International Science Index
Optimized Preprocessing for Accurate and Efficient Bioassay Prediction with Machine Learning Algorithms
Bioassay is the measurement of the potency of a chemical substance by its effect on a living animal or plant tissue. Bioassay data and chemical structures from pharmacokinetic and drug metabolism screening are mined from and housed in multiple databases. Bioassay prediction is calculated accordingly to determine further advancement. This paper proposes a four-step preprocessing of datasets for improving the bioassay predictions. The first step is instance selection in which dataset is categorized into training, testing, and validation sets. The second step is discretization that partitions the data in consideration of accuracy vs. precision. The third step is normalization where data are normalized between 0 and 1 for subsequent machine learning processing. The fourth step is feature selection where key chemical properties and attributes are generated. The streamlined results are then analyzed for the prediction of effectiveness by various machine learning algorithms including Pipeline Pilot, R, Weka, and Excel. Experiments and evaluations reveal the effectiveness of various combination of preprocessing steps and machine learning algorithms in more consistent and accurate prediction.
Antimicrobial and Aroma Finishing of Organic Cotton Knits Using Vetiver Oil Microcapsules for Health Care Textiles
Eco-friendly textiles are gaining importance among the consumers and textile manufacturers in the healthcare sector due to increased environmental pollution which leads to several health and environmental hazards. Hence, the research was designed to cultivate and develop the organic cotton knit, to prepare and characterize the Vetiver oil microcapsules for textile finishing and to access the wash durability of finished knits. The cotton SAHANA variety grown under organic production systems was processed and spun into 30 single yarn dyed with four natural colorants (Arecanut slurry, Eucalyptus leaves, Pomegranate rind and Indigo) and eco dyed yarn was further used for development of single jersy knitted fabric. Vetiveria zizanioides is an aromatic grass which is being traditionally used in medicine and perfumery. Vetiver essential oil was used for preparation of microcapsules by interfacial polymerization technique subjected to Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for characterization of microcapsules. The knitted fabric was finished with vetiver oil microcapsules by exhaust and pad dry cure methods. The finished organic knit was assessed for laundering on antimicrobial efficiency and aroma intensity. GCMS spectral analysis showed that, diethyl phthalate (28%) was the major compound found in vetiver oil followed by isoaromadendrene epoxide (7.72%), beta-vetivenene (6.92%), solavetivone (5.58%), aromadenderene, azulene and khusimol. Bioassay explained that, the vetiver oil and diluted vetiver oil possessed greater zone of inhibition against S. aureus and E. coli than the coconut oil. FTRI spectra of vetiver oil and microcapsules possessed similar peaks viz., C-H, C=C & C꞊O stretching and additionally oil microcapsules possessed the peak of 3331.24 cm-1 at 91.14 transmittance was attributed to N-H stretches. TGA of oil microcapsules revealed that, there was a minimum weight loss (5.835%) recorded at 467.09°C compared to vetiver oil i.e., -3.026% at the temperature of 396.24°C. The shape of the microcapsules was regular and round, some were spherical in shape and few were rounded by small aggregates. Irrespective of methods of application, organic cotton knits finished with microcapsules by pad dry cure method showed maximum zone of inhibition compared to knits finished by exhaust method against S. aureus and E. coli. The antimicrobial activity of the finished samples was subjected to multiple washing which indicated that knits finished with pad dry cure method showed a zone of inhibition even after 20th wash and better aroma retention compared to knits finished with the exhaust method of application. Further, the group of respondents rated that the 5th washed samples had the greater aroma intensity in both the methods than the other samples. Thus, the vetiver microencapsulated organic cotton knits are free from hazardous chemicals and have multi-functional properties that can be suitable for medical and healthcare textiles.
Heavy Metals Estimation in Coastal Areas Using Remote Sensing, Field Sampling and Classical and Robust Statistic
Sediments are an important source of accumulation of toxic contaminants within the aquatic environment. Bioassays are a powerful tool for the study of sediments in relation to their toxicity, but they can be expensive. This article presents a methodology to estimate the main physical property of intertidal sediments in coastal zones: heavy metals concentration. This study, which was developed in the Bay of Santander (Spain), applies classical and robust statistic to CASI-2 hyperspectral images to estimate heavy metals presence and ecotoxicity (TOC). Simultaneous fieldwork (radiometric and chemical sampling) allowed an appropriate atmospheric correction to CASI-2 images.
Biocontrol Effectiveness of Indigenous Trichoderma Species against Meloidogyne javanica and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici on Tomato
In this study, three local isolates of Trichoderma (Tr1: T. viride, Tr2: T. harzianum and Tr3: T. asperellum) were isolated and evaluated for their biocontrol effectiveness under in vitro conditions and in greenhouse. In vitro bioassay revealed a biopotential control against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici and Meloidogyne javanica (RKN) separately. All species of Trichoderma exhibited biocontrol performance and (Tr1) Trichoderma viride was the most efficient. In fact, growth rate inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici (FORL) was reached 75.5% with Tr1. Parasitism rate of root-knot nematode was 60% for juveniles and 75% for eggs with the same one. Pots experiment results showed that Tr1 and Tr2, compared to chemical treatment, enhanced the plant growth and exhibited better antagonism against root-knot nematode and root-rot fungi separated or combined. All Trichoderma isolates revealed a bioprotection potential against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici. When pathogen fungi inoculated alone, Fusarium wilt index and browning vascular rate were reduced significantly with Tr1 (0.91, 2.38%) and Tr2 (1.5, 5.5%), respectively. In the case of combined infection with Fusarium and nematode, the same isolate of Trichoderma Tr1 and Tr2 decreased Fusarium wilt index at 1.1 and 0.83 and reduced the browning vascular rate at 6.5% and 6%, respectively. Similarly, the isolate Tr1 and Tr2 caused maximum inhibition of nematode multiplication. Multiplication rate was declined at 4% with both isolates either tomato infected by nematode separately or concomitantly with Fusarium. The chemical treatment was moderate in activity against Meloidogyne javanica and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici alone and combined.
Efficiency of Wood Vinegar Mixed with Some Plants Extract against the Housefly (Musca domestica L.)
The efficiency of wood vinegar mixed with each
individual of three plants extract such as: citronella grass
(Cymbopogon nardus), neem seed (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), and
yam bean seed (Pachyrhizus erosus Urb.) were tested against the
second instar larvae of housefly (Musca domestica L.). Steam
distillation was used for extraction of the citronella grass while neem
and yam bean were simple extracted by fermentation with ethyl
alcohol. Toxicity test was evaluated in laboratory based on two
methods of larvicidal bioassay: topical application method (contact
poison) and feeding method (stomach poison). Larval mortality was
observed daily and larval survivability was recorded until the
survived larvae developed to pupae and adults. The study resulted
that treatment of wood vinegar mixed with citronella grass showed
the highest larval mortality by topical application method (50.0%)
and by feeding method (80.0%). However, treatment of mixed wood
vinegar and neem seed showed the longest pupal duration to 25 day
and 32 days for topical application method and feeding method
respectively. Additional, larval duration on treated M. domestica
larvae was extended to 13 days for topical application method and 11
days for feeding method. Thus, the feeding method gave higher
efficiency compared with the topical application method.
Comparison of Classical and Ultrasound-Assisted Extractions of Hyphaene thebaica Fruit and Evaluation of Its Extract as Antibacterial Activity in Reducing Severity of Erwinia carotovora
Erwinia carotovora var. carotovora is the main cause of soft rot in potatoes. Hyphaene thebaica was studied for biocontrol of E. carotovora which inhibited growth of E. carotovora on solid medium, a comparative study of classical and ultrasound-assisted extractions of Hyphaene thebaica fruit. The use of ultrasound decreased significant the total time of treatment and increase the total amount of crude extract. The crude extract was subjected to determine the in vitro, by a bioassay technique revealed that the treatment of paper disks with ultrasound extraction of Hyphaene thebaica reduced the growth of pathogen and produced inhibition zones up to 38mm in diameter. The antioxidant activity of ultrasound-ethanolic extract of Doum fruits (Hyphaene thebaica) was determined. Data obtained showed that the extract contains the secondary metabolites such as Tannins, Saponin, Flavonoids, Phenols, Steroids, Terpenoids, Glycosides and Alkaloids.
Ecotoxicological Studies of Soil Using Analytical and Biological Methods: A Review
Soil is a complex physical and biological system that provides support, water, nutrients and oxygen to the plants. Apart from these, it acts as a connecting link between inorganic, organic and living components of the ecosystem. In recent years, presence of xenobiotics, alterations in the natural soil environment, application of pesticides/inorganic fertilizers, percolation of contaminated surface water as well as leachates from landfills to subsurface strata and direct discharge of industrial wastes to the land have resulted in soil pollution which in turn has posed severe threats to human health especially in terms of causing carcinogenicity by direct DNA damage. The present review is an attempt to summarize literature on sources of soil pollution, characterization of pollutants and their consequences in different living systems.
Monitoring of Water Pollution and Its Consequences: An Overview
Water a vital component for all living forms is derived from variety of sources, including surface water (rivers, lakes, reservoirs and ponds) and ground water (aquifers). Over the years of time, water bodies are subjected to human interference regularly resulting in deterioration of water quality. Therefore, pollution of water bodies has become matter of global concern. As the water quality closely relate to human health, water analysis before usage is of immense importance. Improper management of water bodies can cause serious problems in availability and quality of water. The quality of water may be described according to their physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics. For effective maintenance of water quality through appropriate control measures, continuous monitoring of metals, physico-chemical and biological parameter is essential for the establishment of baseline data for the water quality in any study area. The present study has focused on to explore the status of water pollution in various areas and to estimate the magnitude of its toxicity using different bioassay.
The Potency of Sandfish (Holothuria scraba) as a Source of Natural Aphrodisiacs
Sandfish is one of marine biota that has a biomedicine (bioactive compound) potency. People in Gorontalo Province, Indonesia, have been sandfish as an aphrodisiac for men as it is believed that sandfish has a steroid hormone potency. This research aims at studying using the steroid hormone potency from every fraction of sandfish (meat and innards) and its activity of male reproduction (rooster) as an aphrodisiac. Steroid extraction was done using Touchstone and Kasparow method, and then it was utilized to study the effectiveness of bioassay of rooster. This research had five treatments and was done in complete randomized design. Based on Lieberman-Burchard and bioassay test, the author found that sandfish extract contains steroid hormone. Sandfish extract was able to enrich testosterone and cholesterol concentration in blood serum; fastening secondary reproduction characteristics of the rooster, and increasing growth as well as improving rooster’s comb. Therefore, sandfish steroid is potential to be used as an aphrodisiac for men.
Antidiabetic and Antioxidative Activities of Butyrolactone I from Aspergillus terreus MC751
The bioassay-guided isolation and purification of an
ethyl acetate extract of Aspergillus terreus MC751 led to the
characterization of butyrolactone I as an antidiabetic and antioxidant.
The antidiabetic activity of butyrolactone I was evaluated by α-
glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition assays. Butyrolactone I
demonstrated significant concentration-dependent, mixed-type
inhibitory activity against yeast α-glucosidase with an IC50 of 54μM.
However, the compound exhibited less activity against rat intestinal
α-glucosidase and α-amylase. This is the first report on α-glucosidase
inhibitory activity of butyrolactone I. The antioxidative activity of
butyrolactone I was evaluated based on scavenging effects on 1,1-
diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50 =51 μM) and hydrogen
peroxide (IC50= 141 μM) radicals as well as a reducing power assay.
The results suggest that butyrolactone I is a promising antidiabetic as
well as antioxidant and should be considered for clinical trials.
Evaluation of Antifungal Potential of Cenchrus pennisetiformis for the Management of Macrophomina phaseolina
Macrophomina phaseolina is a devastating soil-borne
fungal plant pathogen that causes charcoal rot disease in many
economically important crops worldwide. So far, no registered
fungicide is available against this plant pathogen. This study was
planned to examine the antifungal activity of an allelopathic grass
Cenchrus pennisetiformis (Hochst. & Steud.) Wipff. for the
management of M. phaseolina isolated from cowpea [Vigna
unguiculata (L.) Walp.] plants suffering from charcoal rot disease.
Different parts of the plants viz. inflorescence, shoot and root were
extracted in methanol. Laboratory bioassays were carried out using
different concentrations (0, 0.5, 1.0, …, 3.0 g mL-1) of methanolic
extracts of the test allelopathic grass species to assess the antifungal
activity against the pathogen. In general, extracts of all parts of the
grass exhibited antifungal activity. All the concentrations of
methanolic extracts of shoot and root significantly reduced fungal
biomass by 20–73% and 40–80%, respectively. Methanolic shoot
extract was fractionated using n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate
and n-butanol. Different concentrations of these fractions (3.125,
6.25, …, 200 mg mL-1) were analyzed for their antifungal activity.
All the concentrations of n-hexane fraction significantly reduced
fungal biomass by 15–96% over corresponding control treatments.
Higher concentrations (12.5–200 mg mL-1) of chloroform, ethyl
acetate and n-butanol also reduced the fungal biomass significantly
by 29–100%, 46–100% and 24–100%, respectively.
Effect of Wood Vinegar for Controlling on Housefly (Musca domestica L.)
Raw wood vinegar was purified by both standing and
filtering methods. Toxicity tests were conducted under laboratory
conditions by the topical application method (contact poison) and
feeding method (stomach poison). Larvicidal activities of wood
vinegar at four different concentrations (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 %)
were studied against second instar larvae of housefly (Musca
domestica L.). Four replicates were maintained for all treatments and
controls. Larval mortality was recorded up to 96 hours and compared
with the larval survivability by two methods of larvicidal bioassay.
Percent pupation and percent adult emergence were observed in
treated M. domestica. The study revealed that the feeding method
gave higher efficiency compared with the topical application method.
Larval mortality increased with increasing concentration of wood
vinegar and the duration of exposure. No mortality was found in
treated M. domestica larvae at minimum 10% concentration of wood
vinegar through the experiments. The treated larvae were maintained
up to pupa and adult emergence. At 30% maximum concentration
larval duration was extended to 11 days in M. domestica for topical
application method and 9 days for feeding method. Similarly the
pupal durations were also increased with increased concentrations
(16 and 24 days for topical application method and feeding method
respectively at 30% concentration) of the treatments.
Antimicrobial, Antiplasmid and Cytotoxicity Potentials of Marine Algae Halimeda opuntia and Sarconema filiforme Collected from Red Sea Coast
The antimicrobial, antiplasmid and cytotoxic activities of marine algae Halimeda opuntia and Sarconema filiforme were investigated. Antimicrobial bioassay against some human pathogenic bacteria and yeast were conducted using disc diffusion method. Halimeda extract exhibited antibacterial activity against six species of microrganisms, with significant inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus. While Sarconema extract was better potent as antifungal against Candida albicans. Comparative antibacterial studies showed that Halimeda extract showed equivalent or better activity as compared with commercial antibiotic when tested against Staphylococcus aureus. Further tests conducted using dilution method showed both extracts as having bacteriostatic mode of action against the tested microorganisms. Methanol extract of two species showed significant cytotoxicity (LC50 <500μg) on brine shrimp. Halimeda opuntia showed highest cytotoxic activity (LC50 =192.3μg). Also, the present investigation was undertaken to investigate the ability of methanolic extract of the algal extracts to cure R-plasmids from certain clinical E. coli isolates. The active fraction of Halimeda and Sarconema could cure plasmids from E. coli at curing efficiencies of approximately 78%. The active fraction mediated plasmid curing resulted in the subsequent loss of antibiotic resistance encoded in the plasmids as revealed by antibiotic resistance profile of cured strains. The screening results confirm the possible use of marine algae Halimeda opuntia and Sarconema filiforme as a source of pharmacological benefits.
Quantitative Determination of Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Anti-tumor Activity of Some Myanmar Herbal Plants
Antioxidant activities of ethanolic extracts of Ardisia
japonica Blume., Ageartum conyzoides Linn., and Cocculus hirsutus
Linn Diels. leaves was determined qualitatively and quantitatively in
this research. 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical
solution was used to investigate free radical scavenging activity of
these leaves extracts. Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) was used as the
standard. In the present investigation, it is found that all of these
extracts have remarkable antioxidant activities. The EC50 values of
these ethanolic extracts were 12.72 μg/ml for A. japonica, 15.19
μg/ml for A. conyzoides, 10.68 μg/ml for C. hirsutus respectively.
Among these Myanmar medicinal plants, C. hirsutus showed higher
antioxidant activities as well as free radical scavenging activity than
black tea (Camellia sinensis), the famous antioxidant, and A.
japonica and A. conyzoides showed a rather lower antioxidant
activity than tea extracts. According to results from bioassay with
carrot discs infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, all extracts
showed anti-tumor activity after 3 weeks of incubation. No gall was
detected in carrot disks treated with C. hirsutus and A. japonica
extracts in the dose of 100ppm and in carrot discs treated with A.
conyzoides extract in the dose of 1000 ppm. Therefore, the research
clearly indicates that these weedy plants of dry farm land are
exceptionally advantageous for human health.
Regulatory Effects of Carbon Sources on Tabtoxin Production (A β-lactam Phytotoxin of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci)
The effects of divers carbon substrates were
investigated for the tabtoxin production of an isolated pathogenic
Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci, the causal agent of wildfire of
tobacco and are discussed in relation to the bacterium growth. The
isolated organism was grown in batch culture on Woolley's
medium (28°C, 200 rpm, during 5 days). The growth has been
measured by the optical density (OD) at 620 nm and the tabtoxin
production quantified by Escherichia coli (K-12) bioassay
technique. The growth and the tabtoxin production were both
influenced by the substrates (sugars, amino acids, organic acids)
used, each, as a sole carbon source and as a supplement for the
same amino acids. The most significant quantities of tabtoxin were
obtained in presence of some amino acids used as sole carbon
source and/or as supplement.
Evaluation of Protein Digestibility in Canola Meals between Caecectomised and Intact Adult Cockerels
The experiment was conducted to evaluate
digestibility quantities of protein in Canola Meals (CMs) between
caecectomised and intact adult Rhode Island Red (RIR) cockerels
with using conventional addition method (CAM) for 7 d: a 4-d
adaptation and a 3-d experiment period on the basis of a completely
randomized design with 4 replicates. Results indicated that
caecectomy decreased (P
Comparison of Different Advanced Oxidation Processes for Degrading 4-Chlorophenol
The removal efficiency of 4-chlorophenol with
different advanced oxidation processes have been studied. Oxidation
experiments were carried out using two 4-chlorophenol
concentrations: 100 mg L-1 and 250 mg L-1 and UV generated from a
KrCl excilamp with (molar ratio H2O2: 4-chlorophenol = 25:1) and
without H2O2, and, with Fenton process (molar ratio H2O2:4-
chlorophenol of 25:1 and Fe2+ concentration of 5 mg L-1).
The results show that there is no significant difference in the 4-
chlorophenol conversion when using one of the three assayed
methods. However, significant concentrations of the photoproductos
still remained in the media when the chosen treatment involves UV
without hydrogen peroxide. Fenton process removed all the
intermediate photoproducts except for the hydroquinone and the
1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene. In the case of UV and hydrogen peroxide
all the intermediate photoproducts are removed.
Microbial bioassays were carried out utilising the naturally
luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri and a genetically modified
Pseudomonas putida isolated from a waste treatment plant receiving
phenolic waste. The results using V. fischeri show that with samples
after degradation, only the UV treatment showed toxicity (IC50 =38)
whereas with H2O2 and Fenton reactions the samples exhibited no
toxicity after treatment in the range of concentrations studied. Using
the Pseudomonas putida biosensor no toxicity could be detected for
all the samples following treatment due to the higher tolerance of the
organism to phenol concentrations encountered.
3D Locomotion and Fractal Analysis of Goldfish for Acute Toxicity Bioassay
Biological reactions of individuals of a testing animal
to toxic substance are unique and can be used as an indication of the
existing of toxic substance. However, to distinguish such phenomenon
need a very complicate system and even more complicate to analyze
data in 3 dimensional. In this paper, a system to evaluate in vitro
biological activities to acute toxicity of stochastic self-affine
non-stationary signal of 3D goldfish swimming by using fractal
analysis is introduced. Regular digital camcorders are utilized by
proposed algorithm 3DCCPC to effectively capture and construct 3D
movements of the fish. A Critical Exponent Method (CEM) has been
adopted as a fractal estimator. The hypothesis was that the swimming
of goldfish to acute toxic would show the fractal property which
related to the toxic concentration. The experimental results supported
the hypothesis by showing that the swimming of goldfish under the
different toxic concentration has fractal properties. It also shows that
the fractal dimension of the swimming related to the pH value of FD Ôëê
0.26pH + 0.05. With the proposed system, the fish is allowed to swim
freely in all direction to react to the toxic. In addition, the trajectories
are precisely evaluated by fractal analysis with critical exponent
method and hence the results exhibit with much higher degree of