International Science Index

26
10007392
GGE-Biplot Analysis of Nano-Titanium Dioxide and Nano-Silica Effects on Sunflower
Abstract:

Present investigation is performed to evaluate the effects of foliar application of salicylic acid, glycine betaine, ascorbic acid, nano-silica, and nano-titanium dioxide on sunflower. Results showed that the first two principal components were sufficient to create a two-dimensional treatment by trait biplot, and such biplot accounted percentages of 49% and 19%, respectively of the interaction between traits and treatments. The vertex treatments of polygon were ascorbic acid, glycine betaine, nano-TiO2, and control indicated that high performance in some important traits consists of number of days to seed maturity, number of seeds per head, number heads per single plant, hundred seed weight, seed length, seed yield performance, and oil content. Treatments suitable for obtaining the high seed yield were identified in the vector-view function of biplot and displayed nano-silica and nano titanium dioxide as the best treatments suitable for obtaining of high seed yield.

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73
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25
10005555
Evaluation of Potential Production of Maize Genotypes of Early Maturity in Rainfed Lowland
Abstract:
Maize development at the rainfed lowland after rice is often confronted with the occurrence of drought stress at the time of entering the generative phase, which will cause be hampered crop production. Consequently, in the utilization of the rainfed lowland areas optimally, an effort that can be done using the varieties of early maturity to minimize crop failures due to its short rainy season. The aim of this research was evaluating the potential yield of genotypes of candidates of maize early maturity in the rainfed lowland areas. The study was conducted during May to August 2016 at South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The study used randomized block design to compare 12 treatments and consists of 8 genotypes namely CH1, CH2, CH3, CH4, CH5, CH6, CH7, CH8 and the use of four varieties, namely Bima 3, Bima 7, Lamuru and Gumarang. The results showed that genotype of CH2, CH3, CH5, CH 6, CH7 and CH8 harvesting has less than 90 days. There are two genotypes namely genotypes of CH7 and CH8 that have a fairly high production respectively of 7.16 tons / ha and 8.11 tons/ ha and significantly not different from the superior varieties Bima3.
Paper Detail
453
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24
10007079
Response of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Genotypes to Drought Stress at Different Growth Stages
Abstract:

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the important grain legume crops in the world. However, drought stress is a serious threat to chickpea production, and development of drought-resistant varieties is a necessity. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the response of 8 chickpea genotypes (MCC* 696, 537, 80, 283, 392, 361, 252, 397) and drought stress (S1: non-stress, S2: stress at vegetative growth stage, S3: stress at early bloom, S4: stress at early pod visible) at different growth stages. Experiment was arranged in split plot design with four replications. Difference among the drought stress time was found to be significant for investigated traits except biological yield. Differences were observed for genotypes in flowering time, pod information time, physiological maturation time and yield. Plant height reduced due to drought stress in vegetative growth stage. Stem dry weight reduced due to drought stress in pod visibly. Flowering time, maturation time, pod number, number of seed per plant and yield cause of drought stress in flowering was also reduced. The correlation between yield and number of seed per plant and biological yield was positive. The MCC283 and MCC696 were the high-tolerance genotypes. These results demonstrated that drought stress delayed phonological growth in chickpea and that flowering stage is sensitive.

Paper Detail
53
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23
10005083
Antioxidant Capacity of Maize Corn under Drought Stress from the Different Zones of Growing
Abstract:
The semidental sweet maize of Armenian population under drought stress and pollution by some heavy metals (HMs) in sites along the river Debet was studied. Accordingly, the objective of this work was to investigate the antioxidant status of maize plant in order to identify simple and reliable criteria for assessing the degree of adaptation of plants to abiotic stress of drought and HMs. It was found that in the case of removal from the mainstream of the river, the antioxidant status of the plant varies. As parameters, the antioxidant status of the plant has been determined by the activity of malondialdehyde (MDA) and Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP), taking into account the characteristics of natural drought of this region. The possibility of using some indicators which characterized the antioxidant status of the plant was concluded. The criteria for assessing the extent of environmental pollution could be HMs. This fact can be used for the early diagnosis of diseases in the population who lives in these areas and uses corn as the main food.
Paper Detail
454
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22
10005669
Regulation of Water Balance of the Plant from the Different Geo-Environmental Locations
Abstract:
Under the drought stress condition, the plants would grow slower. Temperature is one of the most important abiotic factors which suppress the germination processes. However, the processes of transpiration are regulated directly by the cell water, which followed to an increase in volume of vacuoles. During stretching under the influence of water pressure, the cell goes into the state of turgor. In our experiments, lines of the semi-dental sweet maize of Armenian population from various zones of growth under mild and severe drought stress were tested. According to results, the value of the water balance of the plant cells may reflect the ability of plants to adapt to drought stress. It can be assumed that the turgor allows evaluating the number of received dissolved substance in cell.
Paper Detail
255
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21
10002230
Investigation of Genetic Variation for Agronomic Traits among the Recombinant Inbred Lines of Wheat from the Norstar × Zagross Cross under Water Stress Condition
Abstract:
Determination of genetic variation is useful for plant breeding and hence production of more efficient plant species under different conditions, like drought stress. In this study a sample of 28 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of wheat developed from the cross of Norstar and Zagross varieties, together with their parents, were evaluated for two years (2010-2012) under normal and water stress conditions using split plot design with three replications. Main plots included two irrigation treatments of 70 and 140 mm evaporation from Class A pan and sub-plots consisted of 30 genotypes. The effect of genotypes and interaction of genotypes with years and water regimes were significant for all characters. Significant genotypic effect implies the existence of genetic variation among the lines under study. Heritability estimates were high for 1000 grain weight (0.87). Biomass and grain yield showed the lowest heritability values (0.42 and 0.50, respectively). Highest genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation (GCV and PCV) belonged to harvest index. Moderate genetic advance for most of the traits suggested the feasibility of selection among the RILs under investigation. Some RILs were higher yielding than either parent at both environments.
Paper Detail
1546
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20
10002368
Evaluation of Superabsorbent Application on Corn Yield under Deficit Irrigation
Abstract:
This research was planned in order to study the effect of drought stress and different levels of Superabsorbent and their effect on grain yield, biologic yield and harvest index. In this study, 3 different depths of irrigation were considered as the main treatment I1, I2, I3 as 100, 75 and 50 percent of water requirement of plants respectively and different levels of Superabsorbent were used as secondary treatment (S0, S1, S2 and S3, equal to 0 (control), 15, 30 and 45 gr/m2 respectively). According to the results, independent effects of irrigation and Superabsorbent treatments at 1% level on biologic and grain yield of corn were significant. In addition, independent effect of irrigation treatments at 5% level on harvest index was significant. But independent effect of Superabsorbent treatments on harvest index was not significant.
Paper Detail
900
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19
9999861
The Effect of Drought Stress on Grain Yield, Yield Components and Protein Content of Durum Wheat Cultivars in Ilam Province, Iran
Abstract:

In order to study the effect of drought stress on grain yield, yield components and associated traits of durum wheat cultivars, an experiment was done as split plot arrangement using randomized complete block design with three replications in Ilam province, Iran in 2009-2010 cropping season. Different levels of irrigation (Full irrigation, drought stress at stem elongation, Flowering and grain formation stages) were considered as a main plot and three durum wheat cultivars (Yavaros, Seimareh and Karkheh) were assigned as a sub plot. The results showed that drought stress was significant on grain yield, spike.m-2, grain. Spike-1, 1000-grain weight, biological yield, harvest index and protein content. Drought stress at all stages caused a loss in grain yield and its components. Full irrigation had the highest grain yield and yield components. Drought stress at stem elongation, flowering and grain formation stages caused a reduction in spike.m-2, grain.spike-1 and 1000-grain weight, respectively. Protein content was significantly affected by drought stress. The highest protein content was obtained from drought stress at grain formation stage. Cultivars had an influence on grain yield and yield components. Yavaros and Seimareh cultivars had the highest and lowest grain yield, respectively. Interaction effect between drought stress and cultivar had a significant effect on grain and yield components. Full irrigation and Yavaros cultivar had the highest grain yield and drought stress at grain formation stage and Seimareh cultivar had the lowest grain yield, respectively.

Paper Detail
1513
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18
9998301
Drought Stress Indices in Some Silage Maize Cultivars
Abstract:

Several yield-based stress indices have been developed that may be more applicable to work on drought tolerance. In this study, we investigate possibility of using stress susceptibility index (SSI), tolerance index (TOL), yield stability index (YSI), yield index (YI), stress tolerance index (STI), geometric mean productivity (GMP), harmonic mean (HARM), mean productivity (MP) to identify genotypic performance of some maize cultivars under normal and stressed condition. The results indicate that it was possible to identify superior genotypes for drought tolerance based on their stress indices and generally SSI indices which showed the lowest negative correlation with dry matter yield can be used as the best index for maize breeding programs to introduce drought tolerant hybrids. It was found that SC 647 showed the best behavior under drought stress condition based on TOL and SSI. A higher STI, GMP, and HARM values were attained for ko6. It can be suggested that ko6 should be cultivated in moderate stressful environment of Iran.

Paper Detail
1770
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17
9997972
Effects of Drought Stress on Qualitative and Quantitative Traits of Mungbean
Abstract:

In order to investigate the effect of drought stress and row spacing on grain yield and associated traits of Mungbean, an experiment was conducted as a factorial in based on randomized complete block design with three replications in Ilam station, Iran during 2008-2009 growing season. This experiment was conducted in four stages on one kind of Mungbean named Gohar. The experimental factors including (80, 110 and 140mm cumulative evaporation from class A pan) and row spacing (25, 50, and 75cm) were selected. The results of the experiment showed that the varieties affected by the treatment showed significant differences. The highest total yield was obtained in the condition in which evaporation of water was 80mm. Of course some traits such as grain yield did not show a significant difference between the conditions in which evaporation of the irrigation water was 80 and 110mm. The traits under study also showed a significant difference to different raw spacing. Row spacing of 50cm had a higher total yield compared to other raw spaces. It was due to the higher number of pods per plant and grain weight. The interaction of drought stress and row spacing showed that in the condition in which the row space is 50 cm and the evaporation of the irrigation water is 80mm, the highest number of grain is achieved.

Paper Detail
1211
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16
9996684
The Expression of a Novel Gene Encoding an Ankyrin-Repeat Protein, DRA1, is Regulated by Drought-Responsive Alternative Splicing
Abstract:

Drought stress is a critical environmental factor that adversely affects crop productivity and quality. Because of their immobile nature, plants have evolved mechanisms to sense and respond to drought stress. We identified a novel locus of Arabidopsis, designated DRA1 (drought responsive ankyrin1), whose disruption leads to increased drought-stress tolerance. DRA1 encodes a transmembrane protein with an ankyrin-repeat motif that has been implicated in diverse cellular processes such as signal transduction. RT-PCR analysis revealed that there were at least two splicing variants of DRA1 transcripts in wild-type plants. In response to drought stress, the levels of DRA1 transcripts retaining second and third introns were increased, whereas these introns were removed under unstressed conditions. These results suggest that DRA1 protein may negatively regulate plant drought tolerance and that the expression of DRA1is regulated in response to drought stress by alternative splicing.

Paper Detail
1172
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15
9997085
The Expression of a Novel Gene Encoding an Ankyrin-Repeat Protein, DRA1, is Regulated by Drought-Responsive Alternative Splicing
Abstract:

Drought stress is a critical environmental factor that adversely affects crop productivity and quality. Because of their immobile nature, plants have evolved mechanisms to sense and respond to drought stress. We identified a novel locus of Arabidopsis, designated DRA1 (drought responsive ankyrin1), whose disruption leads to increased drought-stress tolerance. DRA1 encodes a transmembrane protein with an ankyrin-repeat motif that has been implicated in diverse cellular processes such as signal transduction. RT-PCR analysis revealed that there were at least two splicing variants of DRA1 transcripts in wild-type plants. In response to drought stress, the levels of DRA1 transcripts retaining second and third introns were increased, whereas these introns were removed under unstressed conditions. These results suggest that DRA1 protein may negatively regulate plant drought tolerance and that the expression of DRA1is regulated in response to drought stress by alternative splicing.

Paper Detail
993
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14
16582
The Use of Chlorophyll Meter Readings for the Selection of Maize Inbred Lines under Drought Stress
Abstract:

The present study aimed to investigate whether chlorophyll meter readings (SPAD) can be used as criterion of singleplant selection in maize breeding. Experimentation was performed at the ultra-low density of 0.74 plants/m2 in order the potential yield per plant to be fully expressed. R-31 honeycomb experiments were conducted in three different areas in Greece (Thessaloniki, Giannitsa and Florina) using 30 inbred lines at well-watered and water-stressed conditions during the 2012 growing season. The chlorophyll meter readings had higher rates at dry conditions, except location of Giannitsa where differences were not significant. Genotypes of highest chlorophyll meter readings were consistent across areas, emphasizing on the character’s stability. A positive correlation between the chlorophyll meter readings and grain yield was strengthening over time and culminated at the physiological maturity stage. There was a clear sign that the chlorophyll meter readings has the potential to be used for the selection of stress-adaptive genotypes and may permit modern maize to be grown at wider range of environments addressing the climate change scenarios.

Paper Detail
1799
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13
12217
Dynamics of Functional Composition of a Brazilian Tropical Forest in Response to Drought Stress
Abstract:

The aim of this study was to examine the dynamics of functional composition of a non flooded Amazonian forest in response to drought stress in terms of diameter growth, recruitment and mortality. The survey was carried out in the continuous forest of the Biological dynamics of forest fragments project 90 km outside the city of Manaus, state of Amazonas Brazil. All stems >10 cm dbh where identified to species level and monitored in 18 one hectare permanent sample plots from 1981 to 2004.For statistical analysis all species where aggregated in three ecological guilds. Two distinct drought events occurred in 1983 and 1997. Results showed that more early successional species performed better than later successional ones. Response was significant for both events but for the 1997 event this was more pronounced possibly because of the fact that the event was in the middle of the dry rather than the wet period as was the 1983 one.

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1113
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12
1266
Evaluation of drought Tolerance Indices in Dryland Bread wheat Genotypes under Post-Anthesis drought Stress
Abstract:
Post-anthesis drought stress is the most important problem affecting wheat production in dryland fields, specially in Mediterranean regions. The main objective of this research was to evaluate drought tolerance indices in dryland wheat genotypes under post-anthesis drought stress. The research was including two different experiments. In each experiment, twenty dryland bread wheat genotypes were sown in a randomized complete blocks design (RCBD) with three replications. One of experiments belonged to rain-fed conditions (post-anthesis drought stress) and other experiment was under non-stress conditions (with supplemental irrigation). Different drought tolerance indices include Stress Tolerance (Tol), Mean Productivity (MP), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP), Stress Susceptibility Index (SSI), Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Harmonic Mean (HAM), Yield Index (YI) and Yield Stability Index (YSI) were evaluate based on grain yield under rain-fed (Ys) and supplemental irrigation (Yp) environments. G10 and G12 were the most tolerant genotypes based on TOL and SSI. But, based on MP, GMP, STI, HAM and YI indices, G1 and G2 were selected. STI, GMP and MP indices had high correlation with grain yield under rain-fed and supplementary irrigation conditions and were recognized as appropriate indices to identify genotypes with high grain yield and low sensitivity to drought stress environments.
Paper Detail
1158
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11
14755
Physiological and Biochemical Responses to Drought Stress of Chickpea Genotypes
Abstract:
The experimental design was 4 x 5 factorial with three replications in fully controlled research greenhouse in Department of Soil Sciences and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Selcuk in the year of 2009. Determination of tolerant chickpea genotypes to drought was made in the research. Additionally, sophisticated effects of drought on plant growth and development, biochemical and physical properties or physical defense mechanisms were presented. According to the results, the primary genotypes were Ilgın YP (0.0063 g/gh) for leaf water capacity, 22235 70.44(%) for relative water content, 22159 (82.47%) for real water content, 22159 (5.03 mg/l) for chlorophyll a+b, Ilgın YP (125.89 nmol H2O2.dak-1/ mg protein-1) for peroxidase, Yunak YP (769.67 unit/ mg protein-1) for superoxide dismutase, Seydişehir YP (16.74 μg.TA-1) for proline, Gökçe (80.01 nmol H2O2.dak-1/ mg protein-1) for catalase. Consequently, all the genotypes increased their enzyme activity depending on the increasing of drought stress consider with the effects of drought stress on leaf enzyme activity. Chickpea genotypes are increasing enzyme activity against to drought stress.
Paper Detail
1172
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10
15501
Improving Water Productivity of Chickpea by the Use of Deficit Irrigation with Treated Domestic Wastewater
Abstract:
An experiment was performed in the south of Morocco in order to evaluate the effect of deficit irrigation by treated wastewater on chickpea production. We applied six irrigation treatments on a local variety of chickpea by supplying alternatively 50 or 100% of ETm in a completely randomized design. We found a highly significant difference between treatments in terms of biomass production. Drought stress during the vegetative period showed highest yield with 6.5 t/ha which was more than the yield obtained for the control (4.9 t/ha). The optimal crop stage in which deficit irrigation can be applied is the vegetative growth stage, as the crop has a chance to develop its root system, to be able to cover the plant needs for water and nutrient supply during the rest of cycle, and non stress conditions during the flowering and seed filling stages allow the plant to optimize its photosynthesis and carbon translocation, therefore increase its productivity.
Paper Detail
2479
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9
10045
Mycorrhizal Fungi Influence on Physiological Growth Indices in Basil Induced by Phosphorus Fertilizer under Irrigation Deficit Conditions
Abstract:
This experiment was carried out to study the effect of AMF, drought stress and phosphorus on physiological growth indices of basil at Iran using by a split-plot design with three replications. The main-plot factor included: two levels of irrigation regimes (control=no drought stress and irrigation after 80 evaporation= drought stress condition) while the sub-plot factors included phosphorus (0, 35 and 70 kg/ha) and application and non-application of Glomus fasciculatum. The results showed that total dry matter (TDM), life area index (LAI), relative growth rate (RGR) and crop growth rate (CGR) were all highly significantly different among the phosphorus, whereas drought stress had effect of practical significance on TDM, LAI, RGR and CGR. The results also showed that the highest TDM, LAI, RGR and CGR were obtained from application of Glomus fasciculatum under no-drought condition.
Paper Detail
973
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8
1878
Effect of Cement-kiln Dust Pollution on The Vegetation in The Western Mediterranean Desert of Egypt
Abstract:
This study investigated the ecological effects of particulate pollution from a cement factory on the vegetation in the western Mediterranean coastal desert of Egypt. Variations in vegetation, soil chemical characters, and some responses of Atriplex halimus, as a dominant species in the study area, were investigated in some sites located in different directions from the cement factory between Burg El-Arab in the east and El-Hammam in the west. The results showed an obvious decrease in vegetation diversity, in response to cement-kiln dust pollution, that accompanied by a high dominance attributed to the high contribution of Atriplex halimus. Annual species were found to be more sensitive to cement dust pollution as they all failed to persist in highly disturbed sites. It is remarkable that cover and phytomass of Atriplex halimus were increased greatly in response to cement dust pollution, and this was accompanied by a reduction in the mature seeds and leaf-area of the plant. The few seeds of the affected individuals seemed to be more fertile and attained higher germination percentages and exhibited hardening against drought stress.
Paper Detail
1913
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7
12610
Influence of Drought on Yield and Yield Components in White Bean
Abstract:
In order to study seed yield and seed yield components in bean under reduced irrigation condition and assessment drought tolerance of genotypes, 15 lines of White beans were evaluated in two separate RCB design with 3 replications under stress and non stress conditions. Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences among varieties in terms of traits under study, indicating the existence of genetic variation among varieties. The results indicate that drought stress reduced seed yield, number of seed per plant, biological yield and number of pod in White been. In non stress condition, yield was highly correlated with the biological yield, whereas in stress condition it was highly correlated with harvest index. Results of stepwise regression showed that, selection can we done based on, biological yield, harvest index, number of seed per pod, seed length, 100 seed weight. Result of path analysis showed that the highest direct effect, being positive, was related to biological yield in non stress and to harvest index in stress conditions. Factor analysis were accomplished in stress and nonstress condition a, there were 4 factors that explained more than 76 percent of total variations. We used several selection indices such as Stress Susceptibility Index ( SSI ), Geometric Mean Productivity ( GMP ), Mean Productivity ( MP ), Stress Tolerance Index ( STI ) and Tolerance Index ( TOL ) to study drought tolerance of genotypes, we found that the best Stress Index for selection tolerance genotypes were STI, GMP and MP were the greatest correlations between these Indices and seed yield under stress and non stress conditions. In classification of genotypes base on phenotypic characteristics, using cluster analysis ( UPGMA ), all allels classified in 5 separate groups in stress and non stress conditions.
Paper Detail
1322
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6
11578
Effect of Drought Stress on Nitrogen Components in Corn
Abstract:
An attempt was made to study of nitrogen components response of corn (Zea mays L.) to drought stress. A farm research was done in RCBD as split-plot with four replications in Khorramabad, west Iran. Drought stress levels as irrigation regimes after 75 (control), 100, and 120 (stress) mm cumulative evaporation were in main plots, and four seed corn varieties include 500 (medium maturity), 647, 700, and 704 (long maturity) were as subplots. Soluble protein, nitrate and proline amino acid were measured in shoot and root at flowering stage, and grain yield was measured in harvesting stage. As the drought progressed, the amount of nitrate and proline followed an increasing trend, but soluble protein decreased in shoot and root. The highest amount of nitrate and proline was observed in longer maturity varieties than shorter ones, but decrease yield of long maturity varieties was higher than medium maturity varieties in drought condition, because of long duration of stress.
Paper Detail
881
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5
12842
Seed Treatment during Germination in Linseed to Overcome Salt and Drought Stresses (Linum usitatissimum L.)
Abstract:
Evaluation of crop plants resistance to environmental stresses specially in germination stage is a critical factor in their selection in different conditions of cultivation. Therefore use of a procedure in controllable situation can help to evaluate plants reaction to stress quickly and precisely. In order to study germination characteristics of flax in water and salinity stress conditions were conducted two laboratories experimental. The two experimental were conducted in 4-replicant completing random design for salinity and water stress. The treatment, for salinity and water stress was three potential (zero, 40, 80 mM) of NaCl and three potential (zero, -2, -4 bar) of PEG respectively. Germination percentage and rate, in addition to Radical and plumule length and dry-weight and plumule/Radical ration were measured. All of characteristics reduce under water stress conditions. salinity stress significant reduce germination rate and Radical and plumule length of flax seeds. Hydropriming and osmopriming significant increased germination rate, plumule length and plumule/Radical ration ration of flax seeds. But germination percentage and Radical and plumule dry weight significant increased only in hydropriming treat. Hydropriming and osmopriming could not be used to improved germination under saline and drought stress. But has more tolerance in salinity and drought stress in flax by less reduce in Radical and plumule length under saline and drought stress.
Paper Detail
1685
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4
1408
Effects of Salinity and Drought Levels in Seed Germination of Five Crop Species
Abstract:
The heterotrophic seedling growth can be defined as a product of two components: (1) the weight of mobilized seed reserve, and (2) conversion efficiency of utilized seed reserve to seedling tissue. The first component can be further divided into (1) initial seed weight, and (2) the fraction of seed reserve, which is mobilized. The objective of this study was the identification of the sensitive seedling growth component(s) in response to drought and salinity stresses. Two experiments were separately conducted using various salinity levels (osmotic pressure) of 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 MPa created using NaCl as first experiment and by polyethylene glycol (drought stress) of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1, 1.2 and 1.4 MPa in second experiment. Seeds of five crops species (Hordeum vulgare, Brassica napus, Zea mays, Medicago sativa and Medicago scutellata) were used in each experiment. In both experiments, seedling growth, fraction of seed reserve utilization and weight of mobilized seed reserve decreased with increasing drought and salt intensity. However, drought and salinity stresses had no effect on the conversion efficiency. It was concluded that the sensitive component of seedling growth is the weight of mobilized seed reserve.
Paper Detail
1255
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3
6885
Effect of Drought Stress and Selenium Spraying on Superoxide Dismotase Activity of Winter Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Cultivars
Abstract:
In the other to Study of drought stress and Selenium spraying effect on superoxide dismotase (SOD) activity of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cultivars in Shahr-e-Rey region, an experiment carried out in Split factorial design in the basis of randomized complete blocks with 4 replications in 2006. Irrigation in two levels: Normal irrigation and irrigation with drought stress when the soil electrical conductivity reached to 60 as main factor and rapeseed cultivars in 3 levels Zarfam, Okapi, Opera and selenium spraying at the beginning of flowering stage in 3 levels: 0, 16 and 21 g/ha as sub factor. The results showed that the simple and interaction effect of irrigation, selenium and cultivars on SOD activity had significant difference. In this case Zarfam cultivar with 2010 u.mg-1 protein and Opera with 1454 u.mg-1 protein produced maximum and minimum amounts of SOD activitiy. Interaction effect of irrigation and variety showed that, normal irrigation in Opera with 1115 u.mg-1 protein and drought stress in Zarfam with 2784 u.mg-1 protein conducted to and minimum and maximum amounts of SOD activity. Interaction effect of irrigation, cultivar and selenium on SOD indicated that drought stress condition and 21 gr/ha selenium spraying in Zarfam variety with 3146 u.mg-1 protein gained to highest activities of SOD.
Paper Detail
1223
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2
3082
Screening Wheat Parents of Mapping Population for Heat and Drought Tolerance, Detection of Wheat Genetic Variation
Authors:
Abstract:
To evaluate genetic variation of wheat (Triticum aestivum) affected by heat and drought stress on eight Australian wheat genotypes that are parents of Doubled Haploid (HD) mapping populations at the vegetative stage, the water stress experiment was conducted at 65% field capacity in growth room. Heat stress experiment was conducted in the research field under irrigation over summer. Result show that water stress decreased dry shoot weight and RWC but increased osmolarity and means of Fv/Fm values in all varieties except for Krichauff. Krichauff and Kukri had the maximum RWC under drought stress. Trident variety was shown maximum WUE, osmolarity (610 mM/Kg), dry mater, quantum yield and Fv/Fm 0.815 under water stress condition. However, the recovery of quantum yield was apparent between 4 to 7 days after stress in all varieties. Nevertheless, increase in water stress after that lead to strong decrease in quantum yield. There was a genetic variation for leaf pigments content among varieties under heat stress. Heat stress decreased significantly the total chlorophyll content that measured by SPAD. Krichauff had maximum value of Anthocyanin content (2.978 A/g FW), chlorophyll a+b (2.001 mg/g FW) and chlorophyll a (1.502 mg/g FW). Maximum value of chlorophyll b (0.515 mg/g FW) and Carotenoids (0.234 mg/g FW) content belonged to Kukri. The quantum yield of all varieties decreased significantly, when the weather temperature increased from 28 ÔùªC to 36 ÔùªC during the 6 days. However, the recovery of quantum yield was apparent after 8th day in all varieties. The maximum decrease and recovery in quantum yield was observed in Krichauff. Drought and heat tolerant and moderately tolerant wheat genotypes were included Trident, Krichauff, Kukri and RAC875. Molineux, Berkut and Excalibur were clustered into most sensitive and moderately sensitive genotypes. Finally, the results show that there was a significantly genetic variation among the eight varieties that were studied under heat and water stress.
Paper Detail
1612
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1
9817
Screening Wheat Parents of Mapping Population for Heat and Drought Tolerance, Detection of Wheat Genetic Variation
Authors:
Abstract:

To evaluate genetic variation of wheat (Triticum aestivum) affected by heat and drought stress on eight Australian wheat genotypes that are parents of Doubled Haploid (HD) mapping populations at the vegetative stage, the water stress experiment was conducted at 65% field capacity in growth room. Heat stress experiment was conducted in the research field under irrigation over summer. Result show that water stress decreased dry shoot weight and RWC but increased osmolarity and means of Fv/Fm values in all varieties except for Krichauff. Krichauff and Kukri had the maximum RWC under drought stress. Trident variety was shown maximum WUE, osmolarity (610 mM/Kg), dry mater, quantum yield and Fv/Fm 0.815 under water stress condition. However, the recovery of quantum yield was apparent between 4 to 7 days after stress in all varieties. Nevertheless, increase in water stress after that lead to strong decrease in quantum yield. There was a genetic variation for leaf pigments content among varieties under heat stress. Heat stress decreased significantly the total chlorophyll content that measured by SPAD. Krichauff had maximum value of Anthocyanin content (2.978 A/g FW), chlorophyll a+b (2.001 mg/g FW) and chlorophyll a (1.502 mg/g FW). Maximum value of chlorophyll b (0.515 mg/g FW) and Carotenoids (0.234 mg/g FW) content belonged to Kukri. The quantum yield of all varieties decreased significantly, when the weather temperature increased from 28 ÔùªC to 36 ÔùªC during the 6 days. However, the recovery of quantum yield was apparent after 8th day in all varieties. The maximum decrease and recovery in quantum yield was observed in Krichauff. Drought and heat tolerant and moderately tolerant wheat genotypes were included Trident, Krichauff, Kukri and RAC875. Molineux, Berkut and Excalibur were clustered into most sensitive and moderately sensitive genotypes. Finally, the results show that there was a significantly genetic variation among the eight varieties that were studied under heat and water stress.

Paper Detail
1730
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