International Science Index
Studies on the Mechanical Behavior of Bottom Ash for a Sustainable Environment
Bottom ash is a by-product of the combustion process of coal in furnaces in the production of electricity in thermal power plants. In India, about 75% of total power is produced by using pulverized coal. The coal of India has a high ash content which leads to the generation of a huge quantity of bottom ash per year posing the dual problem of environmental pollution and difficulty in disposal. This calls for establishing strategies to use this industry by-product effectively and efficiently. However, its large-scale utilization is possible only in geotechnical applications, either alone or with soil. In the present investigation, bottom ash was collected from National Capital Power Station Dadri, Uttar Pradesh, India. Test samples of bottom ash admixed with 20% clayey soil were prepared and treated with different cement content by weight and subjected to various laboratory tests for assessing its suitability as an engineered construction material. This study has shown that use of 10% cement content is a viable chemical additive to enhance the mechanical properties of bottom ash, which can be used effectively as an engineered construction material in various geotechnical applications. More importantly, it offers an interesting potential for making use of an industrial waste to overcome challenges posed by bottom ash for a sustainable environment.
Numerical Investigation of Pressure Drop and Erosion Wear by Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation
The modernization of computer technology and commercial computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation has given better detailed results as compared to experimental investigation techniques. CFD techniques are widely used in different field due to its flexibility and performance. Evaluation of pipeline erosion is complex phenomenon to solve by numerical arithmetic technique, whereas CFD simulation is an easy tool to resolve that type of problem. Erosion wear behaviour due to solid–liquid mixture in the slurry pipeline has been investigated using commercial CFD code in FLUENT. Multi-phase Euler-Lagrange model was adopted to predict the solid particle erosion wear in 22.5° pipe bend for the flow of bottom ash-water suspension. The present study addresses erosion prediction in three dimensional 22.5° pipe bend for two-phase (solid and liquid) flow using finite volume method with standard k-ε turbulence, discrete phase model and evaluation of erosion wear rate with varying velocity 2-4 m/s. The result shows that velocity of solid-liquid mixture found to be highly dominating parameter as compared to solid concentration, density, and particle size. At low velocity, settling takes place in the pipe bend due to low inertia and gravitational effect on solid particulate which leads to high erosion at bottom side of pipeline.
Incineration of Sludge in a Fluidized-Bed Combustor
For sludge disposal, incineration is considered to be better than direct burial because of regulations and space limitations in Taiwan. Additionally, burial after incineration can effectively prolong the lifespan of a landfill. Therefore, it is the most satisfactory method for treating sludge at present. Of the various incineration technologies, the fluidized bed incinerator is a suitable choice due to its fuel flexibility. In this work, sludge generated from industrial plants was treated in a pilot-scale vortexing fluidized bed. The moisture content of the sludge was 48.53%, and its LHV was 454.6 kcal/kg. Primary gas and secondary gas were fixed at 3 Nm3/min and 1 Nm3/min, respectively. Diesel burners with on-off controllers were used to control the temperature; the bed temperature was set to 750±20 °C, and the freeboard temperature was 850±20 °C. The experimental data show that the NO emission increased with bed temperature. The maximum NO emission is 139 ppm, which is in agreement with the regulation. The CO emission is low than 100 ppm through the operation period. The mean particle size of fly ash collected from baghouse decreased with operating time. The ration of bottom ash to fly ash is about 3. Compared with bottom ash, the potassium in the fly ash is much higher. It implied that the potassium content is not the key factor for aggregation of bottom ash.
Co-Disposal of Coal Ash with Mine Tailings in Surface Paste Disposal Practices: A Gold Mining Case Study
The present paper describes the study of paste tailings prepared in laboratory using gold tailings, produced in a Finnish gold mine with the incorporation of coal ash. Natural leaching tests were conducted with the original materials (tailings, fly and bottom ashes) and also with paste mixtures that were prepared with different percentages of tailings and ashes. After leaching, the solid wastes were physically and chemically characterized and the results were compared to those selected as blank – the unleached samples. The tailings and the coal ash, as well as the prepared mixtures, were characterized, in addition to the textural parameters, by the following measurements: grain size distribution, chemical composition and pH. Mixtures were also tested in order to characterize their mechanical behavior by measuring the flexural strength, the compressive strength and the consistency. The original tailing samples presented an alkaline pH because during their processing they were previously submitted to pressure oxidation with destruction of the sulfides. Therefore, it was not possible to ascertain the effect of the coal ashes in the acid mine drainage. However, it was possible to verify that the paste reactivity was affected mostly by the bottom ash and that the tailings blended with bottom ash present lower mechanical strength than when blended with a combination of fly and bottom ash. Surface paste disposal offer an attractive alternative to traditional methods in addition to the environmental benefits of incorporating large-volume wastes (e.g. bottom ash). However, a comprehensive characterization of the paste mixtures is crucial to optimize paste design in order to enhance engineer and environmental properties.
Finite Element Modeling of the Mechanical Behavior of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Bottom Ash with the Mohr-Coulomb Model
Bottom ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration
(MSWI) can be viewed as a typical granular material because these
industrial by-products result from the incineration of various
domestic wastes. MSWI bottom ash is mainly used in road
engineering in substitution of the traditional natural aggregates. As
the characterization of their mechanical behavior is essential in order
to use them, specific studies have been led over the past few years. In
the first part of this paper, the mechanical behavior of MSWI bottom
ash is studied with triaxial tests. After, analysis of the experiment
results, the simulation of triaxial tests is carried out by using the
software package CESAR-LCPC. As the first approach in modeling
of this new class material, the Mohr-Coulomb model was chosen to
describe the evolution of material under the influence of external
A Prospective Study on Alkali Activated Bottom Ash-GGBS Blend in Paver Blocks
This paper presents a study on use of alkali activated bottom ash (BA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) blend in paver blocks. A preliminary effort on alkali-activated bottom ash, blast furnace slag based geopolymer (BA-GGBS-GP) mortar with river sand was carried out to identify the suitable mix for paver block. Several mixes were proposed based on the combination of BA-GGBS. The percentage ratio of BA: GGBS was selected as 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100 for the source material. Sodium based alkaline activators were used for activation. The molarity of NaOH was considered as 8M. The molar ratio of SiO2 to Na2O was varied from 1 to 4. Two curing mode such as ambient and steam curing 60°C for 24 hours were selected. The properties of paver block such as compressive strength split tensile strength, flexural strength and water absorption were evaluated as per IS15658:2006. Based on the preliminary study on BA-GGBS-GP mortar, the combinations of 25% BA with 75% GGBS mix for M30 and 75% BA with 25% GGBS mix for M35 grade were identified for paver block. Test results shows that the combination of BA-GGBS geopolymer paver blocks attained remarkable compressive strength under steam curing as well as in ambient mode at 3 days. It is noteworthy to know BA-GGBS-GP has promising future in the construction industry.
Effect of Temperature of Exposure on Properties of Cement Mortar with MSWI Bottom Ash
Effect of high temperature exposure on properties of cement mortar containing municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash as partial natural aggregate replacement is analyzed in the paper. The measurements of mechanical properties, bulk density, matrix density, total open porosity, sorption and desorption isotherms are done on samples exposed to the temperatures of 20°C to 1000°C. TGA analysis is performed as well. Finally, the studied samples are analyzed by IR spectroscopy in order to evaluate TGA data.
Flowability and Strength Development Characteristics of Bottom Ash Based Geopolymer
Despite of the preponderant role played by cement among the construction materials, it is today considered as a material destructing the environment due to the large quantities of carbon dioxide exhausted during its manufacture. Besides, global warming is now recognized worldwide as the new threat to the humankind against which advanced countries are investigating measures to reduce the current amount of exhausted gases to the half by 2050. Accordingly, efforts to reduce green gases are exerted in all industrial fields. Especially, the cement industry strives to reduce the consumption of cement through the development of alkali-activated geopolymer mortars using industrial byproducts like bottom ash. This study intends to gather basic data on the flowability and strength development characteristics of alkali-activated geopolymer mortar by examining its FT-IT features with respect to the effects and strength of the alkali-activator in order to develop bottom ash-based alkali-activated geopolymer mortar. The results show that the 35:65 mass ratio of sodium hydroxide to sodium silicate is appropriate and that a molarity of 9M for sodium hydroxide is advantageous. The ratio of the alkali-activators to bottom ash is seen to have poor effect on the strength. Moreover, the FT-IR analysis reveals that larger improvement of the strength shifts the peak from 1060 cm–1 (T-O, T=Si or Al) toward shorter wavenumber.
Study on Characterization of Tuncbilek Fly Ash
Fly ash is one of the residues generated in
combustion, and comprises the fine particles that rise with the flue
gases. Ash which does not rise is termed bottom ash . In our
country, it is expected that will be occurred 50 million tons of waste
ash per year until 2020. Released waste from the thermal power
plants is caused very significant problems as known. The fly ashes
can be evaluated by using as adsorbent material.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of use of
Tuncbilek fly ash like low-cost adsorbents for heavy metal
adsorption. First of all, Tuncbilek fly ash was characterized. For this
purpose; analysis such as sieve analysis, XRD, XRF, SEM and FT-IR
Extractable Heavy Metal Concentrations in Bottom Ash from Incineration of Wood-Based Residues in a BFB Boiler Using Artificial Sweat and Gastric Fluids
The highest extractable concentration in the artificial sweat fluid was observed for Ba (120mg/kg; d.w.). The highest extractable concentration in the artificial gastric fluid was observed for Al (9030mg/kg; d.w.). Furthermore, the extractable concentrations of Ba (550mg/kg; d.w.) and Zn (400mg/kg: d.w.) in the bottom ash using artificial gastric fluid were elevated. The extractable concentrations of all heavy metals in the artificial gastric fluid were higher than those in the artificial sweat fluid. These results are reasonable in the light of the fact that the pH of the artificial gastric fluid was extremely acidic both before (pH 1.54) and after (pH 1.94) extraction, whereas the pH of the artificial sweat fluid was slightly alkaline before (pH 6.50) and after extraction (pH 8.51).
Release of Elements in Bottom Ash and Fly Ash from Incineration of Peat- and Wood-Residues using a Sequential Extraction Procedure
When the results of the total element concentrations using USEPA method 3051A are compared to the sequential extraction analyses (i.e. the sum of fractions BCR1, BCR2 and BRC3), it can be calculated that the recovery values of elements varied between 56.8-% and 69.4-% in the bottom ash, and between 11.3-% and 70.9-% in the fly ash. This indicates that most of the elements in the ashes do not occur as readily soluble forms.
Prediction of Compressive Strength of SCC Containing Bottom Ash using Artificial Neural Networks
The paper presents a comparative performance of the
models developed to predict 28 days compressive strengths using
neural network techniques for data taken from literature (ANN-I) and
data developed experimentally for SCC containing bottom ash as
partial replacement of fine aggregates (ANN-II). The data used in the
models are arranged in the format of six and eight input parameters
that cover the contents of cement, sand, coarse aggregate, fly ash as
partial replacement of cement, bottom ash as partial replacement of
sand, water and water/powder ratio, superplasticizer dosage and an
output parameter that is 28-days compressive strength and
compressive strengths at 7 days, 28 days, 90 days and 365 days,
respectively for ANN-I and ANN-II. The importance of different
input parameters is also given for predicting the strengths at various
ages using neural network. The model developed from literature data
could be easily extended to the experimental data, with bottom ash as
partial replacement of sand with some modifications.
On Unburned Carbon in Coal Ash from Various Combustion Units
Work is focused to the study of unburned carbon in
ash from coal (and wastes) combustion in 8 combustion tests at 3
fluidised-bed power station, at co-combustion of coal and wastes
(also at fluidized bed) and at bench-scale unit simulating coal
combustion in small domestic furnaces. The attention is paid to
unburned carbon contents in bottom ashes and fly ashes at these 8
combustion tests and to morphology of unburned carbons. Specific
surface area of coals, unburned carbons and ashes and the relation of
specific surface area of unburned carbon and the content of volatile
combustibles in coal were studied as well.
Comparison of The Fertilizer Properties of Ash Fractions from Medium-Sized (32 MW) and Small-Sized (6 MW) Municipal District Heating Plants
Due to the low heavy metal concentrations, the
bottom ash from a 32 MW municipal district heating plant was
determined to be a potential forest fertilizer as such. However,
additional Ca would be needed, because its Ca concentration of 1.9-
% (d.w.) was lower than the statutory Finnish minimum limit value
of 6.0-% (d.w.) for Ca in forest fertilizer. Due to the elevated As
concentration (53.0 mg/kg; d.w.) in the fly ash from the 32 MW
municipal district heating plant, and Cr concentration (620 mg/kg;
d.w.) in the ash fraction (i.e. mixture of the bottom ash and fly ash)
from the 6 MW municipal district heating plant, which exceed the
limit values of 30 mg/kg (d.w.) and 300 mg/kg (d.w.) for As and Cr,
respectively, these residues are not suitable as forest fertilizers.
Although these ash fractions cannot be used as a forest fertilizer as
such, they can be used for the landscaping of landfills or in industrial
and other areas that are closed to the public. However, an
environmental permit is then needed.