DNA data have been used in forensics for decades. However, current research looks at using the DNA as a biometric identity verification modality. The goal is to improve the speed of identification. We aim at using gene data that was initially used for autism detection to find if and how accurate is this data for identification applications. Mainly our goal is to find if our data preprocessing technique yields data useful as a biometric identification tool. We experiment with using the nearest neighbor classifier to identify subjects. Results show that optimal classification rate is achieved when the test set is corrupted by normally distributed noise with zero mean and standard deviation of 1. The classification rate is close to optimal at higher noise standard deviation reaching 3. This shows that the data can be used for identity verification with high accuracy using a simple classifier such as the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN).
With the advent of modern computing technology, there is an increased demand for developing recognition systems that have the capability of verifying the identity of individuals. Recognition systems are required by several civilian and commercial applications for providing access to secured resources. Traditional recognition systems which are based on physical identities are not sufficiently reliable to satisfy the security requirements due to the use of several advances of forgery and identity impersonation methods. Recognizing individuals based on his/her unique physiological characteristics known as biometric traits is a reliable technique, since these traits are not transferable and they cannot be stolen or lost. Since the performance of biometric based recognition system depends on the particular trait that is utilized, the present work proposes a fusion approach which combines Inner knuckle print (IKP) trait of the middle, ring and index fingers with the geometrical features of hand. The hand image captured from a digital camera is preprocessed to find finger IKP as region of interest (ROI) and hand geometry features. Geometrical features are represented as the distances between different key points and IKP features are extracted by applying local binary pattern descriptor on the IKP ROI. The decision level AND fusion was adopted, which has shown improvement in performance of the combined scheme. The proposed approach is tested on the database collected at our institute. Proposed approach is of significance since both hand geometry and IKP features can be extracted from the palm region of the hand. The fusion of these features yields a false acceptance rate of 0.75%, false rejection rate of 0.86% for verification tests conducted, which is less when compared to the results obtained using individual traits. The results obtained confirm the usefulness of proposed approach and suitability of the selected features for developing biometric based recognition system based on features from palmar region of hand.
Handwritten signature is accepted widely as a biometric characteristic for personal authentication. The use of appropriate features plays an important role in determining accuracy of signature verification; therefore, this paper presents a feature based on the geometrical concept. To achieve the aim, triangle attributes are exploited to design a new feature since the triangle possesses orientation, angle and transformation that would improve accuracy. The proposed feature uses triangulation geometric set comprising of sides, angles and perimeter of a triangle which is derived from the center of gravity of a signature image. For classification purpose, Euclidean classifier along with Voting-based classifier is used to verify the tendency of forgery signature. This classification process is experimented using triangular geometric feature and selected global features. Based on an experiment that was validated using Grupo de Senales 960 (GPDS-960) signature database, the proposed triangular geometric feature achieves a lower Average Error Rates (AER) value with a percentage of 34% as compared to 43% of the selected global feature. As a conclusion, the proposed triangular geometric feature proves to be a more reliable feature for accurate signature verification.
The inherent skin patterns created at the joints in the finger exterior are referred as finger knuckle-print. It is exploited to identify a person in a unique manner because the finger knuckle print is greatly affluent in textures. In biometric system, the region of interest is utilized for the feature extraction algorithm. In this paper, local and global features are extracted separately. Fast Discrete Orthonormal Stockwell Transform is exploited to extract the local features. Global feature is attained by escalating the size of Fast Discrete Orthonormal Stockwell Transform to infinity. Two features are fused to increase the recognition accuracy. A matching distance is calculated for both the features individually. Then two distances are merged mutually to acquire the final matching distance. The proposed scheme gives the better performance in terms of equal error rate and correct recognition rate.
A relationship between face and signature biometrics is established in this paper. A new approach is developed to predict faces from signatures by using artificial intelligence. A multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network is used to generate face details from features extracted from signatures, here face is the physical biometric and signatures is the behavioural biometric. The new method establishes a relationship between the two biometrics and regenerates a visible face image from the signature features. Furthermore, the performance efficiencies of our new technique are demonstrated in terms of minimum error rates compared to published work.
In this paper the issue of dimensionality reduction is investigated in finger vein recognition systems using kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA). One aspect of KPCA is to find the most appropriate kernel function on finger vein recognition as there are several kernel functions which can be used within PCA-based algorithms. In this paper, however, another side of PCA-based algorithms -particularly KPCA- is investigated. The aspect of dimension of feature vector in PCA-based algorithms is of importance especially when it comes to the real-world applications and usage of such algorithms. It means that a fixed dimension of feature vector has to be set to reduce the dimension of the input and output data and extract the features from them. Then a classifier is performed to classify the data and make the final decision. We analyze KPCA (Polynomial, Gaussian, and Laplacian) in details in this paper and investigate the optimal feature extraction dimension in finger vein recognition using KPCA.
Fragile watermarking has been proposed as a means of adding additional security or functionality to biometric systems, particularly for authentication and tamper detection. In this paper we describe an experimental study on the effect of watermarking iris images with a particular class of fragile algorithm, reversible algorithms, and the ability to correctly perform iris recognition. We investigate two scenarios, matching watermarked images to unmodiﬁed images, and matching watermarked images to watermarked images. We show that different watermarking schemes give very different results for a given capacity, highlighting the importance ofinvestigation. At high embedding rates most algorithms cause signiﬁcant reduction in recognition performance. However, in many cases, for low embedding rates, recognition accuracy is improved by the watermarking process.
Recent growth in digital multimedia technologies has presented a lot of facilities in information transmission, reproduction and manipulation. Therefore, the concept of information security is one of the superior articles in the present day situation. The biometric information security is one of the information security mechanisms. It has the advantages as well as disadvantages. The biometric system is at risk to a range of attacks. These attacks are anticipated to bypass the security system or to suspend the normal functioning. Various hazards have been discovered while using biometric system. Proper use of steganography greatly reduces the risks in biometric systems from the hackers. Steganography is one of the fashionable information hiding technique. The goal of steganography is to hide information inside a cover medium like text, image, audio, video etc. through which it is not possible to detect the existence of the secret information. Here in this paper a new security concept has been established by making the system more secure with the help of steganography along with biometric security. Here the biometric information has been embedded to a skin tone portion of an image with the help of proposed steganographic technique.
The multimodal biometric identification is the combination of several biometric systems; the challenge of this combination is to reduce some limitations of systems based on a single modality while significantly improving performance. In this paper, we propose a new approach to the construction and the protection of a multimodal biometric database dedicated to an identification system. We use a topological watermarking to hide the relation between face image and the registered descriptors extracted from other modalities of the same person for more secure user identification.
The article examines the methods of protection of citizens' personal data on the Internet using biometric identity authentication technology. It`s celebrated their potential danger due to the threat of loss of base biometric templates. To eliminate the threat of compromised biometric templates is proposed to use neural networks large and extra-large sizes, which will on the one hand securely (Highly reliable) to authenticate a person by his biometrics, and on the other hand make biometrics a person is not available for observation and understanding. This article also describes in detail the transformation of personal biometric data access code. It`s formed the requirements for biometrics converter code for his work with the images of "Insider," "Stranger", all the "Strangers". It`s analyzed the effect of the dimension of neural networks on the quality of converters mystery of biometrics in access code.
Nowadays, hand vein recognition has attracted more attentions in identification biometrics systems. Generally, hand vein image is acquired with low contrast and irregular illumination. Accordingly, if you have a good preprocessing of hand vein image, we can easy extracted the feature extraction even with simple binarization. In this paper, a proposed approach is processed to improve the quality of hand vein image. First, a brief survey on existing methods of enhancement is investigated. Then a Radon Like features method is applied to preprocessing hand vein image. Finally, experiments results show that the proposed method give the better effective and reliable in improving hand vein images.
Single biometric modality recognition is not able to meet the high performance supplies in most cases with its application become more and more broadly. Multimodal biometrics identification represents an emerging trend recently. This paper investigates a novel algorithm based on fusion of both fingerprint and fingervein biometrics. For both biometric recognition, we employ the Monogenic Local Binary Pattern (MonoLBP). This operator integrate the orginal LBP (Local Binary Pattern ) with both other rotation invariant measures: local phase and local surface type. Experimental results confirm that a weighted sum based proposed fusion achieves excellent identification performances opposite unimodal biometric systems. The AUC of proposed approach based on combining the two modalities has very close to unity (0.93).
Multimodal biometric systems integrate the data presented by multiple biometric sources, hence offering a better performance than the systems based on a single biometric modality. Although the coupling of biometric systems can be done at different levels, the fusion at the scores level is the most common since it has been proven effective than the rest of the fusion levels. However, the scores from different modalities are generally heterogeneous. A step of normalizing the scores is needed to transform these scores into a common domain before combining them. In this paper, we study the performance of several normalization techniques with various fusion methods in a context relating to the merger of three unimodal systems based on the face, the palmprint and the fingerprint. We also propose a new adaptive normalization method that takes into account the distribution of client scores and impostor scores. Experiments conducted on a database of 100 people show that the performances of a multimodal system depend on the choice of the normalization method and the fusion technique. The proposed normalization method has given the best results.
The Choquet integral is a tool for the information fusion that is very effective in the case where fuzzy measures associated with it are well chosen. In this paper, we propose a new approach for calculating fuzzy measures associated with the Choquet integral in a context of data fusion in multimodal biometrics. The proposed approach is based on genetic algorithms. It has been validated in two databases: the first base is relative to synthetic scores and the second one is biometrically relating to the face, fingerprint and palmprint. The results achieved attest the robustness of the proposed approach.
The method of gait identification based on the nearest neighbor classification technique with motion similarity assessment by the dynamic time warping is proposed. The model based kinematic motion data, represented by the joints rotations coded by Euler angles and unit quaternions is used. The different pose distance functions in Euler angles and quaternion spaces are considered. To evaluate individual features of the subsequent joints movements during gait cycle, joint selection is carried out. To examine proposed approach database containing 353 gaits of 25 humans collected in motion capture laboratory is used. The obtained results are promising. The classifications, which takes into consideration all joints has accuracy over 91%. Only analysis of movements of hip joints allows to correctly identify gaits with almost 80% precision.
In order to guarantee secure communication for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), many user authentication schemes have successfully drawn researchers- attention and been studied widely. In 2012, He et al. proposed a robust biometric-based user authentication scheme for WSNs. However, this paper demonstrates that He et al.-s scheme has some drawbacks: poor reparability problem, user impersonation attack, and sensor node impersonate attack.
In this paper we propose a novel approach for ascertaining human identity based on fusion of profile face and gait biometric cues The identification approach based on feature learning in PCA-LDA subspace, and classification using multivariate Bayesian classifiers allows significant improvement in recognition accuracy for low resolution surveillance video scenarios. The experimental evaluation of the proposed identification scheme on a publicly available database  showed that the fusion of face and gait cues in joint PCA-LDA space turns out to be a powerful method for capturing the inherent multimodality in walking gait patterns, and at the same time discriminating the person identity..
Face recognition in the infrared spectrum has attracted a lot of interest in recent years. Many of the techniques used in infrared are based on their visible counterpart, especially linear techniques like PCA and LDA. In this work, we introduce a probabilistic Bayesian framework for face recognition in the infrared spectrum. In the infrared spectrum, variations can occur between face images of the same individual due to pose, metabolic, time changes, etc. Bayesian approaches permit to reduce intrapersonal variation, thus making them very interesting for infrared face recognition. This framework is compared with classical linear techniques. Non linear techniques we developed recently for infrared face recognition are also presented and compared to the Bayesian face recognition framework. A new approach for infrared face extraction based on SVM is introduced. Experimental results show that the Bayesian technique is promising and lead to interesting results in the infrared spectrum when a sufficient number of face images is used in an intrapersonal learning process.