International Science Index
Comparative Study of Ad Hoc Routing Protocols in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks for Smart City
In this paper, we perform the investigation of some routing protocols in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) context. Indeed, we study the efficiency of protocols like Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV), Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Optimized Link State Routing convention (OLSR) and Vehicular Multi-hop algorithm for Stable Clustering (VMASC) in terms of packet delivery ratio (PDR) and throughput. The performance evaluation and comparison between the studied protocols shows that the VMASC is the best protocols regarding fast data transmission and link stability in VANETs. The validation of all results is done by the NS3 simulator.
Detection of Black Holes in MANET Using Collaborative Watchdog with Fuzzy Logic
Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self-configuring network of mobile node connected without wires. A Fuzzy Logic Based Collaborative watchdog approach is used to reduce the detection time of misbehaved nodes and increase the overall truthfulness. This methodology will increase the secure efficient routing by detecting the Black Holes attacks. The simulation results proved that this method improved the energy, reduced the delay and also improved the overall performance of the detecting black hole attacks in MANET.
Performance Comparison of AODV and Soft AODV Routing Protocol
A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) represents a system of wireless mobile nodes that can self-organize freely and dynamically into arbitrary and temporary network topology. Unlike a wired network, wireless network interface has limited transmission range. Routing is the task of forwarding data packets from source to a given destination. Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol creates a path for a destination only when it required. This paper describes the implementation of AODV routing protocol using MATLAB-based Truetime simulator. In MANET's node movements are not fixed while they are random in nature. Hence intelligent techniques i.e. fuzzy and ANFIS are used to optimize the transmission range. In this paper, we compared the transmission range of AODV, fuzzy AODV and ANFIS AODV. For soft computing AODV, we have taken transmitted power and received threshold as input and transmission range as output. ANFIS gives better results as compared to fuzzy AODV.
Back Bone Node Based Black Hole Detection Mechanism in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
Mobile Ad hoc Network is a set of self-governing
nodes which communicate through wireless links. Dynamic topology
MANETs makes routing a challenging task. Various routing
protocols are there, but due to various fundamental characteristic
open medium, changing topology, distributed collaboration and
constrained capability, these protocols are tend to various types of
security attacks. Black hole is one among them. In this attack,
malicious node represents itself as having the shortest path to the
destination but that path not even exists. In this paper, we aim to
develop a routing protocol for detection and prevention of black hole
attack by modifying AODV routing protocol. This protocol is able to
detect and prevent the black hole attack. Simulation is done using
NS-2, which shows the improvement in network performance.
Performance Study of ZigBee-Based Wireless Sensor Networks
The IEEE 802.15.4 standard is designed for low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPAN) with focus on enabling wireless sensor networks. It aims to give a low data rate, low power consumption, and low cost wireless networking on the device-level communication. The objective of this study is to investigate the performance of IEEE 802.15.4 based networks using simulation tool. In this project the network simulator 2 NS2 was used to several performance measures of wireless sensor networks. Three scenarios were considered, multi hop network with a single coordinator, star topology, and an ad hoc on demand distance vector AODV. Results such as packet delivery ratio, hop delay, and number of collisions are obtained from these scenarios.
Broadcasting Mechanism with Less Flooding Packets by Optimally Constructing Forwarding and Non-Forwarding Nodes in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
The conventional routing protocol designed for MANET fail to handle dynamic movement and self-starting behavior of the node effectively. Every node in MANET is considered as forward as well receiver node and all of them participate in routing the packet from source to the destination. While the interconnection topology is highly dynamic, the performance of the most of the routing protocol is not encouraging. In this paper, a reliable broadcast approach for MANET is proposed for improving the transmission rate. The MANET is considered with asymmetric characteristics and the properties of the source and destination nodes are different. The non-forwarding node list is generated with a downstream node and they do not participate in the routing. While the forwarding and non-forwarding node is constructed in a conventional way, the number of nodes in non-forwarding list is more and increases the load. In this work, we construct the forwarding and non-forwarding node optimally so that the flooding and broadcasting is reduced to certain extent. The forwarded packet is considered as acknowledgements and the non-forwarding nodes explicitly send the acknowledgements to the source. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated in NS2 environment. Since the proposed approach reduces the flooding, we have considered functionality of the proposed approach with AODV variants. The effect of network density on the overhead and collision rate is considered for performance evaluation. The performance is compared with the AODV variants found that the proposed approach outperforms all the variants.
An Enhanced AODV Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks
An enhanced ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing (E-AODV) protocol for control system applications in wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs) is proposed. Our routing algorithm is designed by considering both wireless network communication and the control system aspects. Control system error and network delay are the main selection criteria in our routing protocol. The control and communication performance is evaluated on multi-hop IEEE 802.15.4 networks for building-temperature control systems. The Gilbert-Elliott error model is employed to simulate packet loss in wireless networks. The simulation results demonstrate that the E-AODV routing approach can significantly improve the communication performance better than an original AODV routing under various packet loss rates. However, the control performance result by our approach is not much improved compared with the AODV routing solution.
Mobile Ad Hoc Networks and It’s Routing Protocols
A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self configuring network, without any centralized control. The topology of this network is not always defined. The main objective of this paper is to introduce the fundamental concepts of MANETs to the researchers and practitioners, who are involved in the work in the area of modeling and simulation of MANETs. This paper begins with an overview of mobile ad hoc networks. Then it proceeds with the overview of routing protocols used in the MANETS, their properties and simulation methods. A brief tabular comparison between the routing protocols is also given in this paper considering different routing protocol parameters. This paper introduces a new routing scheme developed by the use of evolutionary algorithms (EA) and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) which will be used for getting the optimized output of MANET. In this paper cryptographic technique, ceaser cipher is also employed for making the optimized route secure.
Low Latency Routing Algorithm for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Ad-Hoc Networks
In this paper, we proposed a new routing protocol for
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) that equipped with directional
antenna. We named this protocol Directional Optimized Link State
Routing Protocol (DOLSR). This protocol is based on the well
known protocol that is called Optimized Link State Routing Protocol
(OLSR). We focused in our protocol on the multipoint relay (MPR)
concept which is the most important feature of this protocol. We
developed a heuristic that allows DOLSR protocol to minimize
the number of the multipoint relays. With this new protocol the
number of overhead packets will be reduced and the End-to-End
delay of the network will also be minimized. We showed through
simulation that our protocol outperformed Optimized Link State
Routing Protocol, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol and Ad-
Hoc On demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol in
reducing the End-to-End delay and enhancing the overall
throughput. Our evaluation of the previous protocols was based
on the OPNET network simulation tool.
A Beacon Based Priority Routing Scheme for Solar Power Plants in WSNs
Solar power plants(SPPs) have shown a lot of good outcomes
in providing a various functions depending on industrial expectations by
deploying ad-hoc networking with helps of light loaded and battery powered
sensor nodes. In particular, it is strongly requested to develop an algorithm to
deriver the sensing data from the end node of solar power plants to the sink node
on time. In this paper, based on the above observation we have proposed an
IEEE802.15.4 based self routing scheme for solar power plants. The proposed
beacon based priority routing Algorithm (BPRA) scheme utilizes beacon
periods in sending message with embedding the high priority data and thus
provides high quality of service(QoS) in the given criteria. The performance
measures are the packet Throughput, delivery, latency, total energy
consumption. Simulation results under TinyOS Simulator(TOSSIM) have
shown the proposed scheme outcome the conventional Ad hoc On-Demand
Distance Vector(AODV) Routing in solar power plants.
New Multipath Node-Disjoint Routing Based on AODV Protocol
Today, node-disjoint routing becomes inessential
technique in communication of packets among various nodes in
networks. Meanwhile AODV (Ad Hoc On-demand Multipath
Distance Vector) creates single-path route between a pair of source
and destination nodes. Some researches has done so far to make
multipath node-disjoint routing based on AODV protocol. But
however their overhead and end-to-end delay are relatively high,
while the detail of their code is not available too. This paper proposes
a new approach of multipath node-disjoint routing based on AODV
protocol. Then the algorithm of analytical model is presented. The
extensive results of this algorithm will be presented in the next paper.
Performance Comparison for AODV, DSR and DSDV W.R.T. CBR and TCP in Large Networks
Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a wireless ad hoc self-configuring network of mobile routers (and associated hosts) connected by wireless links, the union of which forms an arbitrary topology, cause of the random mobility of the nodes. In this paper, an attempt has been made to compare these three protocols DSDV, AODV and DSR on the performance basis under different traffic protocols namely CBR and TCP in a large network. The simulation tool is NS2, the scenarios are made to see the effect of pause times. The results presented in this paper clearly indicate that the different protocols behave differently under different pause times. Also, the results show the main characteristics of different traffic protocols operating on MANETs and thus select the best protocol on each scenario.
Performance of QoS Parameters in MANET Application Traffics in Large Scale Scenarios
A mobile Ad-hoc network consists of wireless nodes
communicating without the need for a centralized administration. A
user can move anytime in an ad hoc scenario and, as a result, such a
network needs to have routing protocols which can adopt
dynamically changing topology. To accomplish this, a number of ad
hoc routing protocols have been proposed and implemented, which
include DSR, OLSR and AODV. This paper presents a study on the
QoS parameters for MANET application traffics in large-scale
scenarios with 50 and 120 nodes. The application traffics analyzed in
this study is File Transfer Protocol (FTP). In large scale networks
(120 nodes) OLSR shows better performance and in smaller scale
networks (50 nodes)AODV shows less packet drop rate and OLSR
shows better throughput.
Simulation Study for Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols in Mobile Adhoc Network
Due to insufficient frequency band and tremendous growth of the mobile users, complex computation is needed for the use of resources. Long distance communication began with the introduction of telegraphs and simple coded pulses, which were used to transmit short messages. Since then numerous advances have rendered reliable transfer of information both easier and quicker. Wireless network refers to any type of computer network that is wireless, and is commonly associated with a telecommunications network whose interconnections between nodes is implemented without the use of wires. Wireless network can be broadly categorized in infrastructure network and infrastructure less network. Infrastructure network is one in which we have a base station to serve the mobile users and in the infrastructure less network is one in which no infrastructure is available to serve the mobile users this kind of networks are also known as mobile Adhoc networks. In this paper we have simulated the result for different scenarios with protocols like AODV and DSR; we simulated the result for throughput, delay and receiving traffic in the given scenario.
An Energy Reverse AODV Routing Protocol in Ad Hoc Mobile Networks
In this paper we present a full performance analysis of an energy conserving routing protocol in mobile ad hoc network, named ER-AODV (Energy Reverse Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector routing). ER-AODV is a reactive routing protocol based on a policy which combines two mechanisms used in the basic AODV protocol. AODV and most of the on demand ad hoc routing protocols use single route reply along reverse path. Rapid change of topology causes that the route reply could not arrive to the source node, i.e. after a source node sends several route request messages, the node obtains a reply message, and this increases in power consumption. To avoid these problems, we propose a mechanism which tries multiple route replies. The second mechanism proposes a new adaptive approach which seeks to incorporate the metric "residual energy " in the process route selection, Indeed the residual energy of mobile nodes were considered when making routing decisions. The results of simulation show that protocol ER-AODV answers a better energy conservation.
Performance Comparison of Single and Multi-Path Routing Protocol in MANET with Selfish Behaviors
Mobile Ad Hoc network is an infrastructure less
network which operates with the coordination of each node. Each node
believes to help another node, by forwarding its data to/from another
node. Unlike a wired network, nodes in an ad hoc network are resource
(i.e. battery, bandwidth computational capability and so on)
constrained. Such dependability of one node to another and limited
resources of nodes can result in non cooperation by any node to
accumulate its resources. Such non cooperation is known as selfish
This paper discusses the performance analysis of very well known
MANET single-path (i.e. AODV) and multi-path (i.e. AOMDV)
routing protocol, in the presence of selfish behaviors. Along with
existing selfish behaviors, a new variation is also studied. Extensive
simulations were carried out using ns-2 and the study concluded that
the multi-path protocol (i.e. AOMDV) with link disjoint configuration
outperforms the other two configurations.
Performance Evaluation of AOMDV-PAMAC Protocols for Ad Hoc Networks
Power consumption of nodes in ad hoc networks is a
critical issue as they predominantly operate on batteries. In order to
improve the lifetime of an ad hoc network, all the nodes must be
utilized evenly and the power required for connections must be
minimized. In this project a link layer algorithm known as Power
Aware medium Access Control (PAMAC) protocol is proposed
which enables the network layer to select a route with minimum total
power requirement among the possible routes between a source and a
destination provided all nodes in the routes have battery capacity
above a threshold. When the battery capacity goes below a
predefined threshold, routes going through these nodes will be
avoided and these nodes will act only as source and destination.
Further, the first few nodes whose battery power drained to the set
threshold value are pushed to the exterior part of the network and the
nodes in the exterior are brought to the interior. Since less total
power is required to forward packets for each connection. The
network layer protocol AOMDV is basically an extension to the
AODV routing protocol. AOMDV is designed to form multiple
routes to the destination and it also avoid the loop formation so that it
reduces the unnecessary congestion to the channel. In this project, the
performance of AOMDV is evaluated using PAMAC as a MAC layer
protocol and the average power consumption, throughput and
average end to end delay of the network are calculated and the results
are compared with that of the other network layer protocol AODV.
Trust Based Energy Aware Reliable Reactive Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
Trust and Energy consumption is the most challenging
issue in routing protocol design for Mobile ad hoc networks
(MANETs), since mobile nodes are battery powered and nodes
behaviour are unpredictable. Furthermore replacing and recharging
batteries and making nodes co-operative is often impossible in
critical environments like military applications. In this paper, we
propose a trust based energy aware routing model in MANET.
During route discovery, node with more trust and maximum energy
capacity is selected as a router based on a parameter called
'Reliability'. Route request from the source is accepted by a node
only if its reliability is high. Otherwise, the route request is
discarded. This approach forms a reliable route from source to
destination thus increasing network life time, improving energy
utilization and decreasing number of packet loss during transmission.
Performance Analysis of Flooding Attack Prevention Algorithm in MANETs
The lack of any centralized infrastructure in mobile ad
hoc networks (MANET) is one of the greatest security concerns in
the deployment of wireless networks. Thus communication in
MANET functions properly only if the participating nodes cooperate
in routing without any malicious intention. However, some of the
nodes may be malicious in their behavior, by indulging in flooding
attacks on their neighbors. Some others may act malicious by
launching active security attacks like denial of service. This paper
addresses few related works done on trust evaluation and
establishment in ad hoc networks. Related works on flooding attack
prevention are reviewed. A new trust approach based on the extent of
friendship between the nodes is proposed which makes the nodes to
co-operate and prevent flooding attacks in an ad hoc environment.
The performance of the trust algorithm is tested in an ad hoc network
implementing the Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV)
Performance Comparison and Analysis of Table-Driven and On-Demand Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks
Mobile ad hoc network is a collection of mobile
nodes communicating through wireless channels without any existing
network infrastructure or centralized administration. Because of the
limited transmission range of wireless network interfaces, multiple
"hops" may be needed to exchange data across the network. In order
to facilitate communication within the network, a routing protocol is
used to discover routes between nodes. The primary goal of such an
ad hoc network routing protocol is correct and efficient route
establishment between a pair of nodes so that messages may be
delivered in a timely manner. Route construction should be done
with a minimum of overhead and bandwidth consumption. This paper
examines two routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks– the
Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), the table- driven
protocol and the Ad hoc On- Demand Distance Vector routing
(AODV), an On –Demand protocol and evaluates both protocols
based on packet delivery fraction, normalized routing load, average
delay and throughput while varying number of nodes, speed and
Wormhole Attack Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks
The nature of wireless ad hoc and sensor networks
make them very attractive to attackers. One of the most popular and
serious attacks in wireless ad hoc networks is wormhole attack and
most proposed protocols to defend against this attack used
positioning devices, synchronized clocks, or directional antennas.
This paper analyzes the nature of wormhole attack and existing
methods of defending mechanism and then proposes round trip time
(RTT) and neighbor numbers based wormhole detection mechanism.
The consideration of proposed mechanism is the RTT between two
successive nodes and those nodes- neighbor number which is needed
to compare those values of other successive nodes. The identification
of wormhole attacks is based on the two faces. The first consideration
is that the transmission time between two wormhole attack affected
nodes is considerable higher than that between two normal neighbor
nodes. The second detection mechanism is based on the fact that by
introducing new links into the network, the adversary increases the
number of neighbors of the nodes within its radius. This system does
not require any specific hardware, has good performance and little
overhead and also does not consume extra energy. The proposed
system is designed in ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV)
routing protocol and analysis and simulations of the proposed system
are performed in network simulator (ns-2).
Estimation of Broadcast Probability in Wireless Adhoc Networks
Most routing protocols (DSR, AODV etc.) that have
been designed for wireless adhoc networks incorporate the broadcasting
operation in their route discovery scheme. Probabilistic broadcasting
techniques have been developed to optimize the broadcast operation
which is otherwise very expensive in terms of the redundancy
and the traffic it generates. In this paper we have explored percolation
theory to gain a different perspective on probabilistic broadcasting
schemes which have been actively researched in the recent years.
This theory has helped us estimate the value of broadcast probability
in a wireless adhoc network as a function of the size of the network.
We also show that, operating at those optimal values of broadcast
probability there is at least 25-30% reduction in packet regeneration
during successful broadcasting.
Addressing Security Concerns of Data Exchange in AODV Protocol
The Ad Hoc on demand distance vector (AODV) routing protocol is designed for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). AODV offers quick adaptation to dynamic link conditions; it is characterized by low memory overhead and low network utilization. The security issues related to the protocol remain challenging for the wireless network designers. Numerous schemes have been proposed for establishing secure communication between end users, these schemes identify that the secure operation of AODV is a bi tier task (routing and secure exchange of information at separate levels). Our endeavor in this paper would focus on achieving the routing and secure data exchange in a single step. This will facilitate the user nodes to perform routing, mutual authentications, generation and secure exchange of session key in one step thus ensuring confidentiality, integrity and authentication of data exchange in a more suitable way.
Reduction of Overheads with Dynamic Caching in Fixed AODV based MANETs
In this paper we show that adjusting ART in accordance with static network scenario can substantially improve the performance of AODV by reducing control overheads. We explain the relationship of control overheads with network size and request patterns of the users. Through simulation we show that making ART proportionate to network static time reduces the amount of control overheads independent of network size and user request patterns.
Integrated Energy-Aware Mechanism for MANETs using On-demand Routing
Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) are multi-hop
wireless networks in which all nodes cooperatively maintain network
connectivity. In such a multi-hop wireless network, every node may
be required to perform routing in order to achieve end-to-end
communication among nodes. These networks are energy constrained
as most ad hoc mobile nodes today operate with limited battery
power. Hence, it is important to minimize the energy consumption of
the entire network in order to maximize the lifetime of ad hoc
networks. In this paper, a mechanism involving the integration of
load balancing approach and transmission power control approach is
introduced to maximize the life-span of MANETs. The mechanism is
applied on Ad hoc On-demand Vector (AODV) protocol to make it
as energy aware AODV (EA_AODV). The simulation is carried out
using GloMoSim2.03 simulator. The results show that the proposed
mechanism reduces the average required transmission energy per
packet compared to the standard AODV.
The Effects of Speed on the Performance of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks
Mobile ad hoc network is a collection of mobile
nodes communicating through wireless channels without any
existing network infrastructure or centralized administration.
Because of the limited transmission range of wireless network
interfaces, multiple "hops" may be needed to exchange data
across the network. Consequently, many routing algorithms
have come into existence to satisfy the needs of
communications in such networks. Researchers have
conducted many simulations comparing the performance of
these routing protocols under various conditions and
constraints. One question that arises is whether speed of nodes
affects the relative performance of routing protocols being
studied. This paper addresses the question by simulating two
routing protocols AODV and DSDV. Protocols were
simulated using the ns-2 and were compared in terms of
packet delivery fraction, normalized routing load and average
delay, while varying number of nodes, and speed.
Impact of MAC Layer on the Performance of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad hoc Networks
Mobile Ad hoc Networks is an autonomous system of
mobile nodes connected by multi-hop wireless links without
centralized infrastructure support. As mobile communication gains
popularity, the need for suitable ad hoc routing protocols will
continue to grow. Efficient dynamic routing is an important research
challenge in such a network. Bandwidth constrained mobile devices
use on-demand approach in their routing protocols because of its
effectiveness and efficiency. Many researchers have conducted
numerous simulations for comparing the performance of these
protocols under varying conditions and constraints. Most of them are
not aware of MAC Protocols, which will impact the relative
performance of routing protocols considered in different network
scenarios. In this paper we investigate the choice of MAC protocols
affects the relative performance of ad hoc routing protocols under
different scenarios. We have evaluated the performance of these
protocols using NS2 simulations. Our results show that the
performance of routing protocols of ad hoc networks will suffer when
run over different MAC Layer protocols.
Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols For High Density Ad Hoc Networks based on Qos by GlomoSim Simulator
Ad hoc networks are characterized by multihop wireless connectivity, frequently changing network topology and the need for efficient dynamic routing protocols. We compare the performance of three routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks: Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) , Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV), location-aided routing(LAR1).The performance differentials are analyzed using varying network load, mobility, and network size. We simulate protocols with GLOMOSIM simulator. Based on the observations, we make recommendations about when the performance of either protocol can be best.
Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols for High Density Ad Hoc Networks Based on Energy Consumption by GlomoSim Simulator
Ad hoc networks are characterized by multihop wireless connectivity, frequently changing network topology and the need for efficient dynamic routing protocols. We compare the performance of three routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks: Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV), location-aided routing (LAR1).Our evaluation is based on energy consumption in mobile ad hoc networks. The performance differentials are analyzed using varying network load, mobility, and network size. We simulate protocols with GLOMOSIM simulator. Based on the observations, we make recommendations about when the performance of either protocol can be best.