Land-cover maps were important for many scientific, ecological and land management purposes and during the last decades, rapid decrease of soil fertility was observed to be due to land use practices such as rice cultivation. High-precision land-cover maps are not yet available in the area which is important in an economy management. To assure accurate mapping of land cover to provide information, remote sensing is a very suitable tool to carry out this task and automatic land use and cover detection. The study did not only provide high precision land cover maps but it also provides estimates of rice production area that had undergone chemical degradation due to fertility decline. Land-cover were delineated and classified into pre-defined classes to achieve proper detection features. After generation of Land-cover map, of high intensity of rice cultivation, soil fertility degradation assessment in rice production area due to fertility decline was created to assess the impact of soils used in agricultural production. Using Simple spatial analysis functions and ArcGIS, the Land-cover map of Municipality of Quezon in Nueva Ecija, Philippines was overlaid to the fertility decline maps from Land Degradation Assessment Philippines- Bureau of Soils and Water Management (LADA-Philippines-BSWM) to determine the area of rice crops that were most likely where nitrogen, phosphorus, zinc and sulfur deficiencies were induced by high dosage of urea and imbalance N:P fertilization. The result found out that 80.00 % of fallow and 99.81% of rice production area has high soil fertility decline.
The ITE Project is a project that has 1800 km length and across the Turkey's land through east to west. The project of pipeline enters geographically from Iran to Doğubayazit (Turkey) in the east, exits to Greece from Ipsala province of Turkey in the west. This project is the one of the international projects in such scale that provides the natural gas of Iran and Caspian Sea through the European continent. In this investigation, some information will be given about the methods used to verify the direction of the pipeline and the technical properties of the results obtained. The cost of project itself entirely depends on the direction of the pipeline which would be as short as possible and the specifications of the land cover. Production standards of 1/2000 scaled digital orthophoto and vectoral maps as a results of the use of map production materials and methods (such as high resolution satellite images, and digital aerial images captured from digital aerial cameras), will also be given in this report. According to Turkish national map production standards, TM ((Transversal Mercator, 3 degree) projection is used for large scale map and UTM (Universal Transversal Mercator, 6 degree) is used for small scale map production standards. Some information is also given about the projection used in the ITE natural gas pipeline project.