International Science Index
A Study on the Power Control of Wind Energy Conversion System
The present research presents a direct active and reactive power control (DPC) of a wind energy conversion system (WECS) for the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) based on a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) connected to electric power grid. The control strategy of the Rotor Side Converter (RSC) is targeted in extracting a maximum of power under fluctuating wind speed. A fuzzy logic speed controller (FLC) has been used to ensure the MPPT. The Grid Side Converter is directed in a way to ensure sinusoidal current in the grid side and a smooth DC voltage. To reduce fluctuations, rotor torque and voltage use of multilevel inverters is a good way to remove the rotor harmony.
Optimization of Doubly Fed Induction Generator Equivalent Circuit Parameters by Direct Search Method
Doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) is currently the choice for many wind turbines. These generators, when connected to the grid through a converter, is subjected to varied power system conditions like voltage variation, frequency variation, short circuit fault conditions, etc. Further, many countries like Canada, Germany, UK, Scotland, etc. have distinct grid codes relating to wind turbines. Accordingly, following the network faults, wind turbines have to supply a definite reactive current. To satisfy the requirements including reactive current capability, an optimum electrical design becomes a mandate for DFIG to function. This paper intends to optimize the equivalent circuit parameters of an electrical design for satisfactory DFIG performance. Direct search method has been used for optimization of the parameters. The variables selected include electromagnetic core dimensions (diameters and stack length), slot dimensions, radial air gap between stator and rotor and winding copper cross section area. Optimization for 2 MW DFIG has been executed separately for three objective functions - maximum reactive power capability (Case I), maximum efficiency (Case II) and minimum weight (Case III). In the optimization analysis program, voltage variations (10%), power factor- leading and lagging (0.95), speeds for corresponding to slips (-0.3 to +0.3) have been considered. The optimum designs obtained for objective functions were compared. It can be concluded that direct search method of optimization helps in determining an optimum electrical design for each objective function like efficiency or reactive power capability or weight minimization.
H∞ Fuzzy Integral Power Control for DFIG Wind Energy System
In order to maximize energy capturing from wind
energy, controlling the doubly fed induction generator to have optimal
power from the wind, generator speed and output electrical power
control in wind energy system have a great importance due to the
nonlinear behavior of wind velocities. In this paper purposes the
design of a control scheme is developed for power control of wind
energy system via H∞ fuzzy integral controller. Firstly, the nonlinear
system is represented in term of a TS fuzzy control design via linear
matrix inequality approach to find the optimal controller to have an
H∞ performance are derived. The proposed control method extract
the maximum energy from the wind and overcome the nonlinearity
and disturbances problems of wind energy system which give good
tracking performance and high efficiency power output of the DFIG.
Performences of Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Control and Neuro-Fuzzy Control Based on DPC for Grid Connected DFIG with Fixed Switching Frequency
In this paper, type-2 fuzzy logic control (T2FLC) and neuro-fuzzy control (NFC) for a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based on direct power control (DPC) with a fixed switching frequency is proposed for wind generation application. First, a mathematical model of the doubly-fed induction generator implemented in d-q reference frame is achieved. Then, a DPC algorithm approach for controlling active and reactive power of DFIG via fixed switching frequency is incorporated using PID. The performance of T2FLC and NFC, which is based on the DPC algorithm, are investigated and compared to those obtained from the PID controller. Finally, simulation results demonstrate that the NFC is more robust, superior dynamic performance for wind power generation system applications.
Low Voltage Ride through Capability Techniques for DFIG-Based Wind Turbines
Due to the drastic increase of the wind turbines installed capacity; the grid codes are increasing the restrictions aiming to treat the wind turbines like other conventional sources sooner. In this paper, an intensive review has been presented for different techniques used to add low voltage ride through capability to Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) wind turbine. A system model with 1.5 MW DFIG wind turbine is constructed and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK to explore the effectiveness of the reviewed techniques.
Necessary Condition to Utilize Adaptive Control in Wind Turbine Systems to Improve Power System Stability
The global capacity of wind power has dramatically increased in recent years. Therefore, improving the technology of wind turbines to take different advantages of this enormous potential in the power grid, could be interesting subject for scientists. The doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine is a popular system due to its many advantages such as the improved power quality, high energy efficiency and controllability, etc. With an increase in wind power penetration in the network and with regard to the flexible control of wind turbines, the use of wind turbine systems to improve the dynamic stability of power systems has been of significance importance for researchers. Subsynchronous oscillations are one of the important issues in the stability of power systems. Damping subsynchronous oscillations by using wind turbines has been studied in various research efforts, mainly by adding an auxiliary control loop to the control structure of the wind turbine. In most of the studies, this control loop is composed of linear blocks. In this paper, simple adaptive control is used for this purpose. In order to use an adaptive controller, the convergence of the controller should be verified. Since adaptive control parameters tend to optimum values in order to obtain optimum control performance, using this controller will help the wind turbines to have positive contribution in damping the network subsynchronous oscillations at different wind speeds and system operating points. In this paper, the application of simple adaptive control in DFIG wind turbine systems to improve the dynamic stability of power systems is studied and the essential condition for using this controller is considered. It is also shown that this controller has an insignificant effect on the dynamic stability of the wind turbine, itself.
Assessing the Effect of Grid Connection of Large-Scale Wind Farms on Power System Small-Signal Angular Stability
Grid connection of a large-scale wind farm affects power system small-signal angular stability in two aspects. Firstly, connection of the wind farm brings about the change of load flow and configuration of a power system. Secondly, the dynamic interaction is introduced by the wind farm with the synchronous generators (SGs) in the power system. This paper proposes a method to assess the two aspects of the effect of the wind farm on power system small-signal angular stability. The effect of the change of load flow/system configuration brought about by the wind farm can be examined separately by displacing wind farms with constant power sources, then the effect of the dynamic interaction of the wind farm with the SGs can be also computed individually. Thus, a clearer picture and better understanding on the power system small-signal angular stability as affected by grid connection of the large-scale wind farm are provided. In the paper, an example power system with grid connection of a wind farm is presented to demonstrate the proposed approach.
DFIG-Based Wind Turbine with Shunt Active Power Filter Controlled by Double Nonlinear Predictive Controller
This paper presents a wind turbine based on the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) connected to the utility grid through a shunt active power filter (SAPF). The whole system is controlled by a double nonlinear predictive controller (DNPC). A Taylor series expansion is used to predict the outputs of the system. The control law is calculated by optimization of the cost function. The first nonlinear predictive controller (NPC) is designed to ensure the high performance tracking of the rotor speed and regulate the rotor current of the DFIG, while the second one is designed to control the SAPF in order to compensate the harmonic produces by the three-phase diode bridge supplied by a passive circuit (rd, Ld). As a result, we obtain sinusoidal waveforms of the stator voltage and stator current. The proposed nonlinear predictive controllers (NPCs) are validated via simulation on a 1.5 MW DFIG-based wind turbine connected to an SAPF. The results obtained appear to be satisfactory and promising.
Modeling and Analysis of DFIG Based Wind Power System Using Instantaneous Power Components
As per the statistical data, the Doubly-fed Induction
Generator (DFIG) based wind turbine with variable speed and
variable pitch control is the most common wind turbine in the
growing wind market. This machine is usually used on the grid
connected wind energy conversion system to satisfy grid code
requirements such as grid stability, Fault Ride Through (FRT), power
quality improvement, grid synchronization and power control etc.
Though the requirements are not fulfilled directly by the machine, the
control strategy is used in both the stator as well as rotor side along
with power electronic converters to fulfil the requirements stated
above. To satisfy the grid code requirements of wind turbine, usually
grid side converter is playing a major role. So in order to improve the
operation capacity of wind turbine under critical situation, the
intensive study of both machine side converter control and grid side
converter control is necessary In this paper DFIG is modeled using
power components as variables and the performance of the DFIG
system is analysed under grid voltage fluctuations. The voltage
fluctuations are made by lowering and raising the voltage values in
the utility grid intentionally for the purpose of simulation keeping in
view of different grid disturbances.
Power Control of DFIG in WECS Using Backstipping and Sliding Mode Controller
This paper presents a power control for a Doubly Fed
Induction Generator (DFIG) using in Wind Energy Conversion
System (WECS) connected to the grid. The proposed control strategy
employs two nonlinear controllers, Backstipping (BSC) and slidingmode
controller (SMC) scheme to directly calculate the required
rotor control voltage so as to eliminate the instantaneous errors of
active and reactive powers. In this paper the advantages of BSC and
SMC are presented, the performance and robustness of this two
controller’s strategy are compared between them. First, we present a
model of wind turbine and DFIG machine, then a synthesis of the
controllers and their application in the DFIG power control.
Simulation results on a 1.5MW grid-connected DFIG system are
provided by MATLAB/Simulink.
Active Disturbance Rejection Control for Wind System Based On a DFIG
This paper proposes the study of a robust control of
the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) used in a wind energy
production. The proposed control is based on the linear active
disturbance rejection control (ADRC) and it is applied to the control
currents rotor of the DFIG, the DC bus voltage and active and
reactive power exchanged between the DFIG and the network. The
system under study and the proposed control are simulated using
A New Self-Tuning Fuzzy PD Controller of a BDFIG for Wind Energy Conversion
This paper presents a new control scheme to control a brushless doubly fed induction generator (BDFIG) using back-to-back PWM converters for wind power generation. The proposed control scheme is a New Self-Tuning Fuzzy Proportional-Derivative Controller (NSTFPDC). The goal of BDFIG control is to achieve a similar dynamic performance to the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), exploiting the well-known induction machine vector control philosophy. The performance of NSTFPDC controller has been investigated and compared with the two controllers, called Proportional–Integral (PI) and PD-like Fuzzy Logic controller (PD-like FLC) based BDFIG. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and the robustness of the NSTFPDC controller.
Simulation Study of DFIG Wind Turbine under Grid Fault
During recent years wind turbine technology has
undergone rapid developments. Growth in size and the optimization
of wind turbines has enabled wind energy to become increasingly
competitive with conventional energy sources. As a result today-s
wind turbines participate actively in the power production of several
countries around the world. These developments raise a number of
challenges to be dealt with now and in the future. The penetration of
wind energy in the grid raises questions about the compatibility of the
wind turbine power production with the grid. In particular, the
contribution to grid stability, power quality and behavior during fault
situations plays therefore as important a role as the reliability. In the
present work, we addressed two fault situations that have shown their
influence on the generator and the behavior of the wind over the
defects which are briefly discussed based on simulation results.
A Study of Wind Speed Characteristic in PI Controller based DFIG Wind Turbine
The Wind Turbine Modeling in Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) using Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) PI Controller based design is presented. To study about the variable wind speed. The PI controller performs responding to the dynamic performance. The objective is to study the characteristic of wind turbine and finding the optimum wind speed suitable for wind turbine performance. This system will allow the specification setting (2.5MW). The output active power also corresponding same the input is given. And the reactive power produced by the wind turbine is regulated at 0 Mvar. Variable wind speed is optimum for drive train performance at 12.5 m/s (at maximum power coefficient point) from the simulation of DFIG by Simulink is described.
Active and Reactive Power Control of a DFIG with MPPT for Variable Speed Wind Energy Conversion using Sliding Mode Control
This paper presents the study of a variable speed wind
energy conversion system based on a Doubly Fed Induction Generator
(DFIG) based on a sliding mode control applied to achieve control of
active and reactive powers exchanged between the stator of the DFIG
and the grid to ensure a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) of
a wind energy conversion system. The proposed control algorithm is
applied to a DFIG whose stator is directly connected to the grid and
the rotor is connected to the PWM converter. To extract a maximum
of power, the rotor side converter is controlled by using a stator
flux-oriented strategy. The created decoupling control between active
and reactive stator power allows keeping the power factor close to
unity. Simulation results show that the wind turbine can operate at
its optimum energy for a wide range of wind speed.
Sensorless Sliding Power Control of Doubly Fed Induction Wind Generator Based on MRAS Observer
In this paper present a sensorless maximum wind power extraction for variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) wind power generation systems with a doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG), to ensure stability and to impose the ideal feedback control solution despite of model uncertainties , using the principles of an active and reactive power controller (DPC) a robust sliding mode power control has been proposed to guarantees fast response times and precise control actions for control the active and reactive power independently. The simulation results in MATLAB/Simulink platform confirmed the good dynamic performance of power control approach for DFIGbased variable speed wind turbines.
Design, Simulation and Experimental Realization of Nonlinear Controller for GSC of DFIG System
In a wind power generator using doubly fed induction
generator (DFIG), the three-phase pulse width modulation (PWM)
voltage source converter (VSC) is used as grid side converter (GSC)
and rotor side converter (RSC). The standard linear control laws
proposed for GSC provides not only instablity against comparatively
large-signal disturbances, but also the problem of stability due to
uncertainty of load and variations in parameters. In this paper, a
nonlinear controller is designed for grid side converter (GSC) of a
DFIG for wind power application. The nonlinear controller is
designed based on the input-output feedback linearization control
method. The resulting closed-loop system ensures a sufficient
stability region, make robust to variations in circuit parameters and
also exhibits good transient response. Computer simulations and
experimental results are presented to confirm the effectiveness of the
proposed control strategy.
Integration of Fixed and Variable Speed Wind Generator Dynamics with Multimachine AC Systems
The impact of fixed speed squirrel cage type as well as
variable speed doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) on dynamic
performance of a multimachine power system has been investigated.
Detailed models of the various components have been presented and
the integration of asynchronous and synchronous generators has been
carried out through a rotor angle based transform. Simulation studies
carried out considering the conventional dynamic model of squirrel
cage asynchronous generators show that integration, as such, could
degrade to the AC system performance transiently. This article
proposes a frequency or power controller which can effectively
control the transients and restore normal operation of fixed speed
induction generator quickly. Comparison of simulation results
between classical cage and doubly-fed induction generators indicate
that the doubly fed induction machine is more adaptable to
multimachine AC system. Frequency controller installed in the DFIG
system can also improve its transient profile.
Power Control in a Doubly Fed Induction Machine
This paper proposes a direct power control for
doubly-fed induction machine for variable speed wind power
generation. It provides decoupled regulation of the primary side
active and reactive power and it is suitable for both electric energy
generation and drive applications. In order to control the power
flowing between the stator of the DFIG and the network, a decoupled
control of active and reactive power is synthesized using PI
controllers.The obtained simulation results show the feasibility
and the effectiveness of the suggested method
Wind Farm Modeling for Steady State and Dynamic Analysis
This paper focuses on PSS/E modeling of wind farms
of Doubly-fed Induction Generator (DFIG) type and their impact on
issues of power system operation. Since Wind Turbine Generators
(WTG) don-t have the same characteristics as synchronous
generators, the appropriate modeling of wind farms is essential for
transmission system operators to analyze the best options of
transmission grid reinforcements as well as to evaluate the wind
power impact on reliability and security of supply. With the high
excepted penetration of wind power into the power system a
simultaneous loss of Wind Farm generation will put at risk power
system security and reliability. Therefore, the main wind grid code
requirements concern the fault ride through capability and frequency
operation range of wind turbines. In case of grid faults wind turbines
have to supply a definite reactive power depending on the
instantaneous voltage and to return quickly to normal operation.