International Science Index

29
10008609
A Non-Linear Eddy Viscosity Model for Turbulent Natural Convection in Geophysical Flows
Abstract:
Eddy viscosity models in turbulence modeling can be mainly classified as linear and nonlinear models. Linear formulations are simple and require less computational resources but have the disadvantage that they cannot predict actual flow pattern in complex geophysical flows where streamline curvature and swirling motion are predominant. A constitutive equation of Reynolds stress anisotropy is adopted for the formulation of eddy viscosity including all the possible higher order terms quadratic in the mean velocity gradients, and a simplified model is developed for actual oceanic flows where only the vertical velocity gradients are important. The new model is incorporated into the one dimensional General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM). Two realistic oceanic test cases (OWS Papa and FLEX' 76) have been investigated. The new model predictions match well with the observational data and are better in comparison to the predictions of the two equation k-epsilon model. The proposed model can be easily incorporated in the three dimensional Princeton Ocean Model (POM) to simulate a wide range of oceanic processes. Practically, this model can be implemented in the coastal regions where trasverse shear induces higher vorticity, and for prediction of flow in estuaries and lakes, where depth is comparatively less. The model predictions of marine turbulence and other related data (e.g. Sea surface temperature, Surface heat flux and vertical temperature profile) can be utilized in short term ocean and climate forecasting and warning systems.
Paper Detail
110
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28
10008540
Flow Characteristics around Rectangular Obstacles with the Varying Direction of Obstacles
Authors:
Abstract:

The study aims to understand the surface pressure distribution around the bodies such as the suction pressure in the leading edge on the top and side-face when the aspect ratio of bodies and the wind direction are changed, respectively. We carried out the wind tunnel measurement and numerical simulation around a series of rectangular bodies (40d×80w×80h, 80d×80w×80h, 160d×80w×80h, 80d×40w×80h and 80d×160w×80h in mm3) placed in a deep turbulent boundary layer. Based on a modern numerical platform, the Navier-Stokes equation with the typical 2-equation (k-ε model) and the DES (Detached Eddy Simulation) turbulence model has been calculated, and they are both compared with the measurement data. Regarding the turbulence model, the DES model makes a better prediction comparing with the k-ε model, especially when calculating the separated turbulent flow around a bluff body with sharp edged corner. In order to observe the effect of wind direction on the pressure variation around the cube (e.g., 80d×80w×80h in mm), it rotates at 0º, 10º, 20º, 30º, and 45º, which stands for the salient wind directions in the tunnel. The result shows that the surface pressure variation is highly dependent upon the approaching wind direction, especially on the top and the side-face of the cube. In addition, the transverse width has a substantial effect on the variation of surface pressure around the bodies, while the longitudinal length has little or no influence.

Paper Detail
130
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27
10007694
Research on the Impact on Building Temperature and Ventilation by Outdoor Shading Devices in Hot-Humid Area: Through Measurement and Simulation on an Office Building in Guangzhou
Abstract:

Shading devices (SDs) are widely used in buildings in the hot-humid climate areas for reducing cooling energy consumption for interior temperature, as the result of reducing the solar radiation directly. Contrasting the surface temperature of materials of SDs to the glass on the building façade could give more analysis for the shading effect. On the other side, SDs are much more used as the independence system on building façade in hot-humid area. This typical construction could have some impacts on building ventilation as well. This paper discusses the outdoor SDs’ effects on the building thermal environment and ventilation, through a set of measurements on a 2-floors office building in Guangzhou, China, which install a dynamic aluminum SD-system around the façade on 2nd-floor. The measurements recorded the in/outdoor temperature, relative humidity, velocity, and the surface temperature of the aluminum panel and the glaze. After that, a CFD simulation was conducted for deeper discussion of ventilation. In conclusion, this paper reveals the temperature differences on the different material of the façade, and finds that the velocity of indoor environment could be reduced by the outdoor SDs.

Paper Detail
181
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26
10005361
Investigation on Choosing the Suitable Geometry of the Solar Air Heater to Certain Conditions
Abstract:
This study focuses on how to control the outlet temperature of a solar air heater in a way simpler than the existing methods. In this work, five cases have been studied by using ANSYS Fluent based on a CFD numerical method. All the cases have been simulated by utilizing the same criteria and conditions like the temperature, materials, areas except the geometry. The case studies are conducted in Little Rock (LR), AR, USA during the winter time supposedly on 15th of December. A fresh air that is flowing with a velocity of 0.5 m/s and a flow rate of 0.009 m3/s. The results prove the possibility of achieving a controlled temperature just by changing the geometric shape of the heater. This geometry guarantees that the absorber plate always has a normal component of the solar radiation at any time during the day. The heater has a sectarian shape with a radius of 150 mm where the outlet temperature remains almost constant for six hours.
Paper Detail
442
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25
10004941
Numerical Study of Developing Laminar Forced Convection Flow of Water/CuO Nanofluid in a Circular Tube with a 180 Degrees Curve
Abstract:
Numerical investigation into convective heat transfer of CuO-Water based nanofluid in a pipe with return bend under laminar flow conditions has been done. The impacts of Reynolds number and the volume concentration of nanoparticles on the flow and the convective heat transfer behaviour are investigated. The results indicate that the increase in Reynolds number leads to the enhancement of average Nusselt number, and the increase in specific heat in the presence of the nanofluid results in improvement in heat transfer. Also, the presence of the secondary flow in the curve plays a key role in increasing the average Nusselt number and it appears higher than the inlet and outlet tubes. However, the pressure drop curve increases significantly in the tubes with the increase in nanoparticles concentration.
Paper Detail
588
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24
10004409
Investigation of the Cooling and Uniformity Effectiveness in a Sinter Packed Bed
Abstract:
When sinters are filled into the cooler from the sintering machine, and the non-uniform distribution of the sinters leads to uneven cooling. This causes the temperature difference of the sinters leaving the cooler to be so large that it results in the conveyors being deformed by the heat. The present work applies CFD method to investigate the thermo flowfield phenomena in a sinter cooler by the Porous Media Model. Using the obtained experimental data to simulate porosity (Ε), permeability (κ), inertial coefficient (F), specific heat (Cp) and effective thermal conductivity (keff) of the sinter packed beds. The physical model is a similar geometry whose Darcy numbers (Da) are similar to the sinter cooler. Using the Cooling Index (CI) and Uniformity Index (UI) to analyze the thermo flowfield in the sinter packed bed obtains the cooling performance of the sinter cooler.
Paper Detail
920
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23
10001363
Unsteady Simulation of Burning Off Carbon Deposition in a Coke Oven
Abstract:

Carbon Deposits are often occurred inside the industrial coke oven during coking process. Accumulation of carbon deposits may cause a big issue, which seriously influences the coking operation. The carbon is burning off by injecting fresh air through pipes into coke oven which is an efficient way practically operated in industries. The burning off carbon deposition in coke oven performed by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method has provided an evaluation of the feasibility study. A three dimensional, transient, turbulent reacting flow simulation has performed with three different injecting air flow rate and another kind of injecting configuration. The result shows that injection higher air flow rate would effectively reduce the carbon deposits. In the meantime, the opened charging holes would suck extra oxygen from atmosphere to participate in reactions. In term of coke oven operating limits, the wall temperatures are monitored to prevent over-heating of the adiabatic walls during burn-off process.

Paper Detail
1363
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22
9999344
Temperature Distribution Simulation of Divergent Fluid Flow with Helical Arrangement
Abstract:

Numerical study is performed to investigate the temperature distribution in an annular diffuser fitted with helical tape hub. Different pitches (Y = 20 mm, and Y = 30 mm) for the helical tape are studied with different heights (H = 20 mm, 22 mm, and 24 mm) to be compared. The geometry of the annular diffuser and the inlet condition for both hub arrangements are kept constant. The result obtains that using helical tape insert with different pitches and different heights will force the temperature to distribute in a helical direction; however the use of helical tape hub with height (H = 22 mm) for both pitches enhance the temperature distribution in a good manner.

Paper Detail
1270
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21
9997350
Numerical Investigation of Displacement Ventilation Effectiveness
Abstract:

Displacement ventilation of a room with an occupant is modeled using CFD. The geometry of manikin is accurately represented in CFD model to minimize potential. Indoor zero equation turbulence model is used to simulate all cases and the effect of the thermal radiation from manikin is taken into account. After validation of the code, predicted mean vote, mean age of air, and ventilation effectiveness are used to predict the thermal comfort zones and indoor air quality. The effect of the inlet velocity and temperature on the thermal comfort and indoor air quality is investigated. The results show that the inlet velocity has great effect on the thermal comfort and indoor air quality and low inlet velocity is sufficient to establish comfortable conditions inside the room. In addition, the displacement ventilation system achieves not only thermal comfort in ventilated rooms, but also energy saving of fan power.

Paper Detail
1813
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20
16426
Numerical Optimization of Pin-Fin Heat Sink with Forced Cooling
Abstract:

This study presents the numerical simulation of optimum pin-fin heat sink with air impinging cooling by using Taguchi method. 9 L ( 4 3 ) orthogonal array is selected as a plan for the four design-parameters with three levels. The governing equations are discretized by using the control-volume-based-finite-difference method with a power-law scheme on the non-uniform staggered grid. We solved the coupling of the velocity and the pressure terms of momentum equations using SIMPLEC algorithm. We employ the k −ε two-equations turbulence model to describe the turbulent behavior. The parameters studied include fin height H (35mm-45mm), inter-fin spacing a , b , and c (2 mm-6.4 mm), and Reynolds number ( Re = 10000- 25000). The objective of this study is to examine the effects of the fin spacings and fin height on the thermal resistance and to find the optimum group by using the Taguchi method. We found that the fin spacings from the center to the edge of the heat sink gradually extended, and the longer the fin’s height the better the results. The optimum group is 3 1 2 3 H a b c . In addition, the effects of parameters are ranked by importance as a , H , c , and b .

Paper Detail
2755
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19
16569
Analysis of Flow in Cylindrical Mixing Chamber
Abstract:

The article deals with numerical investigation of axisymmetric subsonic air to air ejector. An analysis of flow and mixing processes in cylindrical mixing chamber are made. Several modes with different velocity and ejection ratio are presented. The mixing processes are described and differences between flow in the initial region of mixing and the main region of mixing are described. The lengths of both regions are evaluated. Transition point and point where the mixing processes are finished are identified. It was found that the length of the initial region of mixing is strongly dependent on the velocity ratio, while the length of the main region of mixing is dependent on velocity ratio only slightly.

Paper Detail
2995
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18
3679
Study of Cross Flow Air-Cooling Process via Water-Cooled Wing-Shaped Tubes in Staggered Arrangement at Different Angles of Attack, Part 2: Heat Transfer Characteristics and Thermal Performance Criteria
Abstract:

An experimental and numerical study has been conducted to clarify heat transfer characteristics and effectiveness of a cross-flow heat exchanger employing staggered wing-shaped tubes at different angels of attack. The water-side Rew and the air-side Rea were at 5 x 102 and at from 1.8 x 103 to 9.7 x 103, respectively. The tubes arrangements were employed with various angles of attack θ1,2,3 from 0° to 330° at the considered Rea range. Correlation of Nu, St, as well as the heat transfer per unit pumping power (ε) in terms of Rea, design parameters for the studied bundle were presented. The temperature fields around the staggered wing-shaped tubes bundle were predicted by using commercial CFD FLUENT 6.3.26 software package. Results indicated that the heat transfer was increased by increasing the angle of attack from 0° to 45°, while the opposite was true for angles of attack from 135° to 180°. The best thermal performance and hence η of studied bundle was occurred at the lowest Rea and/or zero angle of attack. Comparisons between the experimental and numerical results of the present study and those, previously, obtained for similar available studies showed good agreements.

Paper Detail
1320
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17
13547
Tuning of Thermal FEA Using Krylov Parametric MOR for Subsea Application
Abstract:
A dead leg is a typical subsea production system component. CFD is required to model heat transfer within the dead leg. Unfortunately its solution is time demanding and thus not suitable for fast prediction or repeated simulations. Therefore there is a need to create a thermal FEA model, mimicking the heat flows and temperatures seen in CFD cool down simulations. This paper describes the conventional way of tuning and a new automated way using parametric model order reduction (PMOR) together with an optimization algorithm. The tuned FE analyses replicate the steady state CFD parameters within a maximum error in heat flow of 6 % and 3 % using manual and PMOR method respectively. During cool down, the relative error of the tuned FEA models with respect to temperature is below 5% comparing to the CFD. In addition, the PMOR method obtained the correct FEA setup five times faster than the manually tuned FEA.
Paper Detail
1185
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16
5345
Verification of a Locked CFD Approach to Cool Down Modeling
Authors:
Abstract:
Increasing demand on the performance of Subsea Production Systems (SPS) suggests a need for more detailed investigation of fluid behavior taking place in subsea equipment. Complete CFD cool down analyses of subsea equipment are very time demanding. The objective of this paper is to investigate a Locked CFD approach, which enables significant reduction of the computational time and at the same time maintains sufficient accuracy during thermal cool down simulations. The result comparison of a dead leg simulation using the Full CFD and the three LCFD-methods confirms the validity of the locked flow field assumption for the selected case. For the tested case the LCFD simulation speed up by factor of 200 results in the absolute thermal error of 0.5 °C (3% relative error), speed up by factor of 10 keeps the LCFD results within 0.1 °C (0.5 % relative error) comparing to the Full CFD.
Paper Detail
1173
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15
9500
Numerical Simulation of a Pressure Regulated Valve to Find Out the Characteristics of Passive Control Circuit
Abstract:
The objective of the present paper is a numerical analysis of the flow forces acting on spool surfaces of a pressure regulated valve. The transient, compressible and turbulent flow structures inside the valve are simulated using ANSYS FLUENT coupled with a special UDF. Here, valve inlet pressure is varied in a stepwise manner. For every value of inlet pressure, transient analysis leads to a quasi-static flow through the valve. Spool forces are calculated based on different pressures at inlet. From this information of spool forces, pressure characteristic of the passive control circuit has been derived.
Paper Detail
2973
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14
11797
Effect of Corrosion on Hydrocarbon Pipelines
Abstract:
The demand of hydrocarbons has increased the construction of pipelines and the protection of the physical and mechanical integrity of the already existing infrastructure. Corrosion is the main reason of failures in the pipeline and it is mostly produced by acid (HCOOCH3). In this basis, a CFD code was used, in order to study the corrosion of internal wall of hydrocarbons pipeline. In this situation, the corrosion phenomenon shows a growing deposit, which causes defect damages (welding or fabrication) at diverse positions along the pipeline. The solution of the pipeline corrosion is based on the diminution of the Naphthenic acid.
Paper Detail
2569
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13
9567
A Study on Prediction of Cavitation for Centrifugal Pump
Abstract:
In this study, to accurately predict cavitation of a centrifugal pump, numerical analysis was compared with experimental results modeled on a small industrial centrifugal pump. In this study, numerical analysis was compared with experimental results modeled on a small industrial centrifugal pump for reliable prediction on cavitation of a centrifugal pump. To improve validity of the numerical analysis, transient analysis was conducted on the calculated domain of full-type geometry, such as an experimental apparatus. The numerical analysis from the results was considered to be a reliable prediction of cavitaion.
Paper Detail
3102
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12
1997
CFD Analysis of Incompressible Turbulent Swirling Flow through Circle Grids Space Filling Plate
Abstract:

Circle grid space filling plate is a flow conditioner with a fractal pattern and used to eliminate turbulence originating from pipe fittings in experimental fluid flow applications. In this paper, steady state, incompressible, swirling turbulent flow through circle grid space filling plate has been studied. The solution and the analysis were carried out using finite volume CFD solver FLUENT 6.2. Three turbulence models were used in the numerical investigation and their results were compared with the pressure drop correlation of BS EN ISO 5167-2:2003. The turbulence models investigated here are the standard k-ε, realizable k-ε, and the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM). The results showed that the RSM model gave the best agreement with the ISO pressure drop correlation. The effects of circle grids space filling plate thickness and Reynolds number on the flow characteristics have been investigated as well.

Paper Detail
1455
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11
2473
Determination of Temperature and Velocity Fields in a Corridor at a Central Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility Using Numerical Simulation
Abstract:
The presented article deals with the description of a numerical model of a corridor at a Central Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility (hereinafter CISFSF). The model takes into account the effect of air flows on the temperature of stored waste. The computational model was implemented in the ANSYS/CFX programming environment in the form of a CFD task solution, which was compared with an approximate analytical calculation. The article includes a categorization of the individual alternatives for the ventilation of such underground systems. The aim was to evaluate a ventilation system for a CISFSF with regard to its stability and capacity to provide sufficient ventilation for the removal of heat produced by stored casks with spent nuclear fuel.
Paper Detail
867
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10
10960
Simulation of Irregular Waves by CFD
Abstract:
Wave generation methodology has been developed and validated by simulating wave in CFD. In this analysis, Flap type wave maker has been modeled numerically with wave basin to generate waves for marine experimental analysis. Irregular waves are arrived from the wave spectrum, and this wave has been simulated in CFD. Generated irregular wave has been compared with an analytical wave. Simulated wave has been processed for FFT analysis, and the wave spectrum is validated with original wave spectrum.
Paper Detail
2712
downloads
9
12399
Effects of Various Substrate Openings for Electronic Cooling under Forced and Natural Convection
Abstract:

This study experimentally investigates the heat transfer effects of forced convection and natural convection under different substrate openings design. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was established and implemented to verify and explain the experimental results and heat transfer behavior. It is found that different opening position will destroy the growth of the boundary layer on substrates to alter the cooling ability for both forced under low Reynolds number and natural convection. Nevertheless, having too many opening may reduce heat conduction and affect the overall heat transfer performance. This study provides future researchers with a guideline on designing and electronic package manufacturing.

Paper Detail
1083
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8
12171
Instability Problem of Turbo-Machines with Radial Distortion Problems
Abstract:
In the upstream we place a piece of ring and rotate it with 83Hz, 166Hz, 333Hz,and 666H to find the effect of the periodic distortion.In the experiment this type of the perturbation will not allow since the mechanical failure of any parts of the equipment in the upstream will destroy the blade system. This type of study will be only possible by CFD. We use two pumps NS32 (ENSAM) and three blades pump (Tamagawa Univ). The benchmark computations were performed without perturbation parts, and confirm the computational results well agreement in head-flow rate. We obtained the pressure fluctuation growth rate that is representing the global instability of the turbo-system. The fluctuating torque components were 0.01Nm(5000rpm), 0.1Nm(10000rmp), 0.04Nm(20000rmp), 0.15Nm( 40000rmp) respectively. Only for 10000rpm(166Hz) the output toque was random, and it implies that it creates unsteady flow by separations on the blades, and will reduce the pressure loss significantly
Paper Detail
975
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7
5459
Influence of Dilution and Lean-premixed on Mild Combustion in an Industrial Burner
Abstract:
Understanding of how and where NOx formation occurs in industrial burner is very important for efficient and clean operation of utility burners. Also the importance of this problem is mainly due to its relation to the pollutants produced by more burners used widely of gas turbine in thermal power plants and glass and steel industry. In this article, a numerical model of an industrial burner operating in MILD combustion is validated with experimental data.. Then influence of air flow rate and air temperature on combustor temperature profiles and NOX product are investigated. In order to modification this study reports on the effects of fuel and air dilution (with inert gases H2O, CO2, N2), and also influence of lean-premixed of fuel, on the temperature profiles and NOX emission. Conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy, and transport equations of species concentrations, turbulence, combustion and radiation modeling in addition to NO modeling equations were solved together to present temperature and NO distribution inside the burner. The results shows that dilution, cause to a reduction in value of temperature and NOX emission, and suppresses any flame propagation inside the furnace and made the flame inside the furnace invisible. Dilution with H2O rather than N2 and CO2 decreases further the value of the NOX. Also with raise of lean-premix level, local temperature of burner and the value of NOX product are decreases because of premixing prevents local “hot spots" within the combustor volume that can lead to significant NOx formation. Also leanpremixing of fuel with air cause to amount of air in reaction zone is reach more than amount that supplied as is actually needed to burn the fuel and this act lead to limiting NOx formation
Paper Detail
1203
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6
1423
Numerical Analysis of a Centrifugal Fan for Improved Performance using Splitter Vanes
Abstract:
The flow field in a centrifugal fan is highly complex with flow reversal taking place on the suction side of impeller and diffuser vanes. Generally performance of the centrifugal fan could be enhanced by judiciously introducing splitter vanes so as to improve the diffusion process. An extensive numerical whole field analysis on the effect of splitter vanes placed in discrete regions of suspected separation points is possible using CFD. This paper examines the effect of splitter vanes corresponding to various geometrical locations on the impeller and diffuser. The analysis shows that the splitter vanes located near the diffuser exit improves the static pressure recovery across the diffusing domain to a larger extent. Also it is found that splitter vanes located at the impeller trailing edge and diffuser leading edge at the mid-span of the circumferential distance between the blades show a marginal improvement in the static pressure recovery across the fan. However, splitters provided near to the suction side of the impeller trailing edge (25% of the circumferential gap between the impeller blades towards the suction side), adversely affect the static pressure recovery of the fan.
Paper Detail
2236
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5
195
A Study on the Effects of Thermodynamic Nonideality and Mass Transfer on Multi-phase Hydrodynamics Using CFD Methods
Abstract:

Considering non-ideal behavior of fluids and its effects on hydrodynamic and mass transfer in multiphase flow is very essential. Simulations were performed that takes into account the effects of mass transfer and mixture non-ideality on hydrodynamics reported by Irani et al. In this paper, by assuming the density of phases to be constant and Raullt-s law instead of using EOS and fugacity coefficient definition, respectively for both the liquid and gas phases, the importance of non-ideality effects on mass transfer and hydrodynamic behavior was studied. The results for a system of octane/propane (T=323 K, P =445 kpa) also indicated that the assumption of constant density in simulation had major role to diverse from experimental data. Furthermore, comparison between obtained results and the previous report indicated significant differences between experimental data and simulation results with more ideal assumptions.

Paper Detail
1346
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4
11191
Air flow and Heat Transfer Modeling of an Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Generator
Abstract:

Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) Machines require effective cooling due to their high power density. The detrimental effects of overheating such as degradation of the insulation materials, magnets demagnetization, and increase of Joule losses are well known. This paper describes the CFD simulations performed on a test rig model of an air cooled Axial Flux Permanent Magnet (AFPM) generator built at Durham University to identify the temperatures and heat transfer coefficient on the stator. The Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes and the Energy equations are solved and the flow pattern and heat transfer developing inside the machine are described. The Nusselt number on the stator surfaces has been found. The dependency of the heat transfer on the flow field is described temperature field obtained. Tests on an experimental are undergoing in order to validate the CFD results.

Paper Detail
1667
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3
285
The Role of Periodic Vortex Shedding in Heat Transfer Enhancement for Transient Pulsatile Flow Inside Wavy Channels
Abstract:
Periodic vortex shedding in pulsating flow inside wavy channel and the effect it has on heat transfer are studied using the finite volume method. A sinusoidally-varying component is superimposed on a uniform flow inside a sinusoidal wavy channel and the effects on the Nusselt number is analyzed. It was found that a unique optimum value of the pulsation frequency, represented by the Strouhal number, exists for Reynolds numbers ranging from 125 to 1000. Results suggest that the gain in heat transfer is related to the process of vortex formation, movement about the troughs of the wavy channel, and subsequent ejection/destruction through the converging section. Heat transfer is the highest when the frequencies of the pulsation and vortex formation approach being in-phase. Analysis of Strouhal number effect on Nu over a period of pulsation substantiates the proposed physical mechanism for enhancement. The effect of changing the amplitude of pulsation is also presented over a period of pulsation, showing a monotonic increase in heat transfer with increasing amplitude. The 60% increase in Nusselt number suggests that sinusoidal fluid pulsation can an effective method for enhancing heat transfer in laminar, wavy-channel flows.
Paper Detail
1353
downloads
2
4112
Numerical Simulation of Inviscid Transient Flows in Shock Tube and its Validations
Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to develop a new two dimensional time accurate Euler solver for shock tube applications. The solver was developed to study the performance of a newly built short-duration hypersonic test facility at Universiti Tenaga Nasional “UNITEN" in Malaysia. The facility has been designed, built, and commissioned for different values of diaphragm pressure ratios in order to get wide range of Mach number. The developed solver uses second order accurate cell-vertex finite volume spatial discretization and forth order accurate Runge-Kutta temporal integration and it is designed to simulate the flow process for similar driver/driven gases (e.g. air-air as working fluids). The solver is validated against analytical solution and experimental measurements in the high speed flow test facility. Further investigations were made on the flow process inside the shock tube by using the solver. The shock wave motion, reflection and interaction were investigated and their influence on the performance of the shock tube was determined. The results provide very good estimates for both shock speed and shock pressure obtained after diaphragm rupture. Also detailed information on the gasdynamic processes over the full length of the facility is available. The agreements obtained have been reasonable.

Paper Detail
1835
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1
594
Three Dimensional Modeling of Mixture Formation and Combustion in a Direct Injection Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine
Abstract:
Due to the stringent legislation for emission of diesel engines and also increasing demand on fuel consumption, the importance of detailed 3D simulation of fuel injection, mixing and combustion have been increased in the recent years. In the present work, FIRE code has been used to study the detailed modeling of spray and mixture formation in a Caterpillar heavy-duty diesel engine. The paper provides an overview of the submodels implemented, which account for liquid spray atomization, droplet secondary break-up, droplet collision, impingement, turbulent dispersion and evaporation. The simulation was performed from intake valve closing (IVC) to exhaust valve opening (EVO). The predicted in-cylinder pressure is validated by comparing with existing experimental data. A good agreement between the predicted and experimental values ensures the accuracy of the numerical predictions collected with the present work. Predictions of engine emissions were also performed and a good quantitative agreement between measured and predicted NOx and soot emission data were obtained with the use of the present Zeldowich mechanism and Hiroyasu model. In addition, the results reported in this paper illustrate that the numerical simulation can be one of the most powerful and beneficial tools for the internal combustion engine design, optimization and performance analysis.
Paper Detail
1355
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