Citizenship Norms and the Participation of Young Adults in a Democracy
Abstract:This paper explores the changing trend in citizenship
norms among young citizens from various ethnic groups in Malaysia
and the extent to which it influences the participation of young
citizens in political and civil issues. Embedded in democratic
constitutions are the rights and freedoms that accompany citizenship,
and these rights and freedoms include participation. Participation in
democracies should go beyond voting; it should include taking part in
the governance process. The political process is not at risk even
though politics does not work as it did in the past. A national sample
of 1697 respondents between the ages of 21 and 40 years were
interviewed in January 2011. The findings show that respondents
embrace an engaged-citizenship norm more than they do the
traditional duty-citizen norm. Among the ethnic groups, the Chinese
show lower means in both citizenship norms compared with other
ethnic groups, namely, the Malays and the Indians. The duty-citizen
norm correlates higher with political participation than with civic
participation. On the other hand, the engaged-citizen norm correlates
higher with civic participation than with political participation.
 Active citizenship (2007). Report of the Taskforce on Active
Citizenship. www.activecitizen.ie. Access on 6 March 2012
 Beck, U. & Beck-Germsheim, E. (2001). Individualization. London.
 Bernama. (2010). Political parties race to register new and young voters.
June 27, 2010. Access on 3 March 2012
 Bogard, K. & Sherrod, L. (2008). Allegiances and civic engagement in
diverse youth. Journal of Ethnicity and Culture, in press.
 Burawoy, M. (2008). ÔÇÿWhat is to be done? theses on the degradation of
social existence in a globalizing world-, Current Sociology 56(3): 351-
 Dalton, R (2006) . Citizenship norms and political participation in
America: the good news is ... the bad news is wrong. CDACS
Occasional Paper 2006-01 .
 Dalton, R. (2008). Citizenship norms and the expansion of political
participation . Political Studies. VOL 56, 76-98
 Fahmy, E. (2003). Social capital, social exclusion and political
participation in Britain. University of Bristol
 Hoikkala, T. (2009). The diversity of youth citizenships in the European
Union. Young. Vol. 17(1):5-24.
 Hopenhayn, M. (2001). Old and new forms of citizenship. CEPAL
 Isin, F. & Turner, B. (2002). Handbook of citizenship studies. Wilshire.
 Kim, S.H (2007). Media use, social capital and civic participation in
South Korea. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly. 84:477
 Marshall, T. (1950). Citizenship and social class and other essays.
Cambridge. Cambridge University Press
 Meijer, A. Burger, N. & Ebbers, W. (2009). Citizens4citizens: mapping
participatory practices on the internet. Electronic Journal of e-
Government, 7(1), 99 112.
 New Straits Times. 16 February 2012 . 'Encourage youth to register to
vote'. www.nst.com.my. Access on 3 March 2012
 New Straits Times. Feb 19, 2012.. Staying neutral, indifference
reasons youths not registered as voters: Survey. www.nst.com.my.
Access on 3 March 2012
 Norris, P. (2003). Democratic phoenix: Reinventing political activism.
New York. Cambridge University Press.
 Pintor and Gratschew (2002). Voters Turnout Since 1945: A Global
Report. Stockholm. International IDEA.
 Putnam, R. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and renewal of
American community. New York. Simon and Schuster.
 Rowe, G. & Frewer. L. (2000). Public participation methods: a
framework for evaluation. Science Technology Human Values Winter
 Samsudin A. Rahim, Latiffah Pawanteh & Ali Salman. (2011). Digital
Inclusion: The Way Forward for Equality in a Multiethnic Society The
Innovation Journal: The Public Sector Innovation Journal. Vol. 16(3),
2011, article 11.
 Sherrod. L. (2008). Adolescents- perceptions of rights as reflected in
their views of citizenship. Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 64, No. 4, 2008,
 www.idea.int. Voter turnout data for Malaysia. Access on 4 March 2012
 www.infoplease.com. National Voter Turnout in Federal Elections:
 www.ukpolitical.info. European parliament election turnout 1979 -
 www.usgovtinfo.about.com. Survey answers, why don't more
Americans vote? Access on 4 March
 Zukin, C, Andolina, M, Jenkins, K. & Delli Carpini, D. (2006). A New
Engagement? Political participation, civic life, and the changing
American citizen. New York: Oxford University Press