal to reconstruction Noise Ratio (SNR). The simulation results show that the Cardinal Balanced Multiwavelet (cardbal2) by the means of identity (Id) prefiltering method to be the best effective transformation. After finding the most efficient multiwavelet, we apply SPIHT coding algorithm on the transformed signal by this multiwavelet.
Automated Segmentation of ECG Signals using Piecewise Derivative Dynamic Time Warping
Electrocardiogram (ECG) segmentation is necessary
to help reduce the time consuming task of manually annotating
ECG-s. Several algorithms have been developed to segment the ECG
automatically. We first review several of such methods, and then
present a new single lead segmentation method based on Adaptive
piecewise constant approximation (APCA) and Piecewise derivative
dynamic time warping (PDDTW). The results are tested on the QT
database. We compared our results to Laguna-s two lead method. Our
proposed approach has a comparable mean error, but yields a slightly
higher standard deviation than Laguna-s method.
Denosing ECG using Translation Invariant Multiwavelet
In this paper, we propose a method to reduce the
various kinds of noise while gathering and recording the
electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. Because of the defects of former
method in the noise elimination of ECG signal, we use translation
invariant (TI) multiwavelet denoising method to the noise elimination.
The advantage of the proposed method is that it may not only remain
the geometrical characteristics of the original ECG signal and keep the
amplitudes of various ECG waveforms efficiently, but also suppress
impulsive noise to some extent. The simulation results indicate that the
proposed method are better than former removing noise method in
aspects of remaining geometrical characteristics of ECG signal and the
signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).