The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of green tea extract on serum oxidant and antioxidant profile, liver and kidney function. 40 Friesian calves are included in this study and allocated into two groups: Group I (n=20) clinically healthy calves showing no clinical abnormalities, not receiving any treatment and served as control; group II (n=20) received green tea extract (GTE) for 30 days. Non-significant changes in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were detected between groups, on contrary, serum creatinine and activities of liver enzymes aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were significantly different between two groups. There were significant increases in the mean values of serum antioxidative parameters (total antioxidant capacity, catalase, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase) in group II. Whereas, the activity of lipid peroxidase significantly decreased in GTE treated calves when compared to control.
Herbal essential oil and extracts are a good source of natural antioxidants and antimicrobial compounds. Hypericum is one of the potential sources of these compounds. In this study, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of essential oil and aqueous, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate and acetone extract of Hypericum scabrum was assessed. Flowers of Hypericum scabrum were collected from the surrounding mountains of Hamadan province and after drying in the shade, the essential oil of the plant was extracted by Clevenger and water, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate and acetone extract was obtained by maceration method. Essential oil compounds were identified using the GC-Mass. The Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) colorimetric method was used to measure the amount of phenolic acid and flavonoids, respectively. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH and FRAP. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bacterial/fungicide concentration (MBC/MFC) of essential oil and extracts were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans. The essential oil yield of was 0.35%, the lowest and highest extract yield was related to ethyl acetate and water extract. The most component of essential oil was α-Pinene (46.35%). The methanol extracts had the highest phenolic acid (95.65 ± 4.72 µg galic acid equivalent/g dry plant) and flavonoids (25.39 ± 2.73 µg quercetin equivalent/g dry plant). The percentage of DPPH radical inhibition showed positive correlation with concentrations of essential oil or extract. The methanol and ethanol extract had the highest DDPH radical inhibitory. Essential oil and extracts of Hypericum had antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms studied in this research. The MIC and MBC values for essential oils were in the range of 25-25.6 and 25-50 μg/mL, respectively. For the extracts, these values were 1.5625-100 and 3.125-100 μg/mL, respectively. Methanol extracts had the highest antimicrobial activity. Essential oil and extract of Hypericum scabrum, especially methanol extract, have proper antimicrobial and antioxidant activity, and it can be used to control the oxidation and inhibit the growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. In addition, it can be used as a substitute for synthetic antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds.
The natural native antioxidants N,N-P-methyl phenyl acetone and N,N-phenyl acetone were isolated from the Iraqi crude oil region of Kirkuk by ion exchange and their structure was characterized by spectral and chemical analysis methods. Tetraline was used as a liquid hydrocarbon to detect the efficiency of isolated molecules at elevated temperature (393 K) that it has physicochemical specifications and structure closed to hydrocarbons fractionated from crude oil. The synthesized universal antioxidant 2,6-ditertiaryisobutyl-p-methyl phenol (Unol) with known stochiometric coefficient of inhibition equal to (2) was used as a model for comparative evaluation at the same conditions. Modified chemiluminescence method was used to find the amount of absorbed oxygen and the induction periods in and without the existence of isolated antioxidants molecules. The results of induction periods and quantity of absorbed oxygen during the oxidation process were measured by manometric installation. It was seen that at specific equal concentrations of N,N-phenyl acetone and N, N-P-methyl phenyl acetone in comparison with Unol at 393 K were with (2) and (2.5) times efficient than do Unol. It means that they had the ability to inhibit the formation of new free radicals and prevent the chain reaction to pass from the propagation to the termination step rather than decomposition of formed hydroperoxides.
Even its content is rich in antioxidants ϒ-oryzanol, rice bran is not used properly as functional food. This research aims to (1) extract ϒ-oryzanol; (2) determine the solubility of ϒ-oryzanol in supercritical CO2 based on phase equilibrium theory; and (3) study the effect of process variables on solubility. Extraction experiments were carried out for rice bran (5 g) at various extraction pressures, temperatures and reaction times. The flowrate of supercritical fluid through the extraction vessel was 25 g/min. The extracts were collected and analysed with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The conclusion based on the experiments are as: (1) The highest experimental solubility was 0.303 mcg/mL RBO at T= 60°C, P= 90 atm, t= 30 min; (2) Solubility of ϒ-oryzanol was influenced by pressure and temperature. As the pressure and temperature increase, the solubility increases; (3) The solubility data of supercritical extraction can be successfully determined using phase equilibrium theory. Meanwhile, tocopherol was found and slightly investigated in this work.
The use of synthetic antioxidants often causes a negative effect on health and increases the incidence of carcinogenesis. Development of the natural antioxidants should be investigated. However, natural antioxidants have a low toxicity and are safe for human consumption. Ethanol extract of mangosteen rind (Garcinia mangostana) contains natural antioxidant compounds that have various pharmacological activities. Antioxidants from the ethanol extract of mangosteen rind have free radicals scavenging activities. The scavenging activity of ethanol extract of mangosteen rind was determined by DPPH method. The phenolic compound from the ethanol extract of mangosteen rind is determined with Folin-Ciocalteu method. The results showed that the absolute ethanol extract of mangosteen rind has IC50 of 40.072 ug/mL. The correlation of total phenols content with free radical scavenging activity has an equation y: 5.207x + 205.51 and determination value (R2) of 0.9329. Total phenols content from the ethanol extract of mangosteen rind has a good correlation with free radicals scavenging activity of DPPH.
Food is widely packaged with plastic materials to prevent microbial contamination and spoilage. Ionizing radiation is widely used to sterilize the food-packaging materials. Sterilization by γ-radiation causes degradation such as embrittlement, stiffening, softening, discoloration, odour generation, and decrease in molecular weight. Many antioxidants can prevent γ-degradation but most of them are toxic. The migration of antioxidants to its environment gives rise to major concerns in case of food packaging plastics. In this attempt, we have aimed to utilize synergistic mixtures of stabilizers which are approved for food-contact applications. Ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer has been melt-mixed with hindered amine stabilizers (HAS), phenolic antioxidants and organophosphites (hydroperoxide decomposer). Results were discussed by comparing the stabilizing efficiency of mixtures with and without phenol system. Among phenol containing systems where we mostly observed discoloration due to the oxidation of hindered phenol, the combination of secondary HAS, tertiary HAS, organo-phosphite and hindered phenol exhibited improved stabilization efficiency than single or binary additive systems. The mixture of secondary HAS and tertiary HAS, has shown antagonistic effect of stabilization. However, the combination of organo-phosphite with secondary HAS, tertiary HAS and phenol antioxidants have been found to give synergistic even at higher doses of Gamma-irradiation. The effects have been explained through the interaction between the stabilizers. After γ-irradiation, the consumption of oligomeric stabilizer significantly depends on the components of stabilization mixture. The effect of the organo-phosphite antioxidant on the overall stability has been discussed.
Ocimum americanum L (Lamiaceae) is an annual herb that is native to tropical Africa. The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of its aqueous extract was carefully investigated by assessing the DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical scavenging activity and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity. The reducing power, total phenol, total flavonoids and flavonols content of the extract were also evaluated. The data obtained revealed that the extract is rich in polyphenolic compounds and scavenged the radicals in a concentration dependent manner. This was done in comparison with the standard antioxidants such as BHT and Vitamin C. Also, the induction of oxidative damage with paracetamol (2000 mg/kg) resulted in the elevation of lipid peroxides and significant (P < 0.05) decrease in activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase in the liver and kidney of rats. However, the pretreatment of rats with aqueous extract of O. americanum leaves (200 and 400 mg/kg) and silymarin (100 mg/kg) caused a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the values of lipid peroxides and restored the levels of antioxidant parameters in these organs. These findings suggest that the leaves of O. americanum have potent antioxidant properties which may be responsible for its acclaimed folkloric uses.
Eucalyptus species are well reputed for their traditional use in Asia as well as in other parts of the world; therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities associated with essential oils from different Eucalyptus species. Essential oils from the leaves of six Eucalyptus species, including: Eucalyptus woodwardi, Eucalyptus stricklandii, Eucalyptus salubris, Eucalyptus sargentii, Eucalyptus torquata and Eucalyptus wandoo were separated by hydrodistillation and dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate. DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the oils. The results indicate that examined oils exhibit substantial antioxidant activities relative to ascorbic acid. Previously, these oils were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities, against wide range of bacterial and fungal strains, and they were shown to possess significant antimicrobial activities. In this study, further investigation into the growth kinetics of oil-treated microbial cultures was conducted. The results clearly demonstrate that the microbial growth was markedly inhibited when treated with sub-MIC concentrations of the oils. Taken together, the results obtained indicate a high potential of the examined essential oils as bioactive oils, for nutraceutical and medical applications, possessing significant antioxidant and anti microbial activities.
In the present work, the effects of additives, including contents of the added antioxidants and type of the selected metallic stearates (either calcium stearate (CaSt) or zinc stearate (ZnSt)), on the thermal stabilities of carbon black (CB)/high density polyethylene (HDPE) compounds were studied. The results showed that the AO contents played a key role in the thermal stabilities of the CB/HDPE compounds — the higher the AO content, the higher the thermal stabilities. Although the CaSt-containing compounds were slightly superior to those with ZnSt in terms of the thermal stabilities, the remaining solid residue of CaSt after heated to the temperature of 600 °C (mainly calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique) seemed to catalyze the decomposition of CB in the HDPE-based compounds. Hence, the quantification of CB in the CaSt-containing compounds with a muffle furnace gave an inaccurate CB content — much lower than actual value. However, this phenomenon was negligible in the ZnSt-containing system.
The adverse effects of Clindamycin (Clind.) / Ibuprofen (Ibu.) combination on liver, kidney, blood elements and the significances of antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine and Zinc) against these effects were evaluated. The study includes: Group I; control n=30, Group II; patients on Clind.300mg/Ibu.400mg twice daily for a week n=30, Group III; patients on Clind.300mg/Ibu.400mg+Nacetylcysteine 200mg twice daily for a week n=15 and Group IV; patients on Clind.300mg/Ibu.400mg+Zinc50mg twice daily for a week n=15. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate transferase (AST), γ glutamyl transferase (GGT), creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were measured. Applying one way ANOVA followed by Tuckey Kramer post test, Group II showed significant increase in ALT, AST, GGT, BUN and decrease in Hb, RBCs, platelets than Group I. Group III showed significant decrease in ALT, AST, GGT, BUN than Group II. Moreover, Group IV showed significant decrease in ALT, AST, GGT and increase in Hb, RBCs, and platelets than Group II. Conclusively, Adding Zinc or Nacetylcysteine buffer the oxidative stress and improve the therapeutic outcome of Clindamycin/Ibuprofen combination.
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is an ancient fruit of great medical interest and rich source of antioxidants. Pesticides as dimethoate play a crucial role in the occurrence many diseases in plants, animal and human. Therefore the ability of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) to alleviate hepatotoxicity induced by organophosphate pesticide dimethoate was investigated. Albino male rats were divided randomly into 4 groups and kept at 7 animals per group in an environmentally controlled condition for 6 weeks. The first group was served as a control group (basal diet), the second group fed on basal diet supplemented with 5% freeze dried pomegranate seeds, the third group fed on 20 ppm dimethoate contaminated diet and the last group fed on dimethoate contaminated diet supplemented with 5% freeze dried pomegranate seeds. The results revealed that administration of dimethoate caused high significant increased in liver functions: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities as well as lipid peroxide (malonaldhyde, MDA); on the other hand high significant decreased on glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), albumin and total protein were observed. However addition of 5% freeze dried pomegranate seeds significantly improved all previously mentioned parameters. These results indicate the dimethoate induced hepatotoxicity and highlight the protective effect of pomegranate seeds as a potential protective agent against dimethoate induced hepatotoxicity. This may be attributed to the powerful antioxidants (polyphenols, total phenols, and total flavonoids) which present in high levels in pomegranate as well as improving the immunity by activation of antioxidant enzymes GSH and GPx.
At present, it is widely-known that free radicals are the causes of illness such as cancers, coronary heart disease, Alzheimer’s disease and aging. One method of protection from free radical is the consumption of antioxidant-containing foods or herbs. Several analytical methods have been used for qualitative and quantitative determination of antioxidants. This project aimed to evaluate antioxidant activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts from cabbage (Brassicca oleracea L. var. capitata L.) measured by DPPH and Hydroxyl radical scavenging method. The results show that averaged antioxidant activity measured in ethanolic extract (µmol Ascorbic acid equivalent/g fresh mass) were 7.316 ± 0.715 and 4.66 ± 1.029 as determined by DPPH and Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity assays respectively. Averaged antioxidant activity measured in aqueous extract (µmol Ascorbic acid equivalent/g fresh mass) were 15.141 ± 2.092 and 4.955 ± 1.975 as determined by DPPH and Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity assays respectively.
After cold pressing of pumpkin oil, the defatted oil cake (PUOC) was utilised as raw material for processing of bio-functional hydrolysates. In this study, the in vitro bioactivity of an alcalase (AH) and a pepsin hydrolysate (PH) prepared from the major pumpkin 12S globulin (cucurbitin) are compared. The hydrolysates were produced at optimum reaction conditions (temperature, pH) for the enzymes, during 60min. The bioactivity testing included antioxidant and angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity assays. The hydrolysates showed high potential as natural antioxidants and possibly antihypertensive agents in functional food or nutraceuticals. Additionally, preliminary studies have shown that both hydrolysates could exhibit modest α-amylase inhibitory activity, which indicates on their hypoglycemic potential.
Antioxidants are became the most analyzed substances in last decades. Antioxidants act as in activator for free radicals. Spices and vegetables are one of major antioxidant sources. Most common antioxidants in vegetables and spices are vitamin C, E, phenolic compounds, carotenoids. Therefore, it is important to get some view about antioxidant changes in spices and vegetables during processing. In this article was analyzed nine fresh and dried spices and vegetables- celery (Apium graveolens), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens), leek (Allium ampeloprasum L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), onion (Allium cepa), celery root (Apium graveolens var. rapaceum), pumpkin (Curcubica maxima), carrot (Daucus carota)- grown in Latvia 2013. Total carotenoids and phenolic compounds and their antiradical scavenging activity were determined for all samples. Dry matter content was calculated from moisture content. After drying process carotenoid content significantly decreases in all analyzed samples, except one -carotenoid content increases in parsley. Phenolic composition was different and depends on sample – fresh or dried. Total phenolic, flavonoid and phenolic acid content increases in dried spices. Flavan-3-ol content is not detected in fresh spice samples. For dried vegetables- phenolic acid content decreases significantly, but increases flavan-3-ols content. The higher antiradical scavenging activity was observed in samples with higher flavonoid and phenolic acid content.
Free radicals are atoms or molecules with unpaired electrons. Many diseases are caused by free radicals. Normally, free radical formation is controlled naturally by various beneficial compounds known as antioxidants. Several analytical methods have been used for qualitative and quantitative determination of antioxidants, and each has its own specificity. This project aimed to evaluate antioxidant activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts from the rice paddy herb (Limnophila aromatica (Lam.) Merr.) measured by DPPH and Hydroxyl radical scavenging method. The results showed that averaged antioxidant activity measured in ethanolic extract (µmol Ascorbic acid equivalent/g fresh mass) were 67.09± 4.99 and 15.55±4.82 as determined by DPPH and Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity assays, respectively. Averaged antioxidant activity measured in aqueous extract (µmol Ascorbic acid equivalent/g fresh mass) were 21.08±1.25 and 10.14±3.94 as determined by DPPH and Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity assays respectively.
The aim of this study was to determine the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total antioxidant status (TAS) and accumulation of Hsp70 in porcine ovarian granulosa cells after deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) exposure in vitro. Porcine ovarian granulosa cells were incubated with DON/ZEA administrations as follows: group A (10/10 ng/mL), group B (100/100 ng/mL), group C (1000/1000 ng/mL), and the control group without any additions for 24h. In this study mycotoxins developed stress reaction of porcine ovarian granulosa cells and increased accumulation of Hsp70 what resulted in increasing activities of SOD and GPx in groups with lower doses of mycotoxins. High dose of DON and ZEA had opposite effect on GPx activity than the lower doses. Slight increase in TAS of porcine granulosa cells was observed after mycotoxins exposure. These results contribute towards the understanding of cellular stress and its response.
Delayed wound healing in diabetes is primarily associated with hyperglycemia, over-expression of inflammatory marker, oxidative stress and delayed collagen synthesis. This unmanaged wound is producing high economic burden on the society. Thus research is required to develop new and effective treatment strategies to deal with this emerging issue. Our present study incorporates the evaluation of wound healing effects of 50% ethanol extract of Ocimum sanctum (OSE) in streptozotocin (45mg/kg)-induced diabetic rats with concurrent wound ulcer. The animals showing diabetes (Blood glucose level >140 and <250 mg/dL) will be selected for wound healing study using standard dead space wound model. Wounds were created by implanting two polypropylene tubes (0.5 x 2.5 cm2 each), one on either side in the lumbar region on the dorsal surface of each rat. On the 10th postwounding day, the animals were sacrificed and granulation tissue formed on the implanted tubes was carefully dissected out and study the status of antioxidants (Superoxide dismutase, SOD and Glutathione, GSH) free radicals (Lipid peroxidation, LPO and nitric oxide, NO) acute inflammatory marker (myeloperoxidase, MPO) connective tissue determinants, hydroxyproline, hexosamine and hexuronic acid, which play a major role in wound healing and diabetes. Besides the anti-diabetic parameters (estimation of serum blood glucose, triglycerides and total cholesterol), the above parameters for wound healing were studied both in normal, untreated and OSE treated diabetic rats. The effects of extract on above parameters will be compared with known standard antioxidant (Vitamin E) and anti-diabetic (Glybenclamide) drugs. OSE 400 mg/kg substantiated by significantly decreased serum blood glucose, triglycerides and total cholesterol. OSE also decrease granulation tissue free radicals (LPO, 58.1% and NO, 52.7%) and myeloperoxidase (MPO, 63.3%), and enhanced antioxidants (GSH, 116.4% and SOD, 201.1%)
Mushrooms are a group of fleshy macroscopic fungi. They have been valued throughout the world as both edible and medicine. They are highly nutritious with good amount of quality proteins, vitamins and minerals. An edible mushroom, Calocybe indica was selected to validate its nutritional and medicinal properties. Since tissue damage in hyperglycemia has been related to oxidative stress, we evaluated the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status in the serum, liver and kidney since they are the target organs in diabetic complications. From the results, increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidants might be related to the causation of diabetes mellitus. The treatment in the diabetic rats with the Calocybe indica showed an increase in the antioxidant system and decrease in the production of free radicals. The mushrooms which contain antioxidant phytochemicals has potential free radical scavenging capacity and hence can induce the antioxidant system in the body significantly reduces the generated free radicals thereby maintaining the normal levels of the antioxidants
The effects of coatings based on sodium alginate (S.A) and carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) on the color and moisture characteristics of potato round slices were investigated. It is the first time that this combination of polysaccharides is used as edible coating which alone had the best performance as inhibitor of potato color discoloration during the storage of 15 days at 4oC. When ascorbic acid (AA) and green tea (GT) were added in the above edible coating its effects on potato round slices changed. The mixtures of sodium alginate and carboxyl methyl cellulose with ascorbic acid or with green tea behave as a potential moisture barrier, resulting to the extent of potato samples self–life. These data suggests that both GT and AA are potential inhibitors of dehydration in potatoes and not only natural antioxidants.
The quality and shelf life of foods of containing lipids (fats and oils) significantly reduces due to rancidity.Applications of natural antioxidants are one of the most effective manners to prevent the oxidation of oils and lipids. The antioxidant properties of juice extracted from barberry fruit (Berberris vulgaris.L) using maceration and SWE (10 bars and 120 - 180°C) methods were investigated and compared with conventional method. The amount of phenolic compound and reduction power of all samples were determined and the data were statistically analyzed using multifactor design. The results showed that the total amount of phenolic compound increased with increasing of pressure and temprature from 1861.9 to 2439.1 (mg Gallic acid /100gr Dry matter). The ability of reduction power of SWE obtained antioxidant extract compared with BHA (synthetic antioxidant) and ascorbic acid (natural antioxidant). There were significant differences among reduction power of extracts and there were remarkable difference with BHA and Ascorbic acid (P<0.01).
The antioxidant capability of beverage blends made from cocoa, zobo and ginger with standard antioxidant assay procedures was investigated. The DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) scavenging capacity ranged from 21.2-25.8% in comparison with GSH of 37.1%. The ferric reducing ability was highest in the zobo drink and lowest in ginger. The superoxide scavenging capacity was also highest in the zobo drink followed by the drink with alkalized cocoa. The metal chelating power decreased as the level of zobo in the blends decreases. The chelating power of zobo and ginger were significantly lower than the natural and alkalized cocoa. The 100% zobo drink inhibited linoleic acid till the fifth day while natural and alkalized cocoa as well as the blend with 50% alkalized cocoa inhibited linoleic acid greatly till the sixth day. The finding describes the potential health benefit of the phytochemical antioxidants of cocoa:zobo:ginger beverage blends.
Milk from differently fed cows (supplemented with carotenoids from carrots or palm oil product Carotino CAF 100) was obtained in a conventional dairy farm to assess the carotenoid potential to protect milk fat against oxidation. The extracted anhydrous milk fat (AMF) was tested by peroxide value, and Rancimat tests. Temperature, and light stimulation for reaction acceleration was used. The oxidative stability enhancement by carotenoids was detected in peroxide value test – the strongest effect was observed in palm oil, following by carrot supplemented group, compared to control group, whose feed was unchanged. Rancimat accelerated oxidation test results did not show any superiority of the oxidative stability of the AMF samples from milk of the carotenoidsupplemented cow groups. The average oxidation stability of AMF dark-stored samples was 12.59 ± 0.294 h, and it was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that of AMF light-affected samples, i.e. 2.60 ± 0.191 h.
Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) is a perennial herb belonging to the Brassicaceae family and contains biologically active substances. The aim of the current research was to determine best method for extraction of phenolic compounds from horseradish roots showing high antiradical activity. Three genotypes (No. 105; No. 106 and variety ‘Turku’) of horseradish roots were extracted with eight different solvents: n-hexane, ethyl acetate, diethyl ether, 2-propanol, acetone, ethanol (95%), ethanol / water / acetic acid (80/20/1 v/v/v) and ethanol / water (80/20 by volume) using two extraction methods (conventional and Soxhlet). As the best solvents ethanol and ethanol / water solutions can be chosen. Although in Soxhlet extracts TPC was higher, scavenging activity of DPPH˙ radicals did not increase. It can be concluded that using Soxhlet extraction method more compounds that are not effective antioxidants.