International Science Index
Effect of Modeling of Hydraulic Form Loss Coefficient to Break on Emergency Core Coolant Bypass
Emergency Core Coolant Bypass (ECC Bypass) has been regarded as an important phenomenon to peak cladding temperature of large-break loss-of-coolant-accidents (LBLOCA) in nuclear power plants (NPP). A modeling scheme to address the ECC Bypass phenomena and the calculation of LBLOCA using that scheme are discussed in the present paper. A hydraulic form loss coefficient (HFLC) from the reactor vessel downcomer to the broken cold leg is predicted by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code with a variation of the void fraction incoming from the downcomer. The maximum, mean, and minimum values of FLC are derived from the CFD results and are incorporated into the LBLOCA calculation using a system thermal-hydraulic code, MARS-KS. As a relevant parameter addressing the ECC Bypass phenomena, the FLC to the break and its range are proposed.
Computational Study of Blood Flow Analysis for Coronary Artery Disease
The aim of this study is to estimate the effect of blood flow through the coronary artery in human heart so as to assess the coronary artery disease.Velocity, wall shear stress (WSS), strain rate and wall pressure distribution are some of the important hemodynamic parameters that are non-invasively assessed with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). These parameters are used to identify the mechanical factors responsible for the plaque progression and/or rupture in left coronary arteries (LCA) in coronary arteries.The initial step for CFD simulations was the construction of a geometrical model of the LCA. Patient specific artery model is constructed using computed tomography (CT) scan data with the help of MIMICS Research 19.0. For CFD analysis ANSYS FLUENT-14.5 is used.Hemodynamic parameters were quantified and flow patterns were visualized both in the absence and presence of coronary plaques. The wall pressure continuously decreased towards distal segments and showed pressure drops in stenotic segments. Areas of high WSS and high flow velocities were found adjacent to plaques deposition.
Automatic Fluid-Structure Interaction Modeling and Analysis of Butterfly Valve Using Python Script
A butterfly valve is a quarter turn valve which is used to control the flow of a fluid through a section of pipe. Generally, butterfly valve is used in wide range of applications such as water distribution, sewage, oil and gas plants. In particular, butterfly valve with larger diameter finds its immense applications in hydro power plants to control the fluid flow. In-lieu with the constraints in cost and size to run laboratory setup, analysis of large diameter values will be mostly studied by computational method which is the best and inexpensive solution. For fluid and structural analysis, CFD and FEM software is used to perform large scale valve analyses, respectively. In order to perform above analysis in butterfly valve, the CAD model has to recreate and perform mesh in conventional software’s for various dimensions of valve. Therefore, its limitation is time consuming process. In-order to overcome that issue, python code was created to outcome complete pre-processing setup automatically in Salome software. Applying dimensions of the model clearly in the python code makes the running time comparatively lower and easier way to perform analysis of the valve. Hence, in this paper, an attempt was made to study the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) of butterfly valves by varying the valve angles and dimensions using python code in pre-processing software, and results are produced.
LCA/CFD Studies of Artisanal Brick Manufacture in Mexico
Environmental performance of artisanal brick manufacture was studied by Lifecycle Assessment (LCA) methodology and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis in Mexico. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the environmental impact during artisanal brick manufacture. LCA cradle-to-gate approach was complemented with CFD analysis to carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). The lifecycle includes the stages of extraction, baking and transportation to the gate. The functional unit of this study was the production of a single brick in Chihuahua, Mexico and the impact categories studied were carcinogens, respiratory organics and inorganics, climate change radiation, ozone layer depletion, ecotoxicity, acidification/ eutrophication, land use, mineral use and fossil fuels. Laboratory techniques for fuel characterization, gas measurements in situ, and AP42 emission factors were employed in order to calculate gas emissions for inventory data. The results revealed that the categories with greater impacts are ecotoxicity and carcinogens. The CFD analysis is helpful in predicting the thermal diffusion and contaminants from a defined source. LCA-CFD synergy complemented the EIA and allowed us to identify the problem of thermal efficiency within the system.
Investigation of the Operational Principle and Flow Analysis of a Newly Developed Dry Separator
Mineral product, waste concrete (fine aggregates),
waste in the optical field, industry, and construction employ separators
to separate solids and classify them according to their size. Various
sorting machines are used in the industrial field such as those operating
under electrical properties, centrifugal force, wind power, vibration,
and magnetic force. Study on separators has been carried out to
contribute to the environmental industry. In this study, we perform
CFD analysis for understanding the basic mechanism of the separation
of waste concrete (fine aggregate) particles from air with a machine
built with a rotor with blades. In CFD, we first performed
two-dimensional particle tracking for various particle sizes for the
model with 1 degree, 1.5 degree, and 2 degree angle between each
blade to verify the boundary conditions and the method of rotating
domain method to be used in 3D. Then we developed 3D numerical
model with ANSYS CFX to calculate the air flow and track the
particles. We judged the capability of particle separation for given size
by counting the number of particles escaping from the domain toward
the exit among 10 particles issued at the inlet. We confirm that
particles experience stagnant behavior near the exit of the rotating
blades where the centrifugal force acting on the particles is in balance
with the air drag force. It was also found that the minimum particle
size that can be separated by the machine with the rotor is determined
by its capability to stay at the outlet of the rotor channels.
CFD Analysis of Passive Cooling Building by Using Solar Chimney System
This research presents the design and analysis of solar
air-conditioning systems particularly solar chimney which is a
passive strategy for natural ventilation, and demonstrates the
structures of these systems’ using Computational Fluid Dynamic
(CFD) and finally compares the results with several examples, which
have been studied experimentally and carried out previously. In order
to improve the performance of solar chimney system, highly efficient
sub-system components are considered for the design. The general
purpose of the research is to understand how efficiently solar
chimney systems generate cooling, and is to improve the efficient of
such systems for integration with existing and future domestic
Fibers Presence Effects on Air Flow of Attenuator of Spun-Bond Production System
Different designs of attenuator systems have been
studied in this research; new analysis have been done on existed
designs considering fibers effect on air flow; it was comprehended
that, at fibers presence, there is an air flow which agglomerates fibers
as a negative effect. So some new representations have been designed
and CFD analysis has been done on them. Afterwards, one of these
representations selected as the most optimum and effective design
which is brought in this paper.
Optimum Design of Attenuator of Spun-Bond Production System
Nanofibers are effective materials which have
frequently been investigated to produce high quality air filters. As an
environmental approach our aim is to achieve nanofibers by melting.
In spun-bond systems extruder, spin-pump, nozzle package and
attenuator are used. Molten polymer which flows from extruder is
made steady by spin-pump. Regular melt passes through nozzle holes
and forms fibers under high pressure. The fibers pulled from nozzle
are shrunk to micron size by an attenuator; after solidification, they
are collected on a conveyor. In this research different designs of
attenuator system have been studied; and also CFD analysis has been
done on these different designs. Afterwards, one of these designs
tested and finally some optimizations have been done to reduce
pressure loss and increase air velocity.
CFD Analysis of Multi-Phase Reacting Transport Phenomena in Discharge Process of Non-Aqueous Lithium-Air Battery
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is
developed for rechargeable non-aqueous electrolyte lithium-air
batteries with a partial opening for oxygen supply to the cathode.
Multi-phase transport phenomena occurred in the battery are
considered, including dissolved lithium ions and oxygen gas in the
liquid electrolyte, solid-phase electron transfer in the porous
functional materials and liquid-phase charge transport in the
electrolyte. These transport processes are coupled with the
electrochemical reactions at the active surfaces, and effects of
discharge reaction-generated solid Li2O2 on the transport properties
and the electrochemical reaction rate are evaluated and implemented
in the model. The predicted results are discussed and analyzed in terms
of the spatial and transient distribution of various parameters, such as
local oxygen concentration, reaction rate, variable solid Li2O2 volume
fraction and porosity, as well as the effective diffusion coefficients. It
is found that the effect of the solid Li2O2 product deposited at the solid
active surfaces is significant on the transport phenomena and the
overall battery performance.
A CFD Analysis of Hydraulic Characteristics of the Rod Bundles in the BREST-OD-300 Wire-Spaced Fuel Assemblies
This paper presents the findings from a numerical simulation of the flow in 37-rod fuel assembly models spaced by a double-wire trapezoidal wrapping as applied to the BREST-OD-300 experimental nuclear reactor. Data on a high static pressure distribution within the models, and equations for determining the fuel bundle flow friction factors have been obtained. Recommendations are provided on using the closing turbulence models available in the ANSYS Fluent. A comparative analysis has been performed against the existing empirical equations for determining the flow friction factors. The calculated and experimental data fit has been shown.
An analysis into the experimental data and results of the numerical simulation of the BREST-OD-300 fuel rod assembly hydrodynamic performance are presented.
A CFD Analysis of Flow through a High-Pressure Natural Gas Pipeline with an Undeformed and Deformed Orifice Plate
This work aims to present a numerical analysis of the natural gas which flows through a high-pressure pipeline and an orifice plate, through the use of CFD methods. The paper contains CFD calculations for the flow of natural gas in a pipe with different geometry used for the orifice plates. One of them has a standard geometry and a shape without any deformation and the other is deformed by the action of the pressure differential. It shows the behavior of natural gas in a pipeline using the velocity profiles and pressure fields of the gas in both models with their differences. The entire research is based on the elimination of any inaccuracy which should appear in the flow of the natural gas measured in the high-pressure pipelines of the gas industry and which is currently not given in the relevant standard.
Numerical Investigation of Nozzle Shape Effect on Shock Wave in Natural Gas Processing
Natural gas flow contains undesirable solid particles,
liquid condensation, and/or oil droplets and requires reliable
removing equipment to perform filtration. Recent natural gas
processing applications are demanded compactness and reliability of
process equipment. Since conventional means are sophisticated in
design, poor in efficiency, and continue lacking robust, a supersonic
nozzle has been introduced as an alternative means to meet such
A 3-D Convergent-Divergent Nozzle is simulated using
commercial Code for pressure ratio (NPR) varies from 1.2 to 2. Six
different shapes of nozzle are numerically examined to illustrate the
position of shock-wave as such spot could be considered as a
benchmark of particle separation. Rectangle, triangle, circular,
elliptical, pentagon, and hexagon nozzles are simulated using Fluent
Code with all have same cross-sectional area.
The simple one-dimensional inviscid theory does not describe the
actual features of fluid flow precisely as it ignores the impact of
nozzle configuration on the flow properties. CFD Simulation results,
however, show that nozzle geometry influences the flow structures
including location of shock wave.
The CFD analysis predicts shock appearance when p01/pa>1.2 for
almost all geometry and locates at the lower area ratio (Ae/At).
Simulation results showed that shock wave in Elliptical nozzle has
the farthest distance from the throat among the others at relatively
small NPR. As NPR increases, hexagon would be the farthest. The
numerical result is compared with available experimental data and
has shown good agreement in terms of shock location and flow
CFD Analysis of Natural Ventilation Behaviour in Four Sided Wind Catcher
Wind catchers are traditional natural ventilation
systems attached to buildings in order to ventilate the indoor air. The
most common type of wind catcher is four sided one which is
capable to catch wind in all directions. CFD simulation is the perfect
way to evaluate the wind catcher performance. The accuracy of CFD
results is the issue of concern, so sensitivity analyses is crucial to
find out the effect of different settings of CFD on results. This paper
presents a series of 3D steady RANS simulations for a generic
isolated four-sided wind catcher attached to a room subjected to wind
direction ranging from 0º to 180º with an interval of 45º. The CFD
simulations are validated with detailed wind tunnel experiments. The
influence of an extensive range of computational parameters is
explored in this paper, including the resolution of the computational
grid, the size of the computational domain and the turbulence model.
This study found that CFD simulation is a reliable method for wind
catcher study, but it is less accurate in prediction of models with non
perpendicular wind directions.
CFD Analysis of Incompressible Turbulent Swirling Flow through Circle Grids Space Filling Plate
Circle grid space filling plate is a flow conditioner with a fractal pattern and used to eliminate turbulence originating from pipe fittings in experimental fluid flow applications. In this paper, steady state, incompressible, swirling turbulent flow through circle grid space filling plate has been studied. The solution and the analysis were carried out using finite volume CFD solver FLUENT 6.2. Three turbulence models were used in the numerical investigation and their results were compared with the pressure drop correlation of BS EN ISO 5167-2:2003. The turbulence models investigated here are the standard k-ε, realizable k-ε, and the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM). The results showed that the RSM model gave the best agreement with the ISO pressure drop correlation. The effects of circle grids space filling plate thickness and Reynolds number on the flow characteristics have been investigated as well.
CFD Modeling of a Radiator Axial Fan for Air Flow Distribution
The fluid mechanics principle is used extensively in
designing axial flow fans and their associated equipment. This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of air flow
distribution from a radiator axial flow fan used in an acid pump truck Tier4 (APT T4) Repower. This axial flow fan augments the transfer
of heat from the engine mounted on the APT T4.
CFD analysis was performed for an area weighted average static pressure difference at the inlet and outlet of the fan. Pressure contours, velocity vectors, and path lines were plotted for detailing
the flow characteristics for different orientations of the fan blade. The results were then compared and verified against known theoretical observations and actual experimental data. This study
shows that a CFD simulation can be very useful for predicting and understanding the flow distribution from a radiator fan for further
Evaluation of Stiffness and Damping Coefficients of Multiple Axial Groove Water Lubricated Bearing Using Computational Fluid Dynamics
This research details a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach to model fluid flow in a journal bearing with 8 equispaced semi-circular axial grooves. Water is used as the lubricant and is fed from one end of the bearing to the other, under pressure. The geometry of the bearing is modeled using a commercially available modeling software GAMBIT and the flow analysis is performed using a dedicated CFD analysis software FLUENT. The pressure distribution in the bearing clearance is obtained from FLUENT for various whirl ratios and is used to calculate the hydrodynamic force components in the radial and tangential direction of the bearing. These values along with the various whirl speeds can be used to do a regression analysis to determine the stiffness and damping coefficients. The values obtained are then compared with the stiffness and damping coefficients of a 3 Axial groove water lubricated journal bearing and those obtained from a FORTRAN code for a similar bearing.
A Comparative CFD Study on Solar Dimple Plate Collector with Flat Plate Collector to Augment the Thermal Performance
It is well known that surface enhancements play an important role in augmenting the thermal performance of flat plate solar collector. In this paper, an attempt is made to explain in a comparative way the effect of surface geometry of solar collector having dimple geometry with that of a flat plate solar collector of the same size. A CFD analysis was carried out for the two cases, subjected to a constant heat flux of 600W/m2 and 1000W/m2. It can be inferred from the study that the absorber plate temperature shows a rise of average surface temperature of about 50C for the dimple solar collector when compared to a flat plate solar collector. Most importantly, the average exit water temperature shows a marked improvement of about 5.50C for a dimple solar collector as compared to that of a flat plate solar collector.
Numerical Simulation of the Flow Field around a 30° Inclined Flat Plate
This paper presents a CFD analysis of the flow around
a 30° inclined flat plate of infinite span. Numerical predictions have
been compared to experimental measurements, in order to assess the
potential of the finite volume code of determining the aerodynamic
forces acting on a flat plate invested by a fluid stream of infinite
Several turbulence models and spatial node distributions have
been tested and flow field characteristics in the neighborhood of the
flat plate have been numerically investigated, allowing the
development of a preliminary procedure to be used as guidance in
selecting the appropriate grid configuration and the corresponding
turbulence model for the prediction of the flow field over a twodimensional
Numerical Simulation of the Flow Field around a Vertical Flat Plate of Infinite Extent
This paper presents a CFD analysis of the flow field
around a thin flat plate of infinite span inclined at 90° to a fluid
stream of infinite extent. Numerical predictions have been compared
to experimental measurements, in order to assess the potential of the
finite volume code of determining the aerodynamic forces acting on a
bluff body invested by a fluid stream of infinite extent.
Several turbulence models and spatial node distributions have
been tested. Flow field characteristics in the neighborhood of the flat
plate have been investigated, allowing the development of a
preliminary procedure to be used as guidance in selecting the
appropriate grid configuration and the corresponding turbulence
model for the prediction of the flow field over a two-dimensional
vertical flat plate.
CFD of Oscillating Airfoil Pitch Cycle by using PISO Algorithm
This research paper presents the CFD analysis of
oscillating airfoil during pitch cycle. Unsteady subsonic flow is
simulated for pitching airfoil at Mach number 0.283 and Reynolds
number 3.45 millions. Turbulent effects are also considered for this
study by using K-ω SST turbulent model. Two-dimensional unsteady
compressible Navier-Stokes code including two-equation turbulence
model and PISO pressure velocity coupling is used. Pressure based
implicit solver with first order implicit unsteady formulation is used.
The simulated pitch cycle results are compared with the available
experimental data. The results have a good agreement with the
experimental data. Aerodynamic characteristics during pitch cycles
have been studied and validated.
Coupled Multifield Analysis of Piezoelectrically Actuated Microfluidic Device for Transdermal Drug Delivery Applications
In this paper, design, fabrication and coupled
multifield analysis of hollow out-of-plane silicon microneedle array
with piezoelectrically actuated microfluidic device for transdermal
drug delivery (TDD) applications is presented. The fabrication
process of silicon microneedle array is first done by series of
combined isotropic and anisotropic etching processes using
inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching technology. Then coupled
multifield analysis of MEMS based piezoelectrically actuated device
with integrated 2×2 silicon microneedle array is presented. To predict
the stress distribution and model fluid flow in coupled field analysis,
finite element (FE) and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis
using ANSYS rather than analytical systems has been performed.
Static analysis and transient CFD analysis were performed to predict
the fluid flow through the microneedle array. The inlet pressure from
10 kPa to 150 kPa was considered for static CFD analysis. In the
lumen region fluid flow rate 3.2946 μL/min is obtained at 150 V for
2×2 microneedle array. In the present study the authors have
performed simulation of structural, piezoelectric and CFD analysis
on three dimensional model of the piezoelectrically actuated
mcirofluidic device integrated with 2×2 microneedle array.
CFD Analysis on Aerodynamic Design Optimization of Wind Turbine Rotor Blades
Wind energy has been shown to be one of the most
viable sources of renewable energy. With current technology, the low
cost of wind energy is competitive with more conventional sources of
energy such as coal. Most blades available for commercial grade
wind turbines incorporate a straight span-wise profile and airfoil
shaped cross sections. These blades are found to be very efficient at
lower wind speeds in comparison to the potential energy that can be
extracted. However as the oncoming wind speed increases the
efficiency of the blades decreases as they approach a stall point. This
paper explores the possibility of increasing the efficiency of the
blades at higher wind speeds while maintaining efficiency at the
lower wind speeds. The design intends to maintain efficiency at
lower wind speeds by selecting the appropriate orientation and size
of the airfoil cross sections based on a low oncoming wind speed and
given constant rotation rate. The blades will be made more efficient
at higher wind speeds by implementing a swept blade profile.
Performance was investigated using the computational fluid
CFD Analysis of a Centrifugal Fan for Performance Enhancement using Converging Boundary Layer Suction Slots
Generally flow behavior in centrifugal fan is observed
to be in a state of instability with flow separation zones on suction
surface as well as near the front shroud. Overall performance of the
diffusion process in a centrifugal fan could be enhanced by
judiciously introducing the boundary layer suction slots. With easy
accessibility of CFD as an analytical tool, an extensive numerical
whole field analysis of the effect of boundary layer suction slots in
discrete regions of suspected separation points is possible. This paper
attempts to explore the effect of boundary layer suction slots
corresponding to various geometrical locations on the impeller with
converging configurations for the slots. The analysis shows that the
converging suction slots located on the impeller blade about 25%
from the trailing edge, significantly improves the static pressure
recovery across the fan. Also it is found that Slots provided at a
radial distance of about 12% from the leading and trailing edges
marginally improve the static pressure recovery across the fan.
A CFD Study of Sensitive Parameters Effect on the Combustion in a High Velocity Oxygen-Fuel Thermal Spray Gun
High-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying
uses a combustion process to heat the gas flow and coating material.
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed to
predict gas dynamic behavior in a HVOF thermal spray gun in which
premixed oxygen and propane are burnt in a combustion chamber
linked to a parallel-sided nozzle. The CFD analysis is applied to
investigate axisymmetric, steady-state, turbulent, compressible,
chemically reacting, subsonic and supersonic flow inside and outside
the gun. The gas velocity, temperature, pressure and Mach number
distributions are presented for various locations inside and outside
the gun. The calculated results show that the most sensitive
parameters affecting the process are fuel-to-oxygen gas ratio and
total gas flow rate. Gas dynamic behavior along the centerline of the
gun depends on both total gas flow rate and fuel-to-oxygen gas ratio.
The numerical simulations show that the axial gas velocity and Mach
number distribution depend on both flow rate and ratio; the highest
velocity is achieved at the higher flow rate and most fuel-rich ratio.
In addition, the results reported in this paper illustrate that the
numerical simulation can be one of the most powerful and beneficial
tools for the HVOF system design, optimization and performance
CFD Analysis of Two Phase Flow in a Horizontal Pipe – Prediction of Pressure Drop
In designing of condensers, the prediction of pressure
drop is as important as the prediction of heat transfer coefficient.
Modeling of two phase flow, particularly liquid – vapor flow under
diabatic conditions inside a horizontal tube using CFD analysis is
difficult with the available two phase models in FLUENT due to
continuously changing flow patterns. In the present analysis, CFD
analysis of two phase flow of refrigerants inside a horizontal tube of
inner diameter, 0.0085 m and 1.2 m length is carried out using
homogeneous model under adiabatic conditions. The refrigerants
considered are R22, R134a and R407C. The analysis is performed at
different saturation temperatures and at different flow rates to
evaluate the local frictional pressure drop. Using Homogeneous
model, average properties are obtained for each of the refrigerants
that is considered as single phase pseudo fluid. The so obtained
pressure drop data is compared with the separated flow models
available in literature.