International Science Index
Static and Dynamical Analysis on Clutch Discs on Different Material and Geometries
This paper presents the static and cyclic stresses in combination with fatigue analysis resultant of loads applied on the friction discs usually utilized on industrial clutches. The material chosen to simulate the friction discs under load is aluminum. The numerical simulation was done by software COMSOLTM Multiphysics. The results obtained for static loads showed enough stiffness for both geometries and the material utilized. On the other hand, in the fatigue standpoint, failure is clearly verified, what demonstrates the importance of both approaches, mainly dynamical analysis. The results and the conclusion are based on the stresses on disc, counted stress cycles, and fatigue usage factor.
Study on Sharp V-Notch Problem under Dynamic Loading Condition Using Symplectic Analytical Singular Element
V-notch problem under dynamic loading condition is considered in this paper. In the time domain, the precise time domain expanding algorithm is employed, in which a self-adaptive technique is carried out to improve computing accuracy. By expanding variables in each time interval, the recursive finite element formulas are derived. In the space domain, a Symplectic Analytical Singular Element (SASE) for V-notch problem is constructed addressing the stress singularity of the notch tip. Combining with the conventional finite elements, the proposed SASE can be used to solve the dynamic stress intensity factors (DSIFs) in a simple way. Numerical results show that the proposed SASE for V-notch problem subjected to dynamic loading condition is effective and efficient.
Numerical Analysis of the Effect of Geocell Reinforcement above Buried Pipes on Surface Settlement and Vertical Pressure
Dynamic traffic loads cause deformation of underground pipes, resulting in vehicle discomfort. This makes it necessary to reinforce the layers of soil above underground pipes. In this study, the subbase layer was reinforced. Finite element software (PLAXIS 3D) was used to in the simulation, which includes geocell reinforcement, vehicle loading, soil layers and Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GRP) pipe. Geocell reinforcement was modeled using a geogrid element, which was defined as a slender structure element that has the ability to withstand axial stresses but not to resist bending. Geogrids cannot withstand compression but they can withstand tensile forces. Comparisons have been made between the numerical models and experimental works, and a good agreement was obtained. Using the mathematical model, the performance of three different pipes of diameter 600 mm, 800 mm, and 1000 mm, and three different vehicular speeds of 20 km/h, 40 km/h, and 60 km/h, was examined to determine their impact on surface settlement and vertical pressure at the pipe crown for two cases: with and without geocell reinforcement. The results showed that, for a pipe diameter of 600 mm under geocell reinforcement, surface settlement decreases by 94 % when the speed of the vehicle is 20 km/h and by 98% when the speed of the vehicle is 60 km/h. Vertical pressure decreases by 81 % when the diameter of the pipe is 600 mm, while the value decreases to 58 % for a pipe with diameter 1000 mm. The results show that geocell reinforcement causes a significant and positive reduction in surface settlement and vertical stress above the pipe crown, leading to an increase in pipe safety.
Circular Raft Footings Strengthened by Stone Columns under Dynamic Harmonic Loads
Stone column technique has been successfully employed to improve the load-settlement characteristics of foundations. A series of finite element numerical analyses of harmonic dynamic loading have been conducted on strengthened raft footing to study the effects of single and group stone columns on settlement of circular footings. The settlement of circular raft footing that improved by single and group of stone columns are studied under harmonic dynamic loading. This loading is caused by heavy machinery foundations. A detailed numerical investigation on behavior of single column and group of stone columns is carried out by varying parameters like weight of machinery, loading frequency and period. The result implies that presence of single and group of stone columns enhanced dynamic behavior of the footing so that the maximum and residual settlement of footing significantly decreased.
Aeroelastic Analysis of Engine Nacelle Strake Considering Geometric Nonlinear Behavior
The aeroelastic behavior of engine nacelle strake when subjected to unsteady aerodynamic flows is investigated in this paper. Geometric nonlinear characteristics and modal parameters of nacelle strake are studied when it is under dynamic loading condition. Here, an N-S based Finite Volume solver is coupled with Finite Element (FE) based nonlinear structural solver to investigate the nonlinear characteristics of nacelle strake over a range of dynamic pressures at various phases of flight like takeoff, climb, and cruise conditions. The combination of high fidelity models for both aerodynamics and structural dynamics is used to predict the nonlinearities of strake (chine). The methodology adopted for present aeroelastic analysis is partitioned-based time domain coupled CFD and CSD solvers and it is validated by the consideration of experimental and numerical comparison of aeroelastic data for a cropped delta wing model which has a proven record. The present strake geometry is derived from theoretical formulation. The amplitude and frequency obtained from the coupled solver at various dynamic pressures is discussed, which gives a better understanding of its impact on aerodynamic design-sizing of strake.
Dynamic Shear Energy Absorption of Ultra-High Performance Concrete
The exemplary mechanical performance and durability of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) has led to its rapid emergence as an advanced cementitious material. The uncharacteristically high mechanical strength and ductility of UHPC makes it a promising potential material for defense structures which may be subject to highly dynamic loads like impact or blast. However, the mechanical response of UHPC under dynamic loading has not been fully characterized. In particular, there is a need to characterize the energy absorption of UHPC under high-frequency shear loading. This paper presents preliminary results from a parametric study of the dynamic shear energy absorption of UHPC using the Charpy impact test. UHPC mixtures with compressive strengths in the range of 100-150 MPa exhibited dynamic shear energy absorption in the range of 0.9-1.5 kJ/m. Energy absorption is shown to be sensitive to the water/cement ratio, silica fume content, and aggregate gradation. Energy absorption was weakly correlated to compressive strength. Results are highly sensitive to specimen preparation methods, and there is a demonstrated need for a standardized test method for high frequency shear in cementitious composites.
High Cycle Fatigue Analysis of a Lower Hopper Knuckle Connection of a Large Bulk Carrier under Dynamic Loading
The fatigue of ship structural details is of major concern in the maritime industry as it can generate fracture issues that may compromise structural integrity. In the present study, a fatigue analysis of the lower hopper knuckle connection of a bulk carrier was conducted using the Finite Element Method by means of ABAQUS/CAE software. The fatigue life was calculated using Miner’s Rule and the long-term distribution of stress range by the use of the two-parameter Weibull distribution. The cumulative damage ratio was estimated using the fatigue damage resulting from the stress range occurring at each load condition. For this purpose, a cargo hold model was first generated, which extends over the length of two holds (the mid-hold and half of each of the adjacent holds) and transversely over the full breadth of the hull girder. Following that, a submodel of the area of interest was extracted in order to calculate the hot spot stress of the connection and to estimate the fatigue life of the structural detail. Two hot spot locations were identified; one at the top layer of the inner bottom plate and one at the top layer of the hopper plate. The IACS Common Structural Rules (CSR) require that specific dynamic load cases for each loading condition are assessed. Following this, the dynamic load case that causes the highest stress range at each loading condition should be used in the fatigue analysis for the calculation of the cumulative fatigue damage ratio. Each load case has a different effect on ship hull response. Of main concern, when assessing the fatigue strength of the lower hopper knuckle connection, was the determination of the maximum, i.e. the critical value of the stress range, which acts in a direction normal to the weld toe line. This acts in the transverse direction, that is, perpendicularly to the ship's centerline axis. The load cases were explored both theoretically and numerically in order to establish the one that causes the highest damage to the location examined. The most severe one was identified to be the load case induced by beam sea condition where the encountered wave comes from the starboard. At the level of the cargo hold model, the model was assumed to be simply supported at its ends. A coarse mesh was generated in order to represent the overall stiffness of the structure. The elements employed were quadrilateral shell elements, each having four integration points. A linear elastic analysis was performed because linear elastic material behavior can be presumed, since only localized yielding is allowed by most design codes. At the submodel level, the displacements of the analysis of the cargo hold model to the outer region nodes of the submodel acted as boundary conditions and applied loading for the submodel. In order to calculate the hot spot stress at the hot spot locations, a very fine mesh zone was generated and used. The fatigue life of the detail was found to be 16.4 years which is lower than the design fatigue life of the structure (25 years), making this location vulnerable to fatigue fracture issues. Moreover, the loading conditions that induce the most damage to the location were found to be the various ballasting conditions.
Research of the Load Bearing Capacity of Inserts Embedded in CFRP under Different Loading Conditions
Continuous carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) exhibit a high application potential for lightweight structures due to their outstanding specific mechanical properties. Embedded metal elements, so-called inserts, can be used to join structural CFRP parts. Drilling of the components to be joined can be avoided using inserts. In consequence, no bearing stress is anticipated. This is a distinctive benefit of embedded inserts, since continuous CFRP have low shear and bearing strength. This paper aims at the investigation of the load bearing capacity after preinduced damages from impact tests and thermal-cycling. In addition, characterization of mechanical properties during dynamic high speed pull-out testing under different loading velocities was conducted. It has been shown that the load bearing capacity increases up to 100% for very high velocities (15 m/s) in comparison with quasi-static loading conditions (1.5 mm/min). Residual strength measurements identified the influence of thermal loading and preinduced mechanical damage. For both, the residual strength was evaluated afterwards by quasi-static pull-out tests. Taking into account the DIN EN 6038 a high decrease of force occurs at impact energy of 16 J with significant damage of the laminate. Lower impact energies of 6 J, 9 J, and 12 J do not decrease the measured residual strength, although the laminate is visibly damaged - distinguished by cracks on the rear side. To evaluate the influence of thermal loading, the specimens were placed in a climate chamber and were exposed to various numbers of temperature cycles. One cycle took 1.5 hours from -40 °C to +80 °C. It could be shown that already 10 temperature cycles decrease the load bearing capacity up to 20%. Further reduction of the residual strength with increasing number of thermal cycles was not observed. Thus, it implies that the maximum damage of the composite is already induced after 10 temperature cycles.
Reinforced Concrete Slab under Static and Dynamic Loadings
In this study, static and dynamic responses of a typical
reinforced concrete solid slab, designed to British Standard (BS 8110:
1997) and under self and live loadings for dance halls are reported.
Linear perturbation analysis using finite element method was
employed for modal, impulse loading and frequency response
analyses of the slab under the aforementioned loading condition.
Results from the static and dynamic analyses, comprising of the slab
fundamental frequencies and mode shapes, dynamic amplification
factor, maximum deflection, stress distributions among other
valuable outcomes are presented and discussed. These were gauged
with the limiting provisions in the design code with a view of
justifying valid optimization objective function for the structure that
can ensure both adequate strength and economical section for large
clear span slabs. This is necessary owing to the continued increase in
cost of erecting building structures and the squeeze on public finance
Condition Monitoring for Controlling the Stability of the Rotating Machinery
In this paper, the experimental study for the instability
of a separator rotor is presented, under dynamic loading response in
the harmonic analysis condition. The global measurement and
analysis of vibration on the cement separator RC500 is carried, the
points of measurement used are radial dots, vertical, horizontal and
oblique. The measures of trends and spectral analysis for
reconnaissance of the main anomalies, the main defects in the
separator and manifestation, the results prove that the defects effect
has a negative effect on the stability of the rotor. Experimentally the
study of the rotor in transient system allowed to determine the
vibratory responses due to the unbalances and various excitations.
Polymer Aerostatic Thrust Bearing under Circular Support for High Static Stiffness
A new design of aerostatic thrust bearing is proposed
for high static stiffness. The bearing body, which is mead of polymer
covered with metallic membrane, is held by a circular ring. Such a
support helps form a concave air gap to grasp the air pressure. The
polymer body, which can be made rapidly by either injection or
molding is able to provide extra damping under dynamic loading. The
smooth membrane not only serves as the bearing surface but also
protects the polymer body. The restrictor is a capillary inside a silicone
tube. It can passively compensate the variation of load by expanding
the capillary diameter for more air flux. In the present example, the
stiffness soars from 15.85 N/μm of typical bearing to 349.85 N/μm at
bearing elevation 9.5 μm; meanwhile the load capacity also enhances
from 346.86 N to 704.18 N.
Dynamic Behavior of the Nanostructure of Load-bearing Biological Materials
Typical load-bearing biological materials like bone,
mineralized tendon and shell, are biocomposites made from both
organic (collagen) and inorganic (biomineral) materials. This
amazing class of materials with intrinsic internally designed
hierarchical structures show superior mechanical properties with
regard to their weak components from which they are formed.
Extensive investigations concentrating on static loading conditions
have been done to study the biological materials failure. However,
most of the damage and failure mechanisms in load-bearing
biological materials will occur whenever their structures are exposed
to dynamic loading conditions. The main question needed to be
answered here is: What is the relation between the layout and
architecture of the load-bearing biological materials and their
dynamic behavior? In this work, a staggered model has been
developed based on the structure of natural materials at nanoscale and
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been used to study the dynamic
behavior of the structure of load-bearing biological materials to
answer why the staggered arrangement has been selected by nature to
make the nanocomposite structure of most of the biological materials.
The results showed that the staggered structures will efficiently
attenuate the stress wave rather than the layered structure.
Furthermore, such staggered architecture is effectively in charge of
utilizing the capacity of the biostructure to resist both normal and
shear loads. In this work, the geometrical parameters of the model
like the thickness and aspect ratio of the mineral inclusions selected
from the typical range of the experimentally observed feature sizes
and layout dimensions of the biological materials such as bone and
mineralized tendon. Furthermore, the numerical results validated with
existing theoretical solutions. Findings of the present work emphasize
on the significant effects of dynamic behavior on the natural
evolution of load-bearing biological materials and can help scientists
to design bioinspired materials in the laboratories.
Study on Seismic Performance of Reinforced Soil Walls to Modify the Pseudo Static Method
This study, tries to suggest a design method based on
displacement using finite difference numerical modeling in
reinforcing soil retaining wall with steel strip. In this case, dynamic
loading characteristics such as duration, frequency, peak ground
acceleration, geometrical characteristics of reinforced soil structure
and type of the site are considered to correct the pseudo static method
and finally introduce the pseudo static coefficient as a function of
seismic performance level and peak ground acceleration. For this
purpose, the influence of dynamic loading characteristics,
reinforcement length, height of reinforced system and type of the site
are investigated on seismic behavior of reinforcing soil retaining wall
with steel strip. Numerical results illustrate that the seismic response
of this type of wall is highly dependent to cumulative absolute
velocity, maximum acceleration, and height and reinforcement length
so that the reinforcement length can be introduced as the main factor
in shape of failure. Considering the loading parameters, geometric parameters of the
wall and type of the site showed that the used method in this study
leads to efficient designs in comparison with other methods, which
are usually based on limit-equilibrium concept. The outputs show the
over-estimation of equilibrium design methods in comparison with
proposed displacement based methods here.
Response of Buildings with Soil-Structure Interaction with Varying Soil Types
Over the years, it has been extensively established that
the practice of assuming a structure being fixed at base, leads to gross
errors in evaluation of its overall response due to dynamic loadings
and overestimations in design. The extent of these errors depends on
a number of variables; soil type being one of the major factor. This
paper studies the effect of Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) on multistorey
buildings with varying under-laying soil types after proper
validation of the effect of SSI. Analysis for soft, stiff and very stiff
base soils has been carried out, using a powerful Finite Element
Method (FEM) software package ANSYS v14.5. Results lead to
some very important conclusions regarding time period, deflection
and acceleration responses.
Advanced Energy Absorbers Used in Blast Resistant Systems
The main aim of the presented experiments is to
improve behaviour of sandwich structures under dynamic loading,
such as crash or explosion. This paper describes experimental
investigation on the response of new advanced materials to low and
high velocity load. Blast wave energy absorbers were designed using
two types of porous lightweight raw particle materials based on
expanded glass and ceramics with dimensions of 0.5-1 mm,
combined with polymeric binder. The effect of binder amount on the
static and dynamic properties of designed materials was observed.
Prism shaped specimens were prepared and loaded to obtain physicomechanical
parameters – bulk density, compressive and flexural
strength under quasistatic load, the dynamic response was determined
using Split Hopkinson Pressure bar apparatus. Numerical
investigation of the material behaviour in sandwich structure was
performed using implicit/explicit solver LS-Dyna. As the last step,
the developed material was used as the interlayer of blast resistant
litter bin, and it´s functionality was verified by real field blast tests.
Static and Dynamic Load on Hip Contact of Hip Prosthesis and Thai Femoral Bones
Total hip replacement had been one of the most
successful operations in hip arthritis surgery. The purpose of this
research had been to develop a dynamic hip contact of Thai femoral
bone to analyze the stress distribution on the implant and the strain
distribution on the bone model under daily activities and compared
with the static load simulation. The results showed the different of
maximum von Mises stress 0.14 percent under walking and 0.03
percent under climbing stair condition and the different of equivalent
total strain 0.52 percent under walking and 0.05 percent under
climbing stair condition. The muscular forces should be evaluated
with dynamic condition to reduce the maximum von Mises stress and
equivalent total strain.
Numerical Study for Structural Design of Composite Rotor with Crack Initiation
In this paper, a coupled damage effect in the
instability of a composite rotor is presented, under dynamic loading
response in the harmonic analysis condition. The analysis of the
stress which operates the rotor is done. Calculations of different
energies and the virtual work of the aerodynamic loads from the rotor
blade are developed. The use of the composite material for the rotor
offers a good stability.
Numerical calculations on the model developed prove that the
damage effect has a negative effect on the stability of the rotor.
The study of the composite rotor in transient system allowed
determining the vibratory responses due to various excitations.
High Strain Rate Characteristics of the Advanced Blast Energy Absorbers
The main aim of the presented experiments is to
improve behaviour of sandwich structures under dynamic loading,
such as crash or explosion. Several cellular materials are widely used
as core of the sandwich structures and their properties influence
the response of the entire element under impact load. To optimize
their performance requires the characterisation of the core material
behaviour at high strain rates and identification of the underlying
mechanism. This work presents the study of high strain-rate
characteristics of a specific porous lightweight blast energy absorbing
foam using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) technique
adapted to perform tests on low strength materials. Two different
velocities, 15 and 30 m.s-1 were used to determine the strain
sensitivity of the material. Foams were designed using two types of
porous lightweight spherical raw materials with diameters of 30-
100 *m, combined with polymer matrix. Cylindrical specimens with
diameter of 15 mm and length of 7 mm were prepared and loaded
using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus to assess the relation
between the composition of the material and its shock wave
Analysis of Motor Cycle Helmet under Static and Dynamic Loading
Each year nearly nine hundred persons die in head injuries and over fifty thousand persons are severely injured due to non wearing of helmets. In motor cycle accidents, the human head is exposed to heavy impact loading against natural protection. In this work, an attempt has been made for analyzing the helmet with all the standard data. The simulation software ‘ANSYS’ is used to analyze the helmet with different conditions such as bottom fixed-load on top surface, bottom fixed -load on top line, side fixed –load on opposite surface, side fixed-load on opposite line and dynamic analysis. The maximum force of 19.5 kN is applied on the helmet to study the model in static and dynamic conditions. The simulation has been carried out for the static condition for the parameters like total deformation, strain energy, von-Mises stress for different cases. The dynamic analysis has been performed for the parameter like total deformation and equivalent elastic strain. The result shows that these values are concentrated in the retention portion of the helmet. These results have been compared with the standard experimental data proposed by the BIS and well within the acceptable limit.
Dynamic Analysis of the Dome with Arches and Rings from Romexpo Bucharest
The dome with ribs and rings, which covers the
ROMEXPO pavilion from Bucharest, was designed after the collapse
of the single layer reticulated dome. In this paper, it was made the
checking of the structure, under the dynamic loads with three
recorded accelerograms calibrated according to Romanian seismic
design code P100-1/2006. Under the action the dynamic loadings, it
was made a time-history analysis to determine the zones where the
plastic hinges appear, at what accelerations and their position on the
structure. The studied dome is formed by 32 spatial semi arches and
three rings: one circular ring located at the top of the dome and
another two rings, design as trusses, the first near the supports and the
second as an intermediate rings above the skylights. Above the
skylights up to the top, the dome is tight together with purlins and
Influence of Bentonite Additive on Bitumen and Asphalt Mixture Properties
Asphalt surfaces are exposed to various weather
conditions and dynamic loading caused by passing trucks and
vehicles. In such situations, asphalt cement shows so different
rheological-mechanical behavior. If asphalt cement isn-t compatible
enough, asphalt layer will be damaged immediately and expensive
repairing procedures should be performed then. To overcome this
problem, researchers study on mechanical improved asphalt cement.
In this study, bentonite was used in order to modify bitumen
characteristics and the modified bitumen's characteristics were
investigated by asphalt cement tests. Then, the optimal bitumen
content in various compounds was determined and asphalt samples
with different contents of additives were prepared and tested. Results
show using this kind of additive not only has caused improvement in
bitumen mechanical properties, but also improvement in Marshall
Parameters was achieved.
Human Induced Dynamic Loading on Stairs
Based on experimental data using accelerometry technology there was developed an analytical model that approximates human induced ground reaction forces in vertical, longitudinal and lateral directions ascending and descending the stairs. Proposed dynamic loading factors and corresponding phase shifts for the first five harmonics of continuous walking force history in case of stair ascend and descend. Into account is taken imperfectness of individual footfall forcing functions, differences between continuous walking force histories among individuals. There is proposed mean synthetic continuous walking force history that can be used in numerical simulations of human movement on the stairs.
Numerical Modeling of Steel-Composite Hybrid Tubes Subject to Static and Dynamic Loading
The commercial finite element program LS-DYNA was employed to evaluate the response and energy absorbing capacity of cylindrical metal tubes that are externally wrapped with composite. The effects of composite wall thickness, loading conditions and fiber ply orientation were examined. The results demonstrate that a wrapped composite can be utilized effectively to enhance the crushing characteristics and energy absorbing capacity of the tubes. Increasing the thickness of the composite increases the mean force and the specific energy absorption under both static and dynamic crushing. The ply pattern affects the energy absorption capacity and the failure mode of the metal tube and the composite material property is also significant in determining energy absorption efficiency.
Evaluation of Geosynthetic Forces in GRSRW under Dynamic Condition
Geosynthetics have proved to be suitable for
reinforced soil retaining walls. Based on the increasing uses of
geosynthetic reinforced soil systems in the regions, which bear
frequent earthquakes, the study of dynamic behavior of structures
seems necessary. Determining the reinforcement forces is; therefore,
one of the most important and main points of discussions in
designing retaining walls, by which we prevent from conservative
planning. Thus, this paper intended to investigate the effects of such
parameters as wall height, acceleration type, vertical spacing of
reinforcement, type of reinforcement and soil type on forces and
deformation through numerical modeling of the geosynthetic
reinforced soil retaining walls (GRSRW) under dynamic loading with
finite difference method by using FLAC. The findings indicate rather
positive results with each parameter.
Damage Evolution of Underground Structural Reinforced Concrete Small-Scale Static-Loading Experiments
Small-scale RC models of both piles and tunnel ducts
were produced as mockups of reality and loaded under soil
confinement conditionsto investigate the damage evolution of
structural RC interacting with soil. Experimental verifications usinga
3D nonlinear FE analysis program called COM3D, which was
developed at the University of Tokyo, are introduced. This analysis
has been used in practice for seismic performance assessment of
underground ducts and in-ground LNG storage tanks in consideration
of soil-structure interactionunder static and dynamic loading. Varying
modes of failure of RCpilessubjected to different magnitudes of soil
confinement were successfully reproduced in the proposed small-scale
experiments and numerically simulated as well. Analytical simulation
was applied to RC tunnel mockups under a wide variety of depth and
soil confinement conditions, and reasonable matching was confirmed.
Intelligent Fuzzy Input Estimator for the Input Force on the Rigid Bar Structure System
The intelligent fuzzy input estimator is used to estimate
the input force of the rigid bar structural system in this study. The
fuzzy Kalman filter without the input term and the fuzzy weighting
recursive least square estimator are two main portions of this method.
The practicability and accuracy of the proposed method were verified
with numerical simulations from which the input forces of a rigid bar
structural system were estimated from the output responses. In order to
examine the accuracy of the proposed method, a rigid bar structural
system is subjected to periodic sinusoidal dynamic loading. The
excellent performance of this estimator is demonstrated by comparing
it with the use of difference weighting function and improper the
initial process noise covariance. The estimated results have a good
agreement with the true values in all cases tested.
A Closed Form Solution for Hydrodynamic Pressure of Gravity Dams Reservoir with Effect of Viscosity under Dynamic Loading
Hydrodynamic pressures acting on upstream of concrete dams during an earthquake are an important factor in designing and assessing the safety of these structures in Earthquake regions. Due to inherent complexities, assessing exact hydrodynamic pressure is only feasible for problems with simple geometry. In this research, the governing equation of concrete gravity dam reservoirs with effect of fluid viscosity in frequency domain is solved and then compared with that in which viscosity is assumed zero. The results show that viscosity influences the reservoir-s natural frequency. In excitation frequencies near the reservoir's natural frequencies, hydrodynamic pressure has a considerable difference in compare to the results of non-viscose fluid.
Static and Dynamic Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Pelvic Bone
The complex shape of the human pelvic bone was
successfully imaged and modeled using finite element FE processing.
The bone was subjected to quasi-static and dynamic loading
conditions simulating the effect of both weight gain and impact.
Loads varying between 500 – 2500 N (~50 – 250 Kg of weight) was
used to simulate 3D quasi-static weight gain. Two different 3D
dynamic analyses, body free fall at two different heights (1 and 2 m)
and forced side impact at two different velocities (20 and 40 Km/hr)
were also studied. The computed resulted stresses were compared for
the four loading cases, where Von Misses stresses increases linearly
with the weight gain increase under quasi-static loading. For the
dynamic models, the Von Misses stress history behaviors were
studied for the affected area and effected load with respect to time.
The normalization Von Misses stresses with respect to the applied
load were used for comparing the free fall and the forced impact load
results. It was found that under the forced impact loading condition
an over lapping behavior was noticed, where as for the free fall the
normalized Von Misses stresses behavior was found to nonlinearly
different. This phenomenon was explained through the energy
dissipation concept. This study will help designers in different
specialization in defining the weakest spots for designing different