International Science Index
Structure and Power Struggle in Contemporary Nollywood: An Ethnographic Evaluation
Statements of facts have been made about Nollywood, a segment of the Nigerian film industry that has in recent times become phenomenal due largely to its quantity of production and specific production style. In the face of recent transformations reshaping the industry, matters have been arising which have not been given due academic attention from an industry player perspective. While re-addressing such issues like structure, policy and informality, this study benefits from a new perspective – that of a community member adopting participant observation to research into a familiar culture. With data drawn from an extensive ethnographic study of the industry, this paper examines these matters with an emphasis on structure and the industry’s overall political economy. Drawing from discourses on the new and old Nollywood labels and other current matters arising within the industry such as the MOPICON bill redraft, corporate financing and possibilities of regeneration, this paper examines structure and power struggle within Nollywood. These are championing regenerative processes that bring about formalization, professionalism and the quest for a transnational presence, which have only been superficially evaluated. Focused essentially on Nollywood’s political economy, this study critically analyses the transforming face of an informal industry, the consistent quest for structure, quality and standard, and issues of corporate sponsorship as possible trends of regeneration. It evaluates them as indicators of regeneration, questioning the possibilities of their sustenance in an industry experiencing increased interactions with the formal economy and an influx of young professionals. With findings that make sustained regeneration both certain (due to increased formal economy interaction) and uncertain (due to the dysfunctionality of the society and its political system), it concludes that the transforming face of the industry suggests impending gentrification of the industry.
From Vertigo to Verticality: An Example of Phenomenological Design in Architecture
Architects commonly attempt a depiction of organic forms when their works are inspired by nature, regardless of the building site. Nevertheless it is also possible to try matching structures with natural scenery, by applying a phenomenological approach in terms of spatial operations, regarding perceptions from nature through architectural aspects such as protection, views, and orientation. This method acknowledges a relationship between place and space, where intentions towards tangible facts then become design statements. Although spaces resulting from such a process may present an effective response to the environment, they can also offer further outcomes beyond the realm of form. The hypothesis is that, in addition to recognising a bond between architecture and nature, it is also plausible to associate such perceptions with the inner ambient of buildings, by analysing features such as daylight. The case study of a single-family house in a rainforest near Valdivia, Chilean Patagonia is presented, with the intention of addressing the above notions through a discussion of the actual effects of inhabiting a place by way of a series of insights, including a revision of diagrams and photographs that assist in understanding the implications of this design practice. In addition, figures based on post-occupancy behaviour and daylighting performance relate both architectural and environmental issues to a decision-making process motivated by the observation of nature.
Design and Application of NFC-Based Identity and Access Management in Cloud Services
In response to a changing world and the fast growth of the Internet, more and more enterprises are replacing web-based services with cloud-based ones. Multi-tenancy technology is becoming more important especially with Software as a Service (SaaS). This in turn leads to a greater focus on the application of Identity and Access Management (IAM). Conventional Near-Field Communication (NFC) based verification relies on a computer browser and a card reader to access an NFC tag. This type of verification does not support mobile device login and user-based access management functions. This study designs an NFC-based third-party cloud identity and access management scheme (NFC-IAM) addressing this shortcoming. Data from simulation tests analyzed with Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) suggest that the NFC-IAM not only takes less time in identity identification but also cuts time by 80% in terms of two-factor authentication and improves verification accuracy to 99.9% or better. In functional performance analyses, NFC-IAM performed better in salability and portability. The NFC-IAM App (Application Software) and back-end system to be developed and deployed in mobile device are to support IAM features and also offers users a more user-friendly experience and stronger security protection. In the future, our NFC-IAM can be employed to different environments including identification for mobile payment systems, permission management for remote equipment monitoring, among other applications.
Enhancing Critical Reflective Practice in Fieldwork Education: An Exploratory Study of the Role of Social Work Agencies in the Welfare Context of Hong Kong
In recent decades, it is observed that social work agencies have participated actively, and thus, have gradually been more influential in social work education in Hong Kong. The neo-liberal welfare ideologies and changing funding mode have transformed the landscape in social work practice and have also had a major influence on the fieldwork environment in Hong Kong. The aim of this research is to explore the educational role of social work agencies and examine in particular whether they are able to enhance or hinder critical reflective learning in fieldwork. In-depth interviews with 15 frontline social workers and managers in different social work agencies were conducted to collect their views and experience in helping social work students in fieldwork. The overall findings revealed that under the current social welfare context most social workers consider that the most important role of social work agencies in fieldwork is to help students prepare to fit-in the practice requirements and work within agencies’ boundary. The fit-for-purpose and down-to-earth view of fieldwork practice is seen as prevalent among most social workers. This narrow perception of agency’s role seems to be more favourable to competence-based approaches. In contrast, though critical reflection has been seen as important in addressing the changing needs of service users, the role of enhancing critical reflective learning has not been clearly expected or understood by most agency workers. The notion of critical reflection, if considered, has been narrowly perceived in fieldwork learning. The findings suggest that the importance of critical reflection is found to be subordinate to that of practice competence. The lack of critical reflection in the field is somehow embedded in the competence-based social work practice. In general, social work students’ critical reflection has not been adequately supported or enhanced in fieldwork agencies, nor critical reflective practice has been encouraged in fieldwork process. To address this situation, the role of social work agencies in fieldwork should be re-examined. To maximise critical reflective learning in the field, critical reflection as an avowed objective in fieldwork learning should be clearly stated. Concrete suggestions are made to help fieldwork agencies become more prepared to critical reflective learning. It is expected that the research can help social work communities to reflect upon the current realities of fieldwork context and to identify ways to strengthen agencies’ capacities to enhance critical reflective learning and practice of social work students.
Embedding the Dimensions of Sustainability into City Information Modelling
The purpose of this paper is to address the functions of sustainability dimensions in city information modelling and to present the required sustainability criteria that support establishing a sustainable planning framework for enhancing existing cities and developing future smart cities. The paper is divided into two sections. The first section is based on the examination of a wide and extensive array of cross-disciplinary literature in the last decade and a half to conceptualize the terms ‘sustainable’ and ‘smart city’, and map their associated criteria to city information modelling. The second section is based on analyzing two approaches relating to city information modelling, namely statistical and dynamic approaches, and their suitability in the development of cities’ action plans. The paper argues that the use of statistical approaches to embed sustainability dimensions in city information modelling have limited value. Despite the popularity of such approaches in addressing other dimensions like utility and service management in development and action plans of the world cities, these approaches are unable to address the dynamics across various city sectors with regards to economic, environmental and social criteria. The paper suggests an integrative dynamic and cross-disciplinary planning approach to embedding sustainability dimensions in city information modelling frameworks. Such an approach will pave the way towards optimal planning and implementation of priority actions of projects and investments. The approach can be used to achieve three main goals: (1) better development and action plans for world cities (2) serve the development of an integrative dynamic and cross-disciplinary framework that incorporates economic, environmental and social sustainability criteria and (3) address areas that require further attention in the development of future sustainable and smart cities. The paper presents an innovative approach for city information modelling and a well-argued, balanced hierarchy of sustainability criteria that can contribute to an area of research which is still in its infancy in terms of development and management.
Addressing Scheme for IOT Network Using IPV6
The goal of this paper is to present an addressing scheme that allows for assigning a unique IPv6 address to each node in the Internet of Things (IoT) network. This scheme guarantees uniqueness by extracting the clock skew of each communication device and converting it into an IPv6 address. Simulation analysis confirms that the presented scheme provides reductions in terms of energy consumption, communication overhead and response time as compared to four studied addressing schemes Strong DAD, LEADS, SIPA and CLOSA.
Solid Waste Management Challenges and Possible Solution in Kabul City
Most developing nations face energy production and supply problems. This is also the case of Afghanistan whose generating capacity does not meet its energy demand. This is due in part to high security and risk caused by war which deters foreign investments and insufficient internal revenue. To address the issue above, this paper would like to suggest an alternative and affordable way to deal with the energy problem. That is by converting Solid Waste to energy. As a result, this approach tackles the municipal solid waste issue (potential cause of several diseases), contributes to the improvement of the quality of life, local economy, and so on. While addressing the solid waste problem in general, this paper samples specifically one municipality which is District-12, one of the 22 districts of Kabul city. Using geographic information system (GIS) technology, District-12 is divided into nine different zones whose municipal solid waste is respectively collected, processed, and converted into electricity and distributed to the closest area. It is important to mention that GIS has been used to estimate the amount of electricity to be distributed and to optimally position the production plant.
Detecting Financial Bubbles Using Gap between Common Stocks and Preferred Stocks
How to detecting financial bubble? Addressing this simple question has been the focus of a vast amount of empirical research spanning almost half a century. However, financial bubble is hard to observe and varying over the time; there needs to be more research on this area. In this paper, we used abnormal difference between common stocks price and those preferred stocks price to explain financial bubble. First, we proposed the ‘W-index’ which indicates spread between common stocks and those preferred stocks in stock market. Second, to prove that this ‘W-index’ is valid for measuring financial bubble, we showed that there is an inverse relationship between this ‘W-index’ and S&P500 rate of return. Specifically, our hypothesis is that when ‘W-index’ is comparably higher than other periods, financial bubbles are added up in stock market and vice versa; according to our hypothesis, if investors made long term investments when ‘W-index’ is high, they would have negative rate of return; however, if investors made long term investments when ‘W-index’ is low, they would have positive rate of return. By comparing correlation values and adjusted R-squared values of between W-index and S&P500 return, VIX index and S&P500 return, and TED index and S&P500 return, we showed only W-index has significant relationship between S&P500 rate of return. In addition, we figured out how long investors should hold their investment position regard the effect of financial bubble. Using this W-index, investors could measure financial bubble in the market and invest with low risk.
Risk in the South African Sectional Title Industry: An Assurance Perspective
The sectional title industry has been a part of the property landscape in South Africa for almost half a century, and plays a significant role in addressing the housing problem in the country. Stakeholders such as owners and investors in sectional title property are in most cases not directly involved in the management thereof, and place reliance on the audited annual financial statements of bodies corporate for decision-making purposes. Although the industry seems to be highly regulated, the legislation regarding accounting and auditing of sectional title is vague and ambiguous. Furthermore, there are no industry-specific auditing and accounting standards to guide accounting and auditing practitioners in performing their work and industry financial benchmarks are not readily available. In addition, financial pressure on sectional title schemes is often very high due to the fact that some owners exercise unrealistic pressure to keep monthly levies as low as possible. All these factors have an impact on the business risk as well as audit risk of bodies corporate. Very little academic research has been undertaken on the sectional title industry in South Africa from an accounting and auditing perspective. The aim of this paper is threefold: Firstly, to discuss the findings of a literature review on uncertainties, ambiguity and confusing aspects in current legislation regarding the audit of a sectional title property that may cause or increase audit and business risk. Secondly, empirical findings of risk-related aspects from the results of interviews with three groups of body corporate role-players will be discussed. The role-players were body corporate trustee chairpersons, body corporate managing agents and accounting and auditing practitioners of bodies corporate. Specific reference will be made to business risk and audit risk. Thirdly, practical recommendations will be made on possibilities of closing the audit expectation gap, and further research opportunities in this regard will be discussed.
E-Learning Recommender System Based on Collaborative Filtering and Ontology
In recent years, e-learning recommender systems has attracted great attention as a solution towards addressing the problem of information overload in e-learning environments and providing relevant recommendations to online learners. E-learning recommenders continue to play an increasing educational role in aiding learners to find appropriate learning materials to support the achievement of their learning goals. Although general recommender systems have recorded significant success in solving the problem of information overload in e-commerce domains and providing accurate recommendations, e-learning recommender systems on the other hand still face some issues arising from differences in learner characteristics such as learning style, skill level and study level. Conventional recommendation techniques such as collaborative filtering and content-based deal with only two types of entities namely users and items with their ratings. These conventional recommender systems do not take into account the learner characteristics in their recommendation process. Therefore, conventional recommendation techniques cannot make accurate and personalized recommendations in e-learning environment. In this paper, we propose a recommendation technique combining collaborative filtering and ontology to recommend personalized learning materials to online learners. Ontology is used to incorporate the learner characteristics into the recommendation process alongside the ratings while collaborate filtering predicts ratings and generate recommendations. Furthermore, ontological knowledge is used by the recommender system at the initial stages in the absence of ratings to alleviate the cold-start problem. Evaluation results show that our proposed recommendation technique outperforms collaborative filtering on its own in terms of personalization and recommendation accuracy.
A Framework for Investigating Reverse Logistics Capability of E-Tailers
Environmental concern and consumer rights have entailed e-tailers to adopt better strategies to facilitate product returns from customers. As the demand for reverse logistics (RL) continues to grow, little is known about what motivates e-tailers to enhance their RL capabilities and about the role RL capabilities plays in enabling e-tailers to achieve better customer satisfaction and economic performance. Based on resource-based theory and institutional theory, this article proposes that the following factors play a critical role in influencing the RL capability of e-tailers: (a) Financial resource commitment to RL, (b) managerial resource commitment to RL, and (c) institutional pressure to implement RL. Based on the role of these factors, the study provides a framework and propositions that serve to guide future research addressing the link among resources, institutional pressure, and RL capability.
Developmental Social Work: A Derailed Post-Apartheid Development Approach in South Africa
Developmental social welfare implemented through developmental social work is being applauded internationally as an approach that facilitates social development theory and practice. However, twenty-two years into democracy, there are no tangible evidences that the much-desired developmental social welfare approach has assisted the post-apartheid macroeconomic policy frameworks in addressing poverty and inequality, thus, the derailment of the post-apartheid development approach in South Africa. Based on the implementation research theory, and the literature review technique, this paper recognizes social work as a principal role-player in social development. It recommends the redesign and implementation of an effective developmental social welfare approach with specific strategies, programs, activities and sufficient resources aligned to and appropriate in delivering on the promises of the government’s macroeconomic policy frameworks. Such approach should be implemented by skilled and dedicated developmental social workers in order to achieve transformation in South Africa.
Waste Generation in Iranian Building Industry: Addressing a Theory
Construction waste has been gradually increased as a result of upsizing construction projects which are occurred within the lifecycle of buildings. Since waste management is a major priority and has profound impacts on the volume of waste generated in construction stage, the majority of efforts have been attempted to reuse, recycle and reduce waste. However, there is still room to study on lack of sufficient knowledge about waste management in construction industry. This paper intends to provide an insight into the effect of project management knowledge areas on waste management solely on construction stage. To this end, a survey among Iranian building construction industry contractors was conducted to identify the effectiveness of project management knowledge areas on three jobsite key factors including ‘Site activity’, ‘Training’, and ‘Awareness’. As a result, four management disciplines were identified as most influential ones on amount of construction waste. These disciplines were Project Cost Management, Quality Management, Human Resource Management, and Integration Management. Based on the research findings, a new model was presented to develop effective construction waste strategies.
Security Threats on Wireless Sensor Network Protocols
In this paper, we investigate security issues and challenges facing researchers in wireless sensor networks and countermeasures to resolve them. The broadcast nature of wireless communication makes Wireless Sensor Networks prone to various attacks. Due to resources limitation constraint in terms of limited energy, computation power and memory, security in wireless sensor networks creates different challenges than wired network security. We will discuss several attempts at addressing the issues of security in wireless sensor networks in an attempt to encourage more research into this area.
Addressing Oral Sensory Issues and Possible Remediation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Illustrated with a Case Study
The purpose of this study are to define the nature of oral sensory issues in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), identify important components of the assessment and treatment of this issues specific to this population, and delineate specific therapeutic techniques designed to improve assessment and treatment within therapeutic settings. Literature review and case example is used to define the predominant nature of the oral sensory issues that are experienced by some children on the autism spectrum. Characteristics of this complex disorder that can have an impact on feeding skill and behavior are also identified. These factors are then integrated to create assessment and intervention techniques that can be used in conjunction with traditional feeding approaches to facilitate improvements in eating as well as reducing oral apraxic component in this unique population. The complex nature of ASD and its many influences on feeding skills and behavior create the need for modification to both assessment and treatment approaches. Additional research is needed to create therapeutic protocols that can be used by speech-language pathologists to effectively assess and treat feeding and oro motor apraxic difficulties that are commonly encountered in children with ASD.
An Extended Model for Sustainable Food and Nutrition Security in the Agrifood Sector
The increased consumer demand for environmentally friendly production and distribution practices and the stricter environmental regulations turned environmental aspects into important criteria in business decision-making. On the other hand, Food and Nutrition Security (FNS) has evolved dramatically during the last decades in theory and practice serving as a reference point for exchanging experiences among all agents involved in programs and projects to fostering policy and strategy development. Global pressures make it more important than ever to gain a better understanding of the contribution that agrifood businesses make to FNS and to examine ways to make them more resilient in an increasingly globalized and uncertain world. This study extends the standard three-dimensional model of sustainability to include two more dimensions: A technological dimension and a policy/political dimension. Apart from the economic, environmental and social dimensions regularly used in sustainability literature, the extended model will accurately represent the measures and policies addressing food and nutrition security.
The Role of the Accused’s Attorney in the Criminal Justice System of Iran, Mashhad 2014
One of the most basic standards of fair trial is the right to defense, hire an attorney and its presence in the hearing stages. On the one hand, based on the reason and justice, as the legal issues, particularly criminal affairs, become complicated, the accused must benefit from an attorney in the court in order to defend itself which requires legal knowledge. On the other hand, as the judicial system has jurists such as investigation judges at its disposal, the accused must enjoy the same right to defend itself and reject allegations so that the balance is maintained between the litigating parties based on the principle of "equality of arms". The right to adequate time and facilities for defense is cited among the principles and rights relevant to the proceedings in international regulations such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The innovations made in the Code of Criminal Procedure in 2013 guaranteed the presence of the accused’s attorney in the proceedings. The present study aims at assessing the result of the aforementioned guarantee in practice and made attempts to investigate the effect of the presence of accused’s attorney on reducing the punishment by asking the question and addressing the statistical population of this study including 48 judges of lower courts and courts of appeal. It seems that in despite of guarantees provided in the new Code of Criminal Procedure, Iran's penal system, does not tolerate the presence of an attorney in practice.
Morphological Analysis of English L1-Persian L2 Adult Learners’ Interlanguage: From the Perspective of SLA Variation
Studies on interlanguage have long been engaged in describing the phenomenon of variation in SLA. Pursuing the same goal and particularly addressing the role of linguistic features, this study describes the use of Persian morphology in the interlanguage of two adult English-speaking learners of Persian L2. Taking the general approach of a combination of contrastive analysis, error analysis and interlanguage analysis, this study focuses on the identification and prediction of some possible instances of transfer from English L1 to Persian L2 across six elicitation tasks aiming to investigate whether any of contextual features may variably influence the learners’ order of morpheme accuracy in the areas of copula, possessives, articles, demonstratives, plural form, personal pronouns, and genitive cases. Results describe the existence of task variation in the interlanguage system of Persian L2 learners.
Neighborhood Sustainability Assessment Tools: A Conceptual Framework for Their Use in Building Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change
Climate change remains a challenging matter for the human and the built environment in the 21st century, where the need to consider adaptation to climate change in the development process is paramount. However, there remains a lack of information regarding how we should prepare responses to this issue, such as through developing organized and sophisticated tools enabling the adaptation process. This study aims to build a systematic framework approach to investigate the potentials that Neighborhood Sustainability Assessment tools (NSA) might offer in enabling both the analysis of the emerging adaptive capacity to climate change. The analysis of the framework presented in this paper aims to discuss this issue in three main phases. The first part attempts to link sustainability and climate change, in the context of adaptive capacity. It is argued that in deciding to promote sustainability in the context of climate change, both the resilience and vulnerability processes become central. However, there is still a gap in the current literature regarding how the sustainable development process can respond to climate change. As well as how the resilience of practical strategies might be evaluated. It is suggested that the integration of the sustainability assessment processes with both the resilience thinking process, and vulnerability might provide important components for addressing the adaptive capacity to climate change. A critical review of existing literature is presented illustrating the current lack of work in this field, integrating these three concepts in the context of addressing the adaptive capacity to climate change. The second part aims to identify the most appropriate scale at which to address the built environment for the climate change adaptation. It is suggested that the neighborhood scale can be considered as more suitable than either the building or urban scales. It then presents the example of NSAs, and discusses the need to explore their potential role in promoting the adaptive capacity to climate change. The third part of the framework presents a comparison among three example NSAs, BREEAM Communities, LEED-ND, and CASBEE-UD. These three tools have been selected as the most developed and comprehensive assessment tools that are currently available for the neighborhood scale. This study concludes that NSAs are likely to present the basis for an organized framework to address the practical process for analyzing and yet promoting Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change. It is further argued that vulnerability (exposure & sensitivity) and resilience (Interdependence & Recovery) form essential aspects to be addressed in the future assessment of NSA’s capability to adapt to both short and long term climate change impacts. Finally, it is acknowledged that further work is now required to understand impact assessment in terms of the range of physical sectors (Water, Energy, Transportation, Building, Land Use and Ecosystems), Actor and stakeholder engagement as well as a detailed evaluation of the NSA indicators, together with a barriers diagnosis process.
3D Liver Segmentation from CT Images Using a Level Set Method Based on a Shape and Intensity Distribution Prior
Liver segmentation from medical images poses more
challenges than analogous segmentations of other organs. This
contribution introduces a liver segmentation method from a series of
computer tomography images. Overall, we present a novel method for
segmenting liver by coupling density matching with shape priors.
Density matching signifies a tracking method which operates via
maximizing the Bhattacharyya similarity measure between the
photometric distribution from an estimated image region and a model
photometric distribution. Density matching controls the direction of
the evolution process and slows down the evolving contour in regions
with weak edges. The shape prior improves the robustness of density
matching and discourages the evolving contour from exceeding liver’s
boundaries at regions with weak boundaries. The model is
implemented using a modified distance regularized level set (DRLS)
model. The experimental results show that the method achieves a
satisfactory result. By comparing with the original DRLS model, it is
evident that the proposed model herein is more effective in addressing
the over segmentation problem. Finally, we gauge our performance of
our model against matrices comprising of accuracy, sensitivity, and
Principles of Sustainable and Affordable Housing Policy for Afghan Refugees Returning to Afghanistan
The overall goal of this paper is to examine the
suitability and potential of the policies addressing the sustainability
and affordability of housing for returnees, and to determine the impact
of this policy on housing delivery for Afghan refugees. Housing is a
central component of the settlement experience of refugees. A positive
housing situation can facilitate many aspects of integration.
Unaffordable, and unsafe housing, however, can cause disruptions in
the entire settlement process. This paper aims to identify a suite of
built forms for housing that is both affordable and environmentally
sustainable for Afghan refugees. The result was the development of a
framework that enables the assessment of the overall performance of
various types of housing development in all zones of the country.
There is very little evidence that the present approach of housing
provision to the vagaries of market forces has provided affordable
housing, especially for Afghan refugees. There is a need to incorporate
social housing into the policy to assist people who cannot afford to
have their own houses.
Analysis of Poverty Reduction Strategies as Mechanism for Development in Nigeria from 1999-2014
Poverty alleviation is one of the most difficult
challenges facing third world countries in their development efforts.
Evidences in Nigeria showed that the number of those in poverty has
continued to increase. This paper is aimed at analyzing the
performance of poverty alleviation measures undertaken by
successive administrations in Nigeria with a view to addressing the
quagmire. The study identified the whole gamut of factors that served
as stumbling blocks to the implementation of each of the strategies
and recommended the involvement of local people in the
identification and design of projects so that sufficient participation
could be achieved.
Creating Entrepreneurial Universities: The Swedish Approach of Transformation
Sweden has succeeded to maintain a high level of
growth and development and has managed to sustain highly ranked
position among the world’s developed countries. In this regard,
Swedish universities are playing a vital role in supporting innovation
and entrepreneurship at all levels and developing Swedish knowledge
economy. This paper is aiming to draw on the experiences of two leading
Swedish universities, addressing their transformation approach to
create entrepreneurial universities and fulfilling their objectives in the
era of knowledge economy. The objectives of the paper include: 1) Introducing the Swedish
higher education and its characteristics. 2) Examining the
infrastructure elements for innovation and Entrepreneurship at two of
the Swedish entrepreneurial universities. 3) Addressing the key
aspects of support systems in the initiatives of both Chalmers and
Gothenburg universities to support innovation and advance
entrepreneurial practices. The paper will contribute to two discourses: 1) Examining the
relationship between support systems for innovation and
entrepreneurship and the Universities’ policies and practices. 2)
Lessons for University leaders to assist the development and
implementation of effective innovation and entrepreneurship policies
The Impact of Hospital Intensive Care Unit Window Design on Daylighting and Energy Performance in Desert Climate
This paper addresses the design of hospital Intensive
Care Unit windows for the achievement of visual comfort and energy
savings. The aim was to identify the window size and shading system
configurations that could fulfill daylighting adequacy, avoid glare
and reduce energy consumption. The study focused on addressing the
effect of utilizing different shading systems in association with a
range of Window-to-Wall Ratios (WWR) in different orientations
under the desert clear-sky of Cairo, Egypt.
The results of this study demonstrated that solar penetration is a
critical concern affecting the design of ICU windows in desert
locations, as in Cairo, Egypt. Use of shading systems was found to be
essential in providing acceptable daylight performance and energy
saving. Careful positioning of the ICU window towards a proper
orientation can dramatically improve performance. It was observed
that ICU windows facing the north direction enjoyed the widest range
of successful window configuration possibilities at different WWRs.
ICU windows facing south enjoyed a reasonable number of
configuration options as well. By contrast, the ICU windows facing
the east orientation had a very limited number of options that provide
acceptable performance. These require additional local shading
measures at certain times due to glare incidence. Moreover, use of
horizontal sun breakers and solar screens to protect the ICU windows
proved to be more successful than the other alternatives in a wide
range of Window to Wall Ratios. By contrast, the use of light shelves
and vertical shading devices seemed questionable.
Energy Efficient Data Aggregation in Sensor Networks with Optimized Cluster Head Selection
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) routing is complex
due to its dynamic nature, computational overhead, limited battery
life, non-conventional addressing scheme, self-organization, and
sensor nodes limited transmission range. An energy efficient routing
protocol is a major concern in WSN. LEACH is a hierarchical WSN
routing protocol to increase network life. It performs self-organizing
and re-clustering functions for each round. This study proposes a
better sensor networks cluster head selection for efficient data
aggregation. The algorithm is based on Tabu search.
Cost-Effective Private Grid Using Object-based Grid Architecture
This paper proposes a cost-effective private grid using Object-based Grid Architecture (OGA). In OGA, the data process privacy and inter communication are increased through an object- oriented concept. The limitation of the existing grid is that the user can enter or leave the grid at any time without schedule and dedicated resource. To overcome these limitations, cost-effective private grid and appropriate algorithms are proposed. In this, each system contains two platforms such as grid and local platforms. The grid manager service running in local personal computer can act as grid resource. When the system is on, it is intimated to the Monitoring and Information System (MIS) and details are maintained in Resource Object Table (ROT). The MIS is responsible to select the resource where the file or the replica should be stored. The resource storage is done within virtual single private grid nodes using random object addressing to prevent stolen attack. If any grid resource goes down, then the resource ID will be removed from the ROT, and resource recovery is efficiently managed by the replicas. This random addressing technique makes the grid storage a single storage and the user views the entire grid network as a single system.
Promoting Authenticity in Employer Brands to Address the Global-Local Problem in Complex Organisations: The Case of a Developing Country
Employer branding is considered as a useful tool for
addressing the global-local problem facing complex organisations
that have operations scattered across the globe and face challenges of
dealing with the local environment alongside. Despite being an
established field of study within the Western developed world, there
is little empirical evidence concerning the relevance of employer
branding to global companies that operate in the under-developed
economies. This paper fills this gap by gaining rich insight into the
implementation of employer branding programs in a foreign
multinational operating in Pakistan dealing with the global-local
problem. The study is qualitative in nature and employs semistructured
and focus group interviews with senior/middle managers
and local frontline employees to deeply examine the phenomenon in
case organisation. Findings suggest that authenticity is required in
employer brands to enable them to respond to the local needs thereby
leading to the resolution of the global-local problem. However, the
role of signaling theory is key to the development of authentic
employer brands as it stresses on the need to establish an efficient and
effective signaling environment where in signals travel in both
directions (from signal designers to receivers and backwards) and
facilitate firms with the global-local problem. The paper also
identifies future avenues of research for the employer branding field.
Handling Complexity of a Complex System Design: Paradigm, Formalism and Transformations
Current systems complexity has reached a degree that
requires addressing conception and design issues while taking into
account environmental, operational, social, legal and financial
aspects. Therefore, one of the main challenges is the way complex
systems are specified and designed. The exponential growing effort,
cost and time investment of complex systems in modeling phase
emphasize the need for a paradigm, a framework and an environment
to handle the system model complexity. For that, it is necessary to
understand the expectations of the human user of the model and his
limits. This paper presents a generic framework for designing
complex systems, highlights the requirements a system model needs
to fulfill to meet human user expectations, and suggests a graphbased
formalism for modeling complex systems. Finally, a set of
transformations are defined to handle the model complexity.
IT/IS Organisation Design in the Digital Age – A Literature Review
Information technology and information systems are
currently at a tipping point. The digital age fundamentally transforms
a large number of industries in the ways they work. Lines between
business and technology blur. Researchers have acknowledged that
this is the time in which the IT/IS organisation needs to re-strategize
itself. In this paper, the author provides a structured review of the IS
and organisation design literature addressing the question of how the
digital age changes the design categories of an IT/IS organisation
design. The findings show that most papers just analyse single
aspects of either IT/IS relevant information or generic organisation
design elements but miss a holistic ‘big-picture’ onto an IT/IS
organisation design. This paper creates a holistic IT/IS organisation
design framework bringing together the IS research strand, the digital
strand and the generic organisation design strand. The research
identified four IT/IS organisation design categories (strategy,
structure, processes and people) and discusses the importance of two
additional categories (sourcing and governance). The authors findings
point to a first anchor point from which further research needs to be
conducted to develop a holistic IT/IS organisation design framework.
Role of Environmental Focus in Legal Protection and Efficient Management of Wetlands in the Republic of Kazakhstan
The article discusses the legal framework of the
government’s environmental function and analyzes the role of the
national policy in protection of wetlands. The problem is of interest
for it deals with the most important branch of economy – utilization
of Kazakhstan’s natural resources, protection of health and
environmental wellbeing of the population. Development of a longterm
environmental program addressing the protection of wetlands
represents the final stage of the government’s environmental policy,
and is a relatively new function for the public administration system.
It appeared due to the environmental measures that require immediate
decisions to be taken. It is an integral part of the effort in the field of
management of state-owned natural resource, as well as of the
measures aimed at efficient management of natural resources to avoid
their early depletion or contamination.