International Science Index
Comparative Study of Ad Hoc Routing Protocols in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks for Smart City
In this paper, we perform the investigation of some routing protocols in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) context. Indeed, we study the efficiency of protocols like Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV), Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Optimized Link State Routing convention (OLSR) and Vehicular Multi-hop algorithm for Stable Clustering (VMASC) in terms of packet delivery ratio (PDR) and throughput. The performance evaluation and comparison between the studied protocols shows that the VMASC is the best protocols regarding fast data transmission and link stability in VANETs. The validation of all results is done by the NS3 simulator.
Effects of Preparation Conditions on the Properties of Crumb Rubber Modified Binder
Various types of additives are used frequently in order to improve the rheological and mechanical properties of bituminous mixtures. Small devices instead of full scale machines are used for bitumen modification in the laboratory. These laboratory scale devices vary in terms of their properties such as mixing rate, mixing blade and the amount of binder. In this study, the effect of mixing rate and time during the bitumen modification processes on conventional and rheological properties of pure and crumb rubber modified binder were investigated. Penetration, softening point, rotational viscosity (RV) and dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) tests were applied to pure and CR modified bitumen. It was concluded that the penetration and softening point test did not show the efficiency of CR obtained by different mixing conditions. Besides, oxidation that occurred during the preparation processes plays a great part in the improvement effects of the modified binder.
Study on the Application of Lime to Improve the Rheological Properties of Polymer Modified Bitumen
Bitumen is one of the most applicable materials in pavement engineering. It is a binding material with unique viscoelastic properties, especially when it mixes with polymer. In this study, to figure out the viscoelastic behaviour of the polymer modified with bitumen (PMB), a series of dynamic shearing rheological (DSR) tests were conducted. Four percentages of lime (i.e. 1%, 2%, 4% and 5%) were mixed with PMB and tested under four different temperatures including 64ºC, 70ºC, 76ºC and 82ºC. The results indicated that complex shearing modulus (G*) increased by increasing the frequency due to raised resistance against deformation. The phase angle (δ) showed a decreasing trend by incrementing the frequency. The addition of lime percentages increased the complex modulus value and declined phase angle parameter. Increasing the temperature decreased the complex modulus and increased the phase angle until 70ºC. The decreasing trend of rutting factor with increasing temperature revealed that rutting factor improved by the addition of the lime to the PMB.
Missing Link Data Estimation with Recurrent Neural Network: An Application Using Speed Data of Daegu Metropolitan Area
In terms of ITS, information on link characteristic is an essential factor for plan or operation. But in practical cases, not every link has installed sensors on it. The link that does not have data on it is called “Missing Link”. The purpose of this study is to impute data of these missing links. To get these data, this study applies the machine learning method. With the machine learning process, especially for the deep learning process, missing link data can be estimated from present link data. For deep learning process, this study uses “Recurrent Neural Network” to take time-series data of road. As input data, Dedicated Short-range Communications (DSRC) data of Dalgubul-daero of Daegu Metropolitan Area had been fed into the learning process. Neural Network structure has 17 links with present data as input, 2 hidden layers, for 1 missing link data. As a result, forecasted data of target link show about 94% of accuracy compared with actual data.
An Overview of Evaluations Using Augmented Reality for Assembly Training Tasks
Augmented Reality (AR) is a strong growing research topic in different training domains such as medicine, sports, military, education and industrial use cases like assembly and maintenance tasks. AR claims to improve the efficiency and skill-transfer of training tasks. This paper gives a comprehensive overview of evaluations using AR for assembly and maintenance training tasks published between 1992 and 2017. We search in a structured way in four different online databases and get 862 results. We select 17 relevant articles focusing on evaluating AR-based training applications for assembly and maintenance tasks. This paper also indicates design guidelines which are necessary for creating a successful application for an AR-based training. We also present five scientific limitations in the field of AR-based training for assembly tasks. Finally, we show our approach to solve current research problems using Design Science Research (DSR).
Conceptualizing the Knowledge to Manage and Utilize Data Assets in the Context of Digitization: Case Studies of Multinational Industrial Enterprises
The trend of digitization significantly changes the role of data for enterprises. Data turn from an enabler to an intangible organizational asset that requires management and qualifies as a tradeable good. The idea of a networked economy has gained momentum in the data domain as collaborative approaches for data management emerge. Traditional organizational knowledge consequently needs to be extended by comprehensive knowledge about data. The knowledge about data is vital for organizations to ensure that data quality requirements are met and data can be effectively utilized and sovereignly governed. As this specific knowledge has been paid little attention to so far by academics, the aim of the research presented in this paper is to conceptualize it by proposing a “data knowledge model”. Relevant model entities have been identified based on a design science research (DSR) approach that iteratively integrates insights of various industry case studies and literature research.
Experimental Investigations on Nanoclay (Cloisite-15A) Modified Bitumen
This study investigated the influence of Cloisite-15A nanoclay on the physical, performance, and mechanical properties of bitumen binder. Cloisite-15A was blended in the bitumen in variegated percentages from 1% to 9% with increment of 2%. The blended bitumen was characterized using penetration, softening point, and dynamic viscosity using rotational viscometer, and compared with unmodified bitumen equally penetration grade 60/70. The rheological parameters were investigated using Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR), and mechanical properties were investigated by using Marshall Stability test. The results indicated an increase in softening point, dynamic viscosity and decrease in binder penetration. Rheological properties of bitumen increase complex modulus, decrease phase angle and improve rutting resistances as well. There was significant improvement in Marshall Stability, rather marginal improvement in flow value. The best improvement in the modified binder was obtained with 5% Cloisite-15A nanoclay.
VANETs: Security Challenges and Future Directions
Connected vehicles are equipped with wireless sensors
that aid in Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle to Infrastructure
(V2I) communication. These vehicles will in the near future
provide road safety, improve transport efficiency, and reduce traffic
congestion. One of the challenges for connected vehicles is how
to ensure that information sent across the network is secure. If
security of the network is not guaranteed, several attacks can occur,
thereby compromising the robustness, reliability, and efficiency of
the network. This paper discusses existing security mechanisms and
unique properties of connected vehicles. The methodology employed
in this work is exploratory. The paper reviews existing security
solutions for connected vehicles. More concretely, it discusses
various cryptographic mechanisms available, and suggests areas
of improvement. The study proposes a combination of symmetric
key encryption and public key cryptography to improve security.
The study further proposes message aggregation as a technique to
overcome message redundancy. This paper offers a comprehensive
overview of connected vehicles technology, its applications, its
security mechanisms, open challenges, and potential areas of future
An Analysis of Dynamic Economic Dispatch Using Search Space Reduction Based Gravitational Search Algorithm
This paper presents the performance analysis of dynamic search space reduction (DSR) based gravitational search algorithm (GSA) to solve dynamic economic dispatch of thermal generating units with valve point effects. Dynamic economic dispatch basically dictates the best setting of generator units with anticipated load demand over a definite period of time. In this paper, the presented technique is considered that deals an inequality constraints treatment mechanism known as DSR strategy to accelerate the optimization process. The presented method is demonstrated through five-unit test systems to verify its effectiveness and robustness. The simulation results are compared with other existing evolutionary methods reported in the literature. It is intuited from the comparison that the fuel cost and other performances of the presented approach yield fruitful results with marginal value of simulation time.
Upgraded Rough Clustering and Outlier Detection Method on Yeast Dataset by Entropy Rough K-Means Method
Rough set theory is used to handle uncertainty and incomplete information by applying two accurate sets, Lower approximation and Upper approximation. In this paper, the rough clustering algorithms are improved by adopting the Similarity, Dissimilarity–Similarity and Entropy based initial centroids selection method on three different clustering algorithms namely Entropy based Rough K-Means (ERKM), Similarity based Rough K-Means (SRKM) and Dissimilarity-Similarity based Rough K-Means (DSRKM) were developed and executed by yeast dataset. The rough clustering algorithms are validated by cluster validity indexes namely Rand and Adjusted Rand indexes. An experimental result shows that the ERKM clustering algorithm perform effectively and delivers better results than other clustering methods. Outlier detection is an important task in data mining and very much different from the rest of the objects in the clusters. Entropy based Rough Outlier Factor (EROF) method is seemly to detect outlier effectively for yeast dataset. In rough K-Means method, by tuning the epsilon (ᶓ) value from 0.8 to 1.08 can detect outliers on boundary region and the RKM algorithm delivers better results, when choosing the value of epsilon (ᶓ) in the specified range. An experimental result shows that the EROF method on clustering algorithm performed very well and suitable for detecting outlier effectively for all datasets. Further, experimental readings show that the ERKM clustering method outperformed the other methods.
High Gain Circularly Polarized Wire Antenna for DSRC Applications
In this communication, a low-cost circularly
polarized wire antenna exhibiting improved gain performance for
Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC), vehicle-to-vehicle
(V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications is
presented. The proposed antenna comprises a Y-shaped quarterwavelength
monopole antenna surrounded by two iterations of eight
conductive arched walls acting as parasitic elements to enhance the
overall antenna gain and to shape the radiation pattern in the H-plane.
A hemispherical radome shell is added to protect the antenna
structure and its effect on the antenna performance is discussed. The
designed antenna demonstrates antenna gain of 8.2 dB with
omnidirectional far-field radiation pattern in the H-plane. The gain of
the proposed antenna is also compared with the characteristic of the
stand-alone Y-shaped monopole to highlight the advantages of the
Design of Regular Communication Area for Infrared Electronic-Toll-Collection Systems
A design of communication area for infrared
electronic-toll-collection systems to provide an extended
communication interval in the vehicle traveling direction and
regular boundary between contiguous traffic lanes is proposed.
By utilizing two typical low-cost commercial infrared LEDs with
different half-intensity angles Φ1/2 = 22◦ and 10◦, the radiation
pattern of the emitter is designed to properly adjust the spatial
distribution of the signal power. The aforementioned purpose
can be achieved with an LED array in a three-piece structure
with appropriate mounting angles. With this emitter, the influence
of the mounting parameters, including the mounting height and
mounting angles of the on-board unit and road-side unit, on the
system performance in terms of the received signal strength and
communication area are investigated. The results reveal that, for
our emitter proposed in this paper, the ideal ”long-and-narrow”
characteristic of the communication area is very little affected by
these mounting parameters. An optimum mounting configuration is
Interface Analysis of Annealed Al/Cu Cladded Sheet
Effect of aging treatment on microstructural aspects of interfacial layers of the Cu/Al clad sheet produced by differential speed rolling (DSR) process were studied by electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD). Clad sheet of Al/Cu has been fabricated by using DSR, which caused severe shear deformation between Al and Cu plate to easily bond to each other. Rolling was carried out at 100oC with speed ratio of 2, in which the total thickness reduction was 45%. Interface layers of clad sheet were analyzed by EBSD after subsequent annealing at 400oC for 30 to 120min. With increasing annealing time, thickness of interface layer and fraction of high angle grain boundary were increased and average grain size was decreased.
Cladding of Al and Cu by Differential Speed Rolling
Al/Cu clad sheet has been fabricated by using differential speed rolling (DSR) process, which caused severe shear deformation between Al and Cu plate to easily bond to each other. Rolling was carried out at 100 and 150oC with speed ratios from 1.4 to 2.2, in which the total thickness reduction was in the range between 14 and 46%. Interfacial microstructure and mechanical properties of Al/Cu clad were investigated by scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray detector, and tension tests. The DSR process was very effective to provide a good interface for atoms diffusion during subsequent annealing. The strength of bonding was higher with the increasing speed ratio. Post heat treatment enhanced the mechanical properties of clad sheet by forming intermetallic compounds in the interface area.
Exploration of the Communication Area of Infrared Short-Range Communication Systems for Intervehicle Communication
Infrared communication in the wavelength band 780-
950 nm is very suitable for short-range point-to-point communications.
It is a good choice for vehicle-to-vehicle communication in several
intelligent-transportation-system (ITS) applications such as cooperative
driving, collision warning, and pileup-crash prevention. In this
paper, with the aid of a physical model established in our previous
works, we explore the communication area of an infrared intervehicle
communication system utilizing a typical low-cost cormmercial lightemitting
diodes (LEDs) as the emitter and planar p-i-n photodiodes
as the receiver. The radiation pattern of the emitter fabricated by
aforementioned LEDs and the receiving pattern of the receiver are
approximated by a linear combination of cosinen functions. This
approximation helps us analyze the system performance easily. Both
multilane straight-road conditions and curved-road conditions with
various radius of curvature are taken into account. The condition of
a small car communicating with a big truck, i.e., there is a vertical
mounting height difference between the emitter and the receiver, is
also considered. Our results show that the performance of the system
meets the requirement of aforementioned ITS applications in terms
of the communication area.
Simulating Laboratory Short Term Aging to Suit Malaysian Field Conditions
This paper characterizes the effects of artificial short
term aging in the laboratory on the rheological properties of virgin
80/100 penetration grade asphalt binder. After several years in
service, asphalt mixture started to deteriorate due to aging. Aging is a
complex physico-chemical phenomenon that influences asphalt
binder rheological properties causing a deterioration in asphalt
mixture performance. To ascertain asphalt binder aging effects, the
virgin, artificially aged and extracted asphalt binder were tested via
the Rolling Thin film Oven (RTFO), Dynamic Shear Rheometer
(DSR) and Rotational Viscometer (RV). A comparative study
between laboratory and field aging conditions were also carried out.
The results showed that the specimens conditioned for 85 minutes
inside the RTFO was insufficient to simulate the actual short term
aging caused that took place in the field under Malaysian field
A Study of DSRC Radio Testbed under Heavy Channel Load
Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) is a
key enabling technology for the next generation of
communication-based safety applications. One of the important
problems for DSRC deployment is maintaining high performance
under heavy channel load. Many studies focus on congestion control
mechanisms for simulating hundreds of physical radios deployed on
vehicles. The U.S. department of transportation-s (DOT) Intelligent
Transportation Systems (ITS) division has a plan to chosen prototype
on-board devices capable of transmitting basic “Here I am" safety
messages to other vehicles. The devices will be used in an IntelliDrive
safety pilot deployment of up to 3,000 vehicles. It is hard to log the
information of 3,000 vehicles. In this paper we present the designs and
issues related to the DSRC Radio Testbed under heavy channel load.
The details not only include the architecture of DSRC Radio Testbed,
but also describe how the Radio Interfere System is used to help for
emulating the congestion radio environment.
The Role of Ga to Improve AlN-Nucleation Layer for Al0.1Ga0.9N/Si(111)
Group-III nitride material as particularly AlxGa1-xN is
one of promising optoelectronic materials to require for shortwavelength
devices. To achieve the high-quality AlxGa1-xN films for
a high performance of such devices, AlN-nucleation layers are the
important factor. To improve the AlN-nucleation layers with a
variation of Ga-addition, XRD measurements were conducted to
analyze the crystalline quality of the subsequent Al0.1Ga0.9N with the
minimum ω-FWHMs of (0002) and (10-10) reflections of 425 arcsec
and 750 arcsec, respectively. SEM and AFM measurements were
performed to observe the surface morphology and TEM
measurements to identify the microstructures and orientations.
Results showed that the optimized Ga-atoms in the Al(Ga)Nnucleation
layers improved the surface diffusion to form moreuniform
crystallites in structure and size, better alignment of each
crystallite, and better homogeneity of island distribution. This, hence,
improves the orientation of epilayers on the Si-surface and finally
improves the crystalline quality and reduces the residual strain of
subsequent Al0.1Ga0.9N layers.
Routing Load Analysis over 802.11 DCF of Reactive Routing Protocols DSR and DYMO
The Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of self-configuring and rapidly deployed mobile nodes (routers) without any central infrastructure. Routing is one of the potential issues. Many routing protocols are reported but it is difficult to decide which one is best in all scenarios. In this paper on demand routing protocols DSR and DYMO based on IEEE 802.11 DCF MAC protocol are examined and characteristic summary of these routing protocols is presented. Their performance is analyzed and compared on performance measuring metrics throughput, dropped packets due to non availability of routes, duplicate RREQ generated for route discovery and normalized routing load by varying CBR data traffic load using QualNet 5.0.2 network simulator.
Traffic Load based Performance Analysis of DSR and STAR Routing Protocol
The wireless adhoc network is comprised of wireless
node which can move freely and are connected among themselves
without central infrastructure. Due to the limited transmission range
of wireless interfaces, in most cases communication has to be relayed
over intermediate nodes. Thus, in such multihop network each node
(also called router) is independent, self-reliant and capable to route
the messages over the dynamic network topology. Various protocols
are reported in this field and it is very difficult to decide the best one.
A key issue in deciding which type of routing protocol is best for
adhoc networks is the communication overhead incurred by the
protocol. In this paper STAR a table driven and DSR on demand
protocols based on IEEE 802.11 are analyzed for their performance
on different performance measuring metrics versus varying traffic
CBR load using QualNet 5.0.2 network simulator.
, wireless networks
, route discovery
, performance evaluation
, IEEE 802.11
Low Latency Routing Algorithm for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Ad-Hoc Networks
In this paper, we proposed a new routing protocol for
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) that equipped with directional
antenna. We named this protocol Directional Optimized Link State
Routing Protocol (DOLSR). This protocol is based on the well
known protocol that is called Optimized Link State Routing Protocol
(OLSR). We focused in our protocol on the multipoint relay (MPR)
concept which is the most important feature of this protocol. We
developed a heuristic that allows DOLSR protocol to minimize
the number of the multipoint relays. With this new protocol the
number of overhead packets will be reduced and the End-to-End
delay of the network will also be minimized. We showed through
simulation that our protocol outperformed Optimized Link State
Routing Protocol, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol and Ad-
Hoc On demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol in
reducing the End-to-End delay and enhancing the overall
throughput. Our evaluation of the previous protocols was based
on the OPNET network simulation tool.
Analysis of Delay and Throughput in MANET for DSR Protocol
A wireless Ad-hoc network consists of wireless nodes
communicating without the need for a centralized administration, in
which all nodes potentially contribute to the routing process.In this
paper, we report the simulation results of four different scenarios for
wireless ad hoc networks having thirty nodes. The performances of
proposed networks are evaluated in terms of number of hops per
route, delay and throughput with the help of OPNET simulator.
Channel speed 1 Mbps and simulation time 600 sim-seconds were
taken for all scenarios. For the above analysis DSR routing protocols
has been used. The throughput obtained from the above analysis
(four scenario) are compared as shown in Figure 3. The average
media access delay at node_20 for two routes and at node_20 for four
different scenario are compared as shown in Figures 4 and 5. It is
observed that the throughput will degrade when it will follow
different hops for same source to destination (i.e. it has dropped from
1.55 Mbps to 1.43 Mbps which is around 9.7%, and then dropped to
0.48Mbps which is around 35%).
Performance Comparison for AODV, DSR and DSDV W.R.T. CBR and TCP in Large Networks
Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a wireless ad hoc self-configuring network of mobile routers (and associated hosts) connected by wireless links, the union of which forms an arbitrary topology, cause of the random mobility of the nodes. In this paper, an attempt has been made to compare these three protocols DSDV, AODV and DSR on the performance basis under different traffic protocols namely CBR and TCP in a large network. The simulation tool is NS2, the scenarios are made to see the effect of pause times. The results presented in this paper clearly indicate that the different protocols behave differently under different pause times. Also, the results show the main characteristics of different traffic protocols operating on MANETs and thus select the best protocol on each scenario.
Performance of QoS Parameters in MANET Application Traffics in Large Scale Scenarios
A mobile Ad-hoc network consists of wireless nodes
communicating without the need for a centralized administration. A
user can move anytime in an ad hoc scenario and, as a result, such a
network needs to have routing protocols which can adopt
dynamically changing topology. To accomplish this, a number of ad
hoc routing protocols have been proposed and implemented, which
include DSR, OLSR and AODV. This paper presents a study on the
QoS parameters for MANET application traffics in large-scale
scenarios with 50 and 120 nodes. The application traffics analyzed in
this study is File Transfer Protocol (FTP). In large scale networks
(120 nodes) OLSR shows better performance and in smaller scale
networks (50 nodes)AODV shows less packet drop rate and OLSR
shows better throughput.
Simulation Study for Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols in Mobile Adhoc Network
Due to insufficient frequency band and tremendous growth of the mobile users, complex computation is needed for the use of resources. Long distance communication began with the introduction of telegraphs and simple coded pulses, which were used to transmit short messages. Since then numerous advances have rendered reliable transfer of information both easier and quicker. Wireless network refers to any type of computer network that is wireless, and is commonly associated with a telecommunications network whose interconnections between nodes is implemented without the use of wires. Wireless network can be broadly categorized in infrastructure network and infrastructure less network. Infrastructure network is one in which we have a base station to serve the mobile users and in the infrastructure less network is one in which no infrastructure is available to serve the mobile users this kind of networks are also known as mobile Adhoc networks. In this paper we have simulated the result for different scenarios with protocols like AODV and DSR; we simulated the result for throughput, delay and receiving traffic in the given scenario.
Intelligent Caching in on-demand Routing Protocol for Mobile Adhoc Networks
An on-demand routing protocol for wireless ad hoc
networks is one that searches for and attempts to discover a route to
some destination node only when a sending node originates a data
packet addressed to that node. In order to avoid the need for such a
route discovery to be performed before each data packet is sent, such
routing protocols must cache routes previously discovered. This
paper presents an analysis of the effect of intelligent caching in a non
clustered network, using on-demand routing protocols in wireless ad
hoc networks. The analysis carried out is based on the Dynamic
Source Routing protocol (DSR), which operates entirely on-demand.
DSR uses the cache in every node to save the paths that are learnt
during route discovery procedure. In this implementation, caching
these paths only at intermediate nodes and using the paths from these
caches when required is tried. This technique helps in storing more
number of routes that are learnt without erasing the entries in the
cache, to store a new route that is learnt.
The simulation results on DSR have shown that this technique
drastically increases the available memory for caching the routes
discovered without affecting the performance of the DSR routing
protocol in any way, except for a small increase in end to end delay.
Verification of On-Line Vehicle Collision Avoidance Warning System using DSRC
Many accidents were happened because of fast driving, habitual working overtime or tired spirit. This paper presents a solution of remote warning for vehicles collision avoidance using vehicular communication. The development system integrates dedicated short range communication (DSRC) and global position system (GPS) with embedded system into a powerful remote warning system. To transmit the vehicular information and broadcast vehicle position; DSRC communication technology is adopt as the bridge. The proposed system is divided into two parts of the positioning andvehicular units in a vehicle. The positioning unit is used to provide the position and heading information from GPS module, and furthermore the vehicular unit is used to receive the break, throttle, and othersignals via controller area network (CAN) interface connected to each mechanism. The mobile hardware are built with an embedded system using X86 processor in Linux system. A vehicle is communicated with other vehicles via DSRC in non-addressed protocol with wireless access in vehicular environments (WAVE) short message protocol. From the position data and vehicular information, this paper provided a conflict detection algorithm to do time separation and remote warning with error bubble consideration. And the warning information is on-line displayed in the screen. This system is able to enhance driver assistance service and realize critical safety by using vehicular information from the neighbor vehicles.KeywordsDedicated short range communication, GPS, Control area network, Collision avoidance warning system.
Fuzzy Logic Speed Controller for Direct Vector Control of Induction Motor
This paper presents a new method for the
implementation of a direct rotor flux control (DRFOC) of induction
motor (IM) drives. It is based on the rotor flux components
regulation. The d and q axis rotor flux components feed proportional
integral (PI) controllers. The outputs of which are the target stator
voltages (vdsref and vqsref). While, the synchronous speed is depicted at
the output of rotor speed controller. In order to accomplish variable
speed operation, conventional PI like controller is commonly used.
These controllers provide limited good performances over a wide
range of operations even under ideal field oriented conditions. An
alternate approach is to use the so called fuzzy logic controller. The
overall investigated system is implemented using dSpace system
based on digital signal processor (DSP). Simulation and experimental
results have been presented for a one kw IM drives to confirm the
validity of the proposed algorithms.
The Traffic Prediction Multi-path Energy-aware Source Routing (TP-MESR)in Ad hoc Networks
The purpose of this study is to suggest energy efficient
routing for ad hoc networks which are composed of nodes with limited
energy. There are diverse problems including limitation of energy
supply of node, and the node energy management problem has been
presented. And a number of protocols have been proposed for energy
conservation and energy efficiency. In this study, the critical point of
the EA-MPDSR, that is the type of energy efficient routing using only
two paths, is improved and developed. The proposed TP-MESR uses
multi-path routing technique and traffic prediction function to increase
number of path more than 2. It also verifies its efficiency compared to
EA-MPDSR using network simulator (NS-2). Also, To give a
academic value and explain protocol systematically, research
guidelines which the Hevner(2004) suggests are applied. This
proposed TP-MESR solved the existing multi-path routing problem
related to overhead, radio interference, packet reassembly and it
confirmed its contribution to effective use of energy in ad hoc
Trust Enhanced Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Adhoc Networks
Nodes in mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) do not
rely on a central infrastructure but relay packets originated by other
nodes. Mobile ad hoc networks can work properly only if the
participating nodes collaborate in routing and forwarding. For
individual nodes it might be advantageous not to collaborate, though.
In this conceptual paper we propose a new approach based on
relationship among the nodes which makes them to cooperate in an
Adhoc environment. The trust unit is used to calculate the trust
values of each node in the network. The calculated trust values are
being used by the relationship estimator to determine the relationship
status of nodes. The proposed enhanced protocol was compared with
the standard DSR protocol and the results are analyzed using the