International Science Index
Optimization of Air Pollution Control Model for Mining
The sustainable measures on air quality management are recognized as one of the most serious environmental concerns in the mining region. The mining operations emit various types of pollutants which have significant impacts on the environment. This study presents a stochastic control strategy by developing the air pollution control model to achieve a cost-effective solution. The optimization method is formulated to predict the cost of treatment using linear programming with an objective function and multi-constraints. The constraints mainly focus on two factors which are: production of metal should not exceed the available resources, and air quality should meet the standard criteria of the pollutant. The applicability of this model is explored through a case study of an open pit metal mine, Utah, USA. This method simultaneously uses meteorological data as a dispersion transfer function to support the practical local conditions. The probabilistic analysis and the uncertainties in the meteorological conditions are accomplished by Monte Carlo simulation. Reasonable results have been obtained to select the optimized treatment technology for PM2.5, PM10, NOx, and SO2. Additional comparison analysis shows that baghouse is the least cost option as compared to electrostatic precipitator and wet scrubbers for particulate matter, whereas non-selective catalytical reduction and dry-flue gas desulfurization are suitable for NOx and SO2 reduction respectively. Thus, this model can aid planners to reduce these pollutants at a marginal cost by suggesting control pollution devices, while accounting for dynamic meteorological conditions and mining activities.
Feasibility Studies through Quantitative Methods: The Revamping of a Tourist Railway Line in Italy
Recently, the Italian government has approved a new law for public contracts and has been laying the groundwork for restarting a planning phase. The government has adopted the indications given by the European Commission regarding the estimation of the external costs within the Cost-Benefit Analysis, and has been approved the ‘Guidelines for assessment of Investment Projects’. In compliance with the new Italian law, the aim of this research was to perform a feasibility study applying quantitative methods regarding the revamping of an Italian tourist railway line. A Cost-Benefit Analysis was performed starting from the quantification of the passengers’ demand potentially interested in using the revamped rail services. The benefits due to the external costs reduction were also estimated (quantified) in terms of variations (with respect to the not project scenario): climate change, air pollution, noises, congestion, and accidents. Estimations results have been proposed in terms of the Measure of Effectiveness underlying a positive Net Present Value equal to about 27 million of Euros, an Internal Rate of Return much greater the discount rate, a benefit/cost ratio equal to 2 and a PayBack Period of 15 years.
Intelligent Rescheduling Trains for Air Pollution Management
Optimization of timetable is the need of the day for the rescheduling and routing of trains in real time. Trains are scheduled in parallel with the road transport vehicles to the same destination. As the number of trains is restricted due to single track, customers usually opt for road transport to use frequently. The air pollution increases as the density of vehicles on road transport is increased. Use of an alternate mode of transport like train helps in reducing air-pollution. This paper mainly aims at attracting the passengers to Train transport by proper rescheduling of trains using hybrid of stop-skip algorithm and iterative convex programming algorithm. Rescheduling of train bi-directionally is achieved on a single track with dynamic dual time and varying stops. Introduction of more trains attract customers to use rail transport frequently, thereby decreasing the pollution. The results are simulated using Network Simulator (NS-2).
A Vehicle Monitoring System Based on the LoRa Technique
Air pollution and climate warming become more and more intensified in many areas, especially in urban areas. Environmental parameters are critical information to air pollution and weather monitoring. Thus, it is necessary to develop a suitable air pollution and weather monitoring system for urban areas. In this study, a vehicle monitoring system (VMS) based on the IoT technique is developed. Cars are selected as the research tool because it can reach a greater number of streets to collect data. The VMS can monitor different environmental parameters, including ambient temperature and humidity, and air quality parameters, including PM2.5, NO2, CO, and O3. The VMS can provide other information, including GPS signals and the vibration information through driving a car on the street. Different sensor modules are used to measure the parameters and collect the measured data and transmit them to a cloud server through the LoRa protocol. A user interface is used to show the sensing data storing at the cloud server. To examine the performance of the system, a researcher drove a Nissan x-trail 1998 to the area close to the Da’an District office in Taipei to collect monitoring data. The collected data are instantly shown on the user interface. The four kinds of information are provided by the interface: GPS positions, weather parameters, vehicle information, and air quality information. With the VMS, users can obtain the information regarding air quality and weather conditions when they drive their car to an urban area. Also, government agencies can make decisions on traffic planning based on the information provided by the proposed VMS.
PM10 Chemical Characteristics in a Background Site at the Universidad Libre Bogotá
One of the most important factors for air pollution is that the concentrations of PM10 maintain a constant trend, with the exception of some places where that frequently surpasses the allowed ranges established by Colombian legislation. The community that surrounds the Universidad Libre Bogotá is inhabited by a considerable number of students and workers, all of whom are possibly being exposed to PM10 for long periods of time while on campus. Thus, the chemical characterization of PM10 found in the ambient air at the Universidad Libre Bogotá was identified as a problem. A Hi-Vol sampler and EPA Test Method 5 were used to determine if the quality of air is adequate for the human respiratory system. Additionally, quartz fiber filters were utilized during sampling. Samples were taken three days a week during a dry period throughout the months of November and December 2015. The gravimetric analysis method was used to determine PM10 concentrations. The chemical characterization includes non-conventional carcinogenic pollutants. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) was used for the determination of metals and VOCs were analyzed using the FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) method. In this way, concentrations of PM10, ranging from values of 13 µg/m3 to 66 µg/m3, were obtained; these values were below standard conditions. This evidence concludes that the PM10 concentrations during an exposure period of 24 hours are lower than the values established by Colombian law, Resolution 610 of 2010; however, when comparing these with the limits set by the World Health Organization (WHO), these concentrations could possibly exceed permissible levels.
Condition Monitoring for Twin-Fluid Nozzles with Internal Mixing
Liquid sprays of water are frequently used in air pollution control for gas cooling purposes and for gas cleaning. Twin-fluid nozzles with internal mixing are often used for these purposes because of the small size of the drops produced. In these nozzles the liquid is dispersed by compressed air or another pressurized gas. In high efficiency scrubbers for particle separation, several nozzles are operated in parallel because of the size of the cross section. In such scrubbers, the scrubbing water has to be re-circulated. Precipitation of some solid material can occur in the liquid circuit, caused by chemical reactions. When such precipitations are detached from the place of formation, they can partly or totally block the liquid flow to a nozzle. Due to the resulting unbalanced supply of the nozzles with water and gas, the efficiency of separation decreases. Thus, the nozzles have to be cleaned if a certain fraction of blockages is reached. The aim of this study was to provide a tool for continuously monitoring the status of the nozzles of a scrubber based on the available operation data (water flow, air flow, water pressure and air pressure). The difference between the air pressure and the water pressure is not well suited for this purpose, because the difference is quite small and therefore very exact calibration of the pressure measurement would be required. Therefore, an equation for the reference air flow of a nozzle at the actual water flow and operation pressure was derived. This flow can be compared with the actual air flow for assessment of the status of the nozzles.
Trees for Air Pollution Tolerance to Develop Green Belts as an Ecological Mitigation
Air pollution both from point and non-point sources is difficult to control once released in to the atmosphere. There is no engineering method known available to ameliorate the dispersed pollutants. The only suitable approach is the ecological method of constructing green belts in and around the pollution sources. Air pollution in Muscat, Oman is a serious concern due to ever increasing vehicles on roads. Identifying the air pollution tolerance levels of species is important for implementing pollution control strategies in the urban areas of Muscat. Hence, in the present study, Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) for ten avenue tree species was evaluated by analyzing four bio-chemical parameters, plus their Anticipated Performance Index (API) in field conditions. Based on the two indices, Ficus benghalensis was the most suitable one with the highest performance score. Conocarpus erectuse, Phoenix dactylifera, and Pithcellobium dulce were found to be good performers and are recommended for extensive planting. Azadirachta indica which is preferred for its dense canopy is qualified in the moderate category. The rest of the tree species expressed lower API score of less than 51, hence cannot be considered as suitable species for pollution mitigation plantation projects.
Sulfur Removal of Hydrocarbon Fuels Using Oxidative Desulfurization Enhanced by Fenton Process
A comprehensive development towards the production of ultra-clean fuels as a feed stoke is getting to raise due to the increasing use of diesel fuels and global air pollution. Production of environmental-friendly fuels can be achievable by some limited single methods and most integrated ones. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) presents vast ranges of technologies possessing suitable characteristics with regard to the Fenton process. Using toluene as a model fuel feed with dibenzothiophene (DBT) as a sulfur compound under various operating conditions is the attempt of this study. The results showed that this oxidative process followed a pseudo-first order kinetics. Removal efficiency of 77.43% is attained under reaction time of 40 minutes with (Fe+2/H2O2) molar ratio of 0.05 in acidic pH environment. In this research, temperature of 50 °C represented the most influential role in proceeding the reaction.
Annual and Seasonal Variations in Air Quality Index of the National Capital Region, India
Air Quality Index (AQI) is used as a tool to indicate the level of severity and disseminate the information on air pollution to enable the public to understand the health and environmental impacts of air pollutant concentration levels. The annual and seasonal variation of criteria air pollutants concentration based on the National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Programme has been conducted for a period of nine years (2006-2014) using the AQI system. AQI was calculated using IND-AQI methodology and Maximum Operator Concept is applied. An attempt has been made to quantify the variations in AQI on an annual and seasonal basis over a period of nine years. Further, year-wise frequency of occurrence of AQI in each category for all the five stations is analysed, which presents in depth analysis of trends over the period of study. The best air quality was observed in the Noida residential area, followed by Noida industrial area during the study period; whereas, Bulandshahar industrial area and Faridabad residential area were observed to have the worst air quality. A shift in the worst air quality from winter to summer season has also been observed during the study period. Further, the level of Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter was found to be above permissible limit at all the stations. The present study helps in enhancing public awareness and calls for the need of immediate measures to be taken to counter-effect the cause of the increasing level of air pollution.
Limestone Briquette Production and Characterization
Modern agriculture requires productivity, efficiency and quality. Therefore, there is need for agricultural limestone implementation that provides adequate amounts of calcium and magnesium carbonates in order to correct soil acidity. During the limestone process, fine particles (with average size under 400#) are generated. These particles do not have economic value in agricultural and metallurgical sectors due their size. When limestone is used for agriculture purposes, these fine particles can be easily transported by wind generated air pollution. Therefore, briquetting, a mineral processing technique, was used to mitigate this problem resulting in an agglomerated product suitable for agriculture use. Briquetting uses compressive pressure to agglomerate fine particles. It can be aided by agglutination agents, allowing adjustments in shape, size and mechanical parameters of the mass. Briquettes can generate extra profits for mineral industry, presenting as a distinct product for agriculture, and can reduce the environmental liabilities of the fine particles storage or disposition. The produced limestone briquettes were subjected to shatter and water action resistance tests. The results show that after six minutes completely submerged in water, the briquettes where fully diluted, a highly favorable result considering its use for soil acidity correction.
Technical Analysis of Combined Solar Water Heating Systems for Cold Climate Regions
Renewable energy resources, which can supplement space and water heating for residential buildings, can have a noticeable impact on natural gas consumption and air pollution. This study considers a technical analysis of a combined solar water heating system with evacuated tube solar collectors for different solar coverage, ranging from 20% to 100% of the total roof area of a typical residential building located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The alternative heating systems were conventional (non-condensing) and condensing tankless water heaters and condensing boilers that were coupled to solar water heating systems. The performance of the alternative heating systems was compared to a traditional heating system, consisting of a conventional boiler, applied to houses of various gross floor areas. A comparison among the annual natural gas consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation, and emissions for the various house sizes indicated that the combined solar heating system can reduce the natural gas consumption and CO2 emissions, and increase CO2 mitigation for all the systems that were studied. The results suggest that solar water heating systems are potentially beneficial for residential heating system applications in terms of energy savings and CO2 mitigation.
The Relationship between Military Expenditure, Military Personnel, Economic Growth, and the Environment
In this paper, we study the relationship between the military effort and pollution. A distinction is drawn between the direct and indirect impact of the military effort (military expenditure and military personnel) on pollution, which operates through the impact of military effort on per capita income and the resultant impact of income on pollution. Using the data of 121 countries covering the period 1980–2011, both the direct and indirect impacts of military effort on air pollution emissions are estimated. Our results show that the military effort is estimated to have a positive direct impact on per capita emissions. Indirect effects are found to be positive, the total effect of military effort on emissions is positive for all countries.
Indoor Air Pollution of the Flexographic Printing Environment
The identification and evaluation of organic and inorganic pollutants were performed in a flexographic facility in Novi Sad, Serbia. Air samples were collected and analyzed in situ, during 4-hours working time at five sampling points by the mobile gas chromatograph and ozonometer at the printing of collagen casing. Experimental results showed that the concentrations of isopropyl alcohol, acetone, total volatile organic compounds and ozone varied during the sampling times. The highest average concentrations of 94.80 ppm and 102.57 ppm were achieved at 200 minutes from starting the production for isopropyl alcohol and total volatile organic compounds, respectively. The mutual dependences between target hazardous and microclimate parameters were confirmed using a multiple linear regression model with software package STATISTICA 10. Obtained multiple coefficients of determination in the case of ozone and acetone (0.507 and 0.589) with microclimate parameters indicated a moderate correlation between the observed variables. However, a strong positive correlation was obtained for isopropyl alcohol and total volatile organic compounds (0.760 and 0.852) with microclimate parameters. Higher values of parameter F than Fcritical for all examined dependences indicated the existence of statistically significant difference between the concentration levels of target pollutants and microclimates parameters. Given that, the microclimate parameters significantly affect the emission of investigated gases and the application of eco-friendly materials in production process present a necessity.
Estimation of the Road Traffic Emissions and Dispersion in the Developing Countries Conditions
We present in this work our model of road traffic
emissions (line sources) and dispersion of these emissions, named
DISPOLSPEM (Dispersion of Poly Sources and Pollutants Emission
Model). In its emission part, this model was designed to keep the
consistent bottom-up and top-down approaches. It also allows to
generate emission inventories from reduced input parameters being
adapted to existing conditions in Morocco and in the other developing
countries. While several simplifications are made, all the performance
of the model results are kept. A further important advantage of
the model is that it allows the uncertainty calculation and emission
rate uncertainty according to each of the input parameters. In the
dispersion part of the model, an improved line source model has
been developed, implemented and tested against a reference solution.
It provides improvement in accuracy over previous formulas of line
source Gaussian plume model, without being too demanding in terms
of computational resources. In the case study presented here, the
biggest errors were associated with the ends of line source sections;
these errors will be canceled by adjacent sections of line sources
during the simulation of a road network. In cases where the wind
is parallel to the source line, the use of the combination discretized
source and analytical line source formulas minimizes remarkably the
error. Because this combination is applied only for a small number
of wind directions, it should not excessively increase the calculation
A Global Perspective on Urban Environmental Problems in Developing Countries: The Case of Turkey
Cities play a vital role in the social fabric of countries and in national and regional economic growth worldwide; however, the environmental effects of such growth need to be assessed and managed better. The critical and most immediate problems faced by cities of developing countries are the health impacts of urban pollution that derive from inadequate water, sanitation, drainage and solid waste services, poor urban and industrial waste management, and air pollution. As globalization continues, earth's natural processes transform local problems into international issues. The aim of this study is to provide a broad overview of the pollution from urban wastes and emissions in Turkey which is a developing country. It is aimed to underline the significance of reorganizing the institutional tools in a worldwide perspective in order to generate coherent solutions to urban problems, and to enhance urban quality.
Performance of Neural Networks vs. Radial Basis Functions When Forming a Metamodel for Residential Buildings
Average temperatures worldwide are expected to
continue to rise. At the same time, major cities in developing
countries are becoming increasingly populated and polluted.
Governments are tasked with the problem of overheating and air
quality in residential buildings. This paper presents the development
of a model, which is able to estimate the occupant exposure
to extreme temperatures and high air pollution within domestic
buildings. Building physics simulations were performed using the
EnergyPlus building physics software. An accurate metamodel is
then formed by randomly sampling building input parameters and
training on the outputs of EnergyPlus simulations. Metamodels are
used to vastly reduce the amount of computation time required when
performing optimisation and sensitivity analyses. Neural Networks
(NNs) have been compared to a Radial Basis Function (RBF)
algorithm when forming a metamodel. These techniques were
implemented using the PyBrain and scikit-learn python libraries,
respectively. NNs are shown to perform around 15% better than RBFs
when estimating overheating and air pollution metrics modelled by
The Use of Simulation Programs of Leakage of Harmful Substances for Crisis Management
The paper deals with simulation programs of spread of harmful substances. Air pollution has a direct impact on the quality of human life and environmental protection is currently a very hot topic. Therefore, the paper focuses on the simulation of release of harmful substances. The first part of article deals with perspectives and possibilities of implementation outputs of simulations programs into the system which is education and of practical training of the management staff during emergency events in the frame of critical infrastructure. The last part shows the practical testing and evaluation of simulation programs. Of the tested simulations software been selected Symos97. The tool offers advanced features for setting leakage. Gradually allows the user to model the terrain, location, and method of escape of harmful substances.
Thermal Method for Testing Small Chemisorbents Samples on the Base of Potassium Superoxide
The increase of technogenic and natural accidents,
accompanied by air pollution, for example, by combustion products,
leads to the necessity of respiratory protection. This work is devoted to the development of a calorimetric method
and a device which allows investigating quickly the kinetics of
carbon dioxide sorption by chemisorbents on the base of potassium
superoxide in order to assess the protective properties of respiratory
protective closed circuit apparatus. The features of the traditional approach for determining the
sorption properties in a thin layer of chemisorbent are described, as
well as methods and devices, which can be used for the sorption
kinetics study. The authors developed an approach (as opposed to the traditional
approach) based on the power measurement of internal heat sources
in the chemisorbent layer. The emergence of the heat sources is a
result of exothermic reaction of carbon dioxide sorption. This
approach eliminates the necessity of chemical analysis of samples
and can significantly reduce the time and material expenses during
chemisorbents testing. Error of determining the volume fraction of adsorbed carbon
dioxide by the developed method does not exceed 12%. Taking into
account the efficiency of the method, we consider that it is a good
alternative to traditional methods of chemical analysis under the
assessment of the protection sorbents quality.
A Modelling Study of the Photochemical and Particulate Pollution Characteristics above a Typical Southeast Mediterranean Urban Area
The Greater Athens Area (GAA) faces photochemical
and particulate pollution episodes as a result of the combined effects
of local pollutant emissions, regional pollution transport, synoptic
circulation and topographic characteristics. The area has undergone
significant changes since the Athens 2004 Olympic Games because
of large scale infrastructure works that lead to the shift of population
to areas previously characterized as rural, the increase of the traffic
fleet and the operation of highways. However, few recent modelling
studies have been performed due to the lack of an accurate, updated
emission inventory. The photochemical modelling system
MM5/CAMx was applied in order to study the photochemical and
particulate pollution characteristics above the GAA for two distinct
ten-day periods in the summer of 2006 and 2010, where air pollution
episodes occurred. A new updated emission inventory was used
based on official data. Comparison of modeled results with
measurements revealed the importance and accuracy of the new
Athens emission inventory as compared to previous modeling
studies. The model managed to reproduce the local meteorological
conditions, the daily ozone and particulates fluctuations at different
locations across the GAA. Higher ozone levels were found at
suburban and rural areas as well as over the sea at the south of the
basin. Concerning PM10, high concentrations were computed at the
city centre and the southeastern suburbs in agreement with measured
data. Source apportionment analysis showed that different sources
contribute to the ozone levels, the local sources (traffic, port
activities) affecting its formation.
Risk Assessment of Particulate Matter (PM10) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia
In recent decades, particulate matter (PM10) have
received much attention due to its potential adverse health impact and
the subsequent need to better control or regulate these pollutants.
The aim of this paper is focused on study risk assessment of PM10
in four different districts (Shebikah, Masfalah, Aziziyah, Awali) in
Makkah, Saudi Arabia during the period from 1 Ramadan 1434 AH -
27 Safar 1435 AH. Samples were collected by using Low Volume
Sampler (LVS Low Volume Sampler) device and filtration method
for estimating the total concentration of PM10.
The study indicated that the mean PM10 concentrations were 254.6
(186.1 - 343.2) μg/m3 in Shebikah, 184.9 (145.6 - 271.4) μg/m3 in
Masfalah, 162.4 (92.4-253.8) μg/m3 in Aziziyah, and 56.0 (44.5 -
119.8) μg/m3 in Awali. These values did not exceed the permissible
limits in PME (340 μg/m3 as daily average). Furthermore, health
assessment is carried out using AirQ2.2.3 model to estimate the
number of hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases. The
cumulative number of cases per 100,000 were 1534 (18-3050 case),
which lower than that recorded in the United States, Malaysia. The
concentration response coefficient was 0.49 (95% CI 0.05 - 0.70) per
10 μg/m3 increase of PM10.
Optimal Allocation of PHEV Parking Lots to Minimize Distribution System Losses
To tackle the air pollution issues, Plug-in Hybrid
Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) are proposed as an appropriate solution.
Charging a large amount of PHEV batteries, if not controlled, would
have negative impacts on the distribution system. The control process
of charging of these vehicles can be centralized in parking lots that
may provide a chance for better coordination than the individual
charging in houses. In this paper, an optimization-based approach is
proposed to determine the optimum PHEV parking capacities in
candidate nodes of the distribution system. In so doing, a profile for
charging and discharging of PHEVs is developed in order to flatten
the network load profile. Then, this profile is used in solving an
optimization problem to minimize the distribution system losses. The
outputs of the proposed method are the proper place for PHEV
parking lots and optimum capacity for each parking. The application
of the proposed method on the IEEE-34 node test feeder verifies the
effectiveness of the method.
Investigation of Public Perception of Air Pollution and Life Quality in Tehran
This study was undertaken at four different sites
(north polluted, south polluted, south healthy and north healthy) in
Tehran, in order to examine whether there was a relationship between
publicly available air quality data and the public’s perception of air
quality and to suggest some guidelines for reducing air pollution. A
total of 200 people were accidentally filled out the research
questionnaires at mentioned sites and air quality data were obtained
simultaneously from the Air Quality Control Department. Data was
analyzed in Excel and SPSS software’s. Clean air and job security
were of great importance to people comparing to other pleasant
aspect of life. Also air pollution and serious diseases were the most
important of people concerns. Street monitors and news paper
services on air quality were little used by the public as a means of
obtaining information on air pollution. Using public transportation
and avoiding inevitable journeys are the most important ways for
reducing air pollution. The results reveal that the public’s perception
of air quality is not a reliable indicator of the actual levels of air
A Comparison of Air Quality in Arid and Temperate Climatic Conditions – A Case Study of Leeds and Makkah
In this paper air quality conditions in Makkah and
Leeds are compared. These two cities have totally different climatic
conditions. Makkah climate is characterised as hot and dry (arid)
whereas that of Leeds is characterised as cold and wet (temperate).
This study uses air quality data from 2012 collected in Makkah,
Saudi Arabia and Leeds, UK. The concentrations of all pollutants,
except NO are higher in Makkah. Most notable, the concentrations of
PM10 are much higher in Makkah than in Leeds. This is probably due
to the arid nature of climatic conditions in Makkah and not solely due
to anthropogenic emission sources, otherwise like PM10 some of the
other pollutants, such as CO, NO, and SO2 would have shown much
greater difference between Leeds and Makkah. Correlation analysis is
performed between different pollutants at the same site and the same
pollutants at different sites. In Leeds the correlation between PM10
and other pollutants is significantly stronger than in Makkah. Weaker
correlation in Makkah is probably due to the fact that in Makkah
most of the gaseous pollutants are emitted by combustion processes,
whereas most of the PM10 is generated by other sources, such as
windblown dust, re-suspension, and construction activities. This is in
contrast to Leeds where all pollutants including PM10 are
predominantly emitted by combustions, such as road traffic.
Furthermore, in Leeds frequent rains wash out most of the
atmospheric particulate matter and suppress re-suspension of dust.
Temporal trends of various pollutants are compared and discussed.
This study emphasises the role of climatic conditions in managing air
quality, and hence the need for region-specific controlling strategies
according to the local climatic and meteorological conditions.
Air Pollution Control from Rice Shellers - A Case Study
A Rice Sheller is used for obtaining polished white
rice from paddy. There are about 3000 Rice Shellers in Punjab and
50000 in India. During the process of shelling lot of dust is emitted
from different unit operations like paddy silo, paddy shaker, bucket
elevators, huskers, paddy separator etc. These dust emissions have
adverse effect on the health of the workers and the wear and tear of
the shelling machinery is fast. All the dust emissions spewing out of
these unit operations of a rice Sheller were contained by providing
suitable hoods and enclosures while ensuring their workability. These
were sucked by providing an induced draft fan followed by a high
efficiency cyclone separator that has got an overall dust collection
efficiency of more than 90%. This cyclone separator replaced two
cyclone separators and a filter bag house, which the Rice Sheller was
already having. The dust concentration in the stack after the
installation of cyclone separator is well within the stipulated
standards. Besides controlling pollution, there is improvement in the
quality of products like bran and the life of shelling machinery has
enhanced. The payback period of this technology is less than four
Non-Methane Hydrocarbons Emission during the Photocopying Process
Prosperity of electronic equipment in photocopying
environment not only has improved work efficiency, but also has
changed indoor air quality. Considering the number of photocopying
employed, indoor air quality might be worse than in general office
environments. Determining the contribution from any type of
equipment to indoor air pollution is a complex matter. Non-methane
hydrocarbons are known to have an important role on air quality due
to their high reactivity. The presence of hazardous pollutants in
indoor air has been detected in one photocopying shop in Novi Sad,
Serbia. Air samples were collected and analyzed for five days, during
8-hr working time in three time intervals, whereas three different
sampling points were determined. Using multiple linear regression
model and software package STATISTICA 10 the concentrations of
occupational hazards and microclimates parameters were mutually
correlated. Based on the obtained multiple coefficients of
determination (0.3751, 0.2389 and 0.1975), a weak positive
correlation between the observed variables was determined. Small
values of parameter F indicated that there was no statistically
significant difference between the concentration levels of nonmethane
hydrocarbons and microclimates parameters. The results
showed that variable could be presented by the general regression
model: y = b0 + b1xi1+ b2xi2. Obtained regression equations allow to
measure the quantitative agreement between the variables and thus
obtain more accurate knowledge of their mutual relations.
Air Pollution and Respiratory-Related Restricted Activity Days in Tunisia
This paper focuses on the assessment of the air
pollution and morbidity relationship in Tunisia. Air pollution is
measured by ozone air concentration and the morbidity is measured
by the number of respiratory-related restricted activity days during
the 2-week period prior to the interview. Socioeconomic data are also
collected in order to adjust for any confounding covariates. Our
sample is composed by 407 Tunisian respondents; 44.7% are women,
the average age is 35.2, near 69% are living in a house built after
1980, and 27.8% have reported at least one day of respiratory-related
restricted activity. The model consists on the regression of the
number of respiratory-related restricted activity days on the air
quality measure and the socioeconomic covariates. In order to correct
for zero-inflation and heterogeneity, we estimate several models
(Poisson, negative binomial, zero inflated Poisson, Poisson hurdle,
negative binomial hurdle and finite mixture Poisson models).
Bootstrapping and post-stratification techniques are used in order to
correct for any sample bias. According to the Akaike information
criteria, the hurdle negative binomial model has the greatest goodness
of fit. The main result indicates that, after adjusting for
socioeconomic data, the ozone concentration increases the probability
of positive number of restricted activity days.
Developing Emission Factors of Fugitive Particulate Matter Emissions for Construction Sites in the Middle East Area
Fugitive particulate matter (PM) is a major source of
airborne pollution in the Middle East countries. The meteorological
conditions and topography of the area makes it highly susceptible to
wind-blown particles which raise many air quality concerns. Air
quality tools such as field monitoring, emission factors and dispersion
modeling have been used in previous research studies to analyze the
release and impacts of fugitive PM in the region. However, these
tools have been originally developed based on experiments made for
European and North American regions. In this work, an experimental
campaign was conducted on April-May 2014 in a construction site in
Doha city, Qatar. The ultimate goal is to evaluate the applicability of
the existing emission factors for construction sites in dry and arid
areas like the Middle East.
Effects of IPPC Permits on Ambient Air Quality
The aim of this paper is to give an assessment of
environmental effects of IPPC permit conditions of installations that
are in specific territory with high concentration of industrial
The IPPC permit is the permit that each operator should hold to
operate the installation as stated by the directive 2010/75/UE on
industrial emissions (integrated pollution prevention and control),
known as IED (Industrial Emissions Directive).
The IPPC permit includes all the measures necessary to achieve a
high level of protection of the environment as a whole, also defining
the monitoring requirements as measurement methodology,
frequency and evaluation procedure. The emissions monitoring of a
specific plant may also give indications of the contribution of these
emissions on the air quality of a definite area.
So, it is clear that the IPPC permits are important tools both to
improve the environmental framework and to achieve the air quality
standards, assisting to assess the possible industrial sources
contributions to air pollution.
Annoyance Caused by Air Pollution: A Comparative Study of Two Industrialized Regions
Although there had been a many studies that shows
the impact of air pollution on physical health, comparatively less was
known of human behavioral responses and annoyance impacts.
Annoyance caused by air pollution is a public health problem because
it can be an ambient stressor causing stress and disease and can affect
quality of life. The objective of this work is to evaluate the
annoyance caused by air pollution in two different industrialized
urban areas, Dunkirk (France) and Vitoria (Brazil). The populations
of these cities often report feeling annoyed by dust. Surveys were
conducted, and the collected data were analyzed using statistical
analyses. The results show that sociodemographic variables,
importance of air quality, perceived industrial risk, perceived air
pollution and occurrence of health problems play important roles in
the perceived annoyance. These results show the existence of a
common problem in geographically distant areas and allow
stakeholders to develop prevention strategies.
Application of a Theoretical Framework as a Context for a Travel Behavior Change Policy Intervention
There has been a significant decline in active travel
and a massive increase in the use of car dependent travel in many
countries during the past two decades. Evidential risks for people’s
physical and mental health problems are correlated with this
increased use of motorized travel. These health related problems
range from overweight and obesity to increased air pollution. In
response to these rising concerns health professionals, traffic planers,
local authorities and others have introduced a variety of initiatives to
counterbalance the dominance of cars for daily journeys.
However, the nature of travel behavior change interventions,
which aim to reduce car use, are very complex and challenging
regarding their interactions with human behavior. To change travel
behavior at least two aspects have to be taken into consideration.
First, how to alter attitudes and perceptions toward the sustainable
and healthy modes of travel, in competition with experiences of
private car use. And second, how to make these behavior change
processes irreversible and sustainable. There are no comprehensive
models available to guide policy interventions to increase the level of
success of travel behavior change interventions across both these
A comprehensive theoretical framework is required in the effort to
optimize how to facilitate and guide the processes of data collection
and analysis to achieve the best possible guidelines for policy
makers. Regarding the gaps in the travel behavior change research
literature, this paper attempted to identify and suggest a
multidimensional framework in order to facilitate planning the
implemented travel behavior change interventions. A structured
mixed-method model is suggested to improve the analytic power of
the results according to the complexity of human behavior.
In order to recognize people’s attitudes towards a specific travel
mode, the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was operationalized.
But in order to capture decision making processes the Transtheoretical
model of Behavior Change (TTM) was also used.
Consequently, the combination of these two theories (TTM and TPB)
has resulted in a synthesis with appropriate concepts to identify and
design an implemented travel behavior change interventions.