International Science Index
Numerical Solution of Steady Magnetohydrodynamic Boundary Layer Flow Due to Gyrotactic Microorganism for Williamson Nanofluid over Stretched Surface in the Presence of Exponential Internal Heat Generation
This paper focuses on the study of two dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) steady incompressible viscous Williamson nanofluid with exponential internal heat generation containing gyrotactic microorganism over a stretching sheet. The governing equations and auxiliary conditions are reduced to a set of non-linear coupled differential equations with the appropriate boundary conditions using similarity transformation. The transformed equations are solved numerically through spectral relaxation method. The influences of various parameters such as Williamson parameter γ, power constant λ, Prandtl number Pr, magnetic field parameter M, Peclet number Pe, Lewis number Le, Bioconvection Lewis number Lb, Brownian motion parameter Nb, thermophoresis parameter Nt, and bioconvection constant σ are studied to obtain the momentum, heat, mass and microorganism distributions. Moment, heat, mass and gyrotactic microorganism profiles are explored through graphs and tables. We computed the heat transfer rate, mass flux rate and the density number of the motile microorganism near the surface. Our numerical results are in better agreement in comparison with existing calculations. The Residual error of our obtained solutions is determined in order to see the convergence rate against iteration. Faster convergence is achieved when internal heat generation is absent. The effect of magnetic parameter M decreases the momentum boundary layer thickness but increases the thermal boundary layer thickness. It is apparent that bioconvection Lewis number and bioconvection parameter has a pronounced effect on microorganism boundary. Increasing brownian motion parameter and Lewis number decreases the thermal boundary layer. Furthermore, magnetic field parameter and thermophoresis parameter has an induced effect on concentration profiles.
Numerical Heat Transfer Performance of Water-Based Graphene Nanoplatelets
Since graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) is a promising material due to desirable thermal properties, this paper is related to the thermophysical and heat transfer performance of covalently functionalized GNP-based water/ethylene glycol nanofluid through an annular channel. After experimentally measuring thermophysical properties of prepared samples, a computational fluid dynamics study has been carried out to examine the heat transfer and pressure drop of well-dispersed and stabilized nanofluids. The effect of concentration of GNP and Reynolds number at constant wall temperature boundary condition under turbulent flow regime on convective heat transfer coefficient has been investigated. Based on the results, for different Reynolds numbers, the convective heat transfer coefficient of the prepared nanofluid is higher than that of the base fluid. Also, the enhancement of convective heat transfer coefficient and thermal conductivity increase with the increase of GNP concentration in base-fluid. Based on the results of this investigation, there is a significant enhancement on the heat transfer rate associated with loading well-dispersed GNP in base-fluid.
Numerical Study of Developing Laminar Forced Convection Flow of Water/CuO Nanofluid in a Circular Tube with a 180 Degrees Curve
Numerical investigation into convective heat transfer of CuO-Water based nanofluid in a pipe with return bend under laminar flow conditions has been done. The impacts of Reynolds number and the volume concentration of nanoparticles on the flow and the convective heat transfer behaviour are investigated. The results indicate that the increase in Reynolds number leads to the enhancement of average Nusselt number, and the increase in specific heat in the presence of the nanofluid results in improvement in heat transfer. Also, the presence of the secondary flow in the curve plays a key role in increasing the average Nusselt number and it appears higher than the inlet and outlet tubes. However, the pressure drop curve increases significantly in the tubes with the increase in nanoparticles concentration.
Thermophysical and Heat Transfer Performance of Covalent and Noncovalent Functionalized Graphene Nanoplatelet-Based Water Nanofluids in an Annular Heat Exchanger
The new design of heat exchangers utilizing an
annular distributor opens a new gateway for realizing higher energy
optimization. To realize this goal, graphene nanoplatelet-based water
nanofluids with promising thermophysical properties were
synthesized in the presence of covalent and noncovalent
functionalization. Thermal conductivity, density, viscosity and
specific heat capacity were investigated and employed as a raw data
for ANSYS-Fluent to be used in two-phase approach. After
validation of obtained results by analytical equations, two special
parameters of convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop
were investigated. The study followed by studying other heat transfer
parameters of annular pass in the presence of graphene nanopletelesbased
water nanofluids at different weight concentrations, input
powers and temperatures. As a result, heat transfer performance and
friction loss are predicted for both synthesized nanofluids.
Heat and Mass Transfer in a Saturated Porous Medium Confined in Cylindrical Annular Geometry
This paper reports the numerical simulation of doublediffusive
natural convection flows within a horizontal annular filled
with a saturated porous medium. The analysis concerns the influence
of the different parameters governing the problem, namely, the
Rayleigh number Ra, the Lewis number Le and the buoyancy ratio N,
on the heat and mass transfer and on the flow structure, in the case of
a fixed radius ratio R = 2. The numerical model used for the
discretization of the dimensionless equations governing the problem
is based on the finite difference method, using the ADI scheme. The
study is focused on steady-state solutions in the cooperation situation.
Unsteady Transient Free Convective Flow of an Incompressible Viscous Fluid under Influence of Uniform Transverse Magnetic Field
The unsteady transient free convection flow of an incompressible dissipative viscous fluid between parallel plates at different distances have been investigated under porous medium. Due to presence of heat flux under the influence of uniform transverse magnetic field the velocity distribution and the temperature distribution, is shown graphically. Since exact solution is not possible so we find parametrical solution by perturbation technique. The result is shown in graph for different parameters. We notice that heat generation effects fluid velocity keeping in which of free convection which cools.
Unsteady Laminar Boundary Layer Forced Flow in the Region of the Stagnation Point on a Stretching Flat Sheet
This paper analyses the unsteady, two-dimensional
stagnation point flow of an incompressible viscous fluid over a flat
sheet when the flow is started impulsively from rest and at the same
time, the sheet is suddenly stretched in its own plane with a velocity
proportional to the distance from the stagnation point. The partial
differential equations governing the laminar boundary layer forced
convection flow are non-dimensionalised using semi-similar
transformations and then solved numerically using an implicit finitedifference
scheme known as the Keller-box method. Results
pertaining to the flow and heat transfer characteristics are computed
for all dimensionless time, uniformly valid in the whole spatial region
without any numerical difficulties. Analytical solutions are also
obtained for both small and large times, respectively representing the
initial unsteady and final steady state flow and heat transfer.
Numerical results indicate that the velocity ratio parameter is found
to have a significant effect on skin friction and heat transfer rate at
the surface. Furthermore, it is exposed that there is a smooth
transition from the initial unsteady state flow (small time solution) to
the final steady state (large time solution).
Hall Effect on MHD Mixed Convection Flow of Viscous-Elastic Incompressible Fluid Past of an Infinite Porous Medium
An unsteady mixed free convection MHD flow of elastic-viscous incompressible fluid past an infinite vertical porous flat plate is investigated when the presence of heat Source/sink, temperature and concentration are assumed to be oscillating with time and hall effect. The governing equations are solved by complex variable technique. The expressions for the velocity field, temperature field and species concentration are demonstrated in graphs. The effects of the Prandtl number, the Grashof number, modified Grashof number, the Schimidt number, the Hall parameter, Elastic parameter & Magnetic parameter are discussed.
Turbulent Forced Convection Flow in a Channel over Periodic Grooves Using Nanofluids
Turbulent forced convection flow in a 2-dimensional channel over periodic grooves is numerically investigated. Finite volume method is used to study the effect of turbulence model. The range of Reynolds number varied from 10000 to 30000 for the ribheight to channel-height ratio (B/H) of 2. The downstream wall is heated by a uniform heat flux while the upstream wall is insulated. The investigation is analyzed with different types of nanoparticles such as SiO2, Al2O3, and ZnO, with water as a base fluid are used. The volume fraction is varied from 1% to 4% and the nanoparticle diameter is utilized between 20nm to 50nm. The results revealed 114% heat transfer enhancement compared to the water in a grooved channel by using SiO2 nanoparticle with volume fraction and nanoparticle diameter of 4% and 20nm respectively.
MHD Falkner-Skan Boundary Layer Flow with Internal Heat Generation or Absorption
This paper examines the forced convection flow of
incompressible, electrically conducting viscous fluid past a sharp
wedge in the presence of heat generation or absorption with an
applied magnetic field. The system of partial differential equations
governing Falkner - Skan wedge flow and heat transfer is first
transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations using
similarity transformations which is later solved using an implicit
finite - difference scheme, along with quasilinearization technique.
Numerical computations are performed for air (Pr = 0.7) and
displayed graphically to illustrate the influence of pertinent physical
parameters on local skin friction and heat transfer coefficients and,
also on, velocity and temperature fields. It is observed that the
magnetic field increases both the coefficients of skin friction and heat
transfer. The effect of heat generation or absorption is found to be
very significant on heat transfer, but its effect on the skin friction is
negligible. Indeed, the occurrence of overshoot is noticed in the
temperature profiles during heat generation process, causing the
reversal in the direction of heat transfer.
Simulation of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in the Inclined Enclosure
Mixed convection in two-dimensional shallow rectangular enclosure is considered. The top hot wall moves with constant velocity while the cold bottom wall has no motion. Simulations are performed for Richardson number ranging from Ri = 0.001 to 100 and for Reynolds number keeping fixed at Re = 408.21. Under these conditions cavity encompasses three regimes: dominating forced, mixed and free convection flow. The Prandtl number is set to 6 and the effects of cavity inclination on the flow and heat transfer are studied for different Richardson number. With increasing the inclination angle, interesting behavior of the flow and thermal fields are observed. The streamlines and isotherm plots and the variation of the Nusselt numbers on the hot wall are presented. The average Nusselt number is found to increase with cavity inclination for Ri ³ 1 . Also it is shown that the average Nusselt number changes mildly with the cavity inclination in the dominant forced convection regime but it increases considerably in the regime with dominant natural convection.
Simulation of Natural Convection Flow in an Inclined open Cavity using Lattice Boltzmann Method
In this paper effects of inclination angle on natural
convection flow in an open cavity has been analyzed with Lattice
Boltzmann Method (LBM).The angle of inclination varied from θ= -
45° to 45° with 15° intervals. Study has been conducted for Rayleigh
numbers (Ra) 104 to 106. The comparisons show that the average
Nusselt number increases with growth of Rayleigh number and the
average Nusselt number increase as inclination angles increases at
Ra=104.At Ra=105 and Ra=106 the average Nusselt number enhance
as inclination angels varied from θ= -45° to θ= 0° and decrease as
inclination angels increase in θ= 0° to θ= 45°.
Unsteady Free Convection Flow Over a Three-Dimensional Stagnation Point With Internal Heat Generation or Absorption
This paper considers the effect of heat generation
proportional l to (T - T∞ )p , where T is the local temperature and T∞
is the ambient temperature, in unsteady free convection flow near the
stagnation point region of a three-dimensional body. The fluid is
considered in an ambient fluid under the assumption of a step change
in the surface temperature of the body. The non-linear coupled partial
differential equations governing the free convection flow are solved
numerically using an implicit finite-difference method for different
values of the governing parameters entering these equations. The
results for the flow and heat characteristics when p ≤ 2 show that
the transition from the initial unsteady-state flow to the final steadystate
flow takes place smoothly. The behavior of the flow is seen
strongly depend on the exponent p.
Magnetohydrodynamic Damping of Natural Convection Flows in a Rectangular Enclosure
We numerically study the three-dimensional
magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) stability of oscillatory natural
convection flow in a rectangular cavity, with free top surface, filled
with a liquid metal, having an aspect ratio equal to A=L/H=5, and
subjected to a transversal temperature gradient and a uniform
magnetic field oriented in x and z directions. The finite volume
method was used in order to solve the equations of continuity,
momentum, energy, and potential. The stability diagram obtained in
this study highlights the dependence of the critical value of the
Grashof number Grcrit , with the increase of the Hartmann number
Ha for two orientations of the magnetic field. This study confirms
the possibility of stabilization of a liquid metal flow in natural
convection by application of a magnetic field and shows that the
flow stability is more important when the direction of magnetic field
is longitudinal than when the direction is transversal.
Convective Heat Transfer of Internal Electronic Components in a Headlight Geometry
A numerical study is presented on convective heat transfer in enclosures. The results are addressed to automotive headlights containing new-age light sources like Light Emitting Diodes (LED). The heat transfer from the heat source (LED) to the enclosure walls is investigated for mixed convection as interaction of the forced convection flow from an inlet and an outlet port and the natural convection at the heat source. Unlike existing studies, inlet and outlet port are thermally coupled and do not serve to remove hot fluid. The input power of the heat source is expressed by the Rayleigh number. The internal position of the heat source, the aspect ratio of the enclosure, and the inclination angle of one wall are varied. The results are given in terms of the global Nusselt number and the enclosure Nusselt number that characterize the heat transfer from the source and from the interior fluid to the enclosure walls, respectively. It is found that the heat transfer from the source to the fluid can be maximized if the source is placed in the main stream from the inlet to the outlet port. In this case, the Reynolds number and heat source position have the major impact on the heat transfer. A disadvantageous position has been found where natural and forced convection compete each other. The overall heat transfer from the source to the wall increases with increasing Reynolds number as well as with increasing aspect ratio and decreasing inclination angle. The heat transfer from the interior fluid to the enclosure wall increases upon decreasing the aspect ratio and increasing the inclination angle. This counteracting behaviour is caused by the variation of the area of the enclosure wall. All mixed convection results are compared to the natural convection limit.