International Science Index


Evaluation of Toxic Elements in Thai Rice Samples

Abstract:Toxic elements in rice samples are great concern in Thailand because rice (Oryza sativa) is a staple food for Thai people. Furthermore, rice is an economic crop of Thailand for export. In this study, the concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in rice samples collected from the paddy fields in the northern, northeastern and southern regions of Thailand were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The mean concentrations of As, Cd and Pb in 55 rice samples were 0.112±0.056, 0.029±0.037 and 0.031±0.033 mg kg-1, respectively. All rice samples showed As, Cd and Pb lower than the limit data of Codex. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of As, Cd, and Pb from rice consumption were 0.026±0.013, 0.007±0.009 and 0.007±0.008 mg day-1, respectively. The percentage contribution to Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) values of As, Cd and Pb for Thai male (body weight of 69 kg) was 17.6%, 9.7%, and 2.9%, respectively, and for Thai female (body weight of 57 kg) was 21.3%, 11.7% and 3.5%, respectively. The findings indicated that all studied rice samples are safe for consumption.
[1] X. Hang, H. Wang, J. Zhou, C. Ma, C. Du, X. Chen, “Risk assessment of potentially toxic element pollution in soils and rice (Oryza sativa) in a typical area of the Yangtze River Delta”, Environ. Pollut. vol. 157, pp. 2542-2549, 2009.
[2] M. Nadimi-Goki, M. Wahsha, C. Bini, T. Kato, G. Vianello, L. V. Antisari, “Assessment of total soil and plant elements in rice-based production systems in NE Italy.”, J. Geochem. Explor. vol. 147, pp. 200-214, 2014.
[3] L. Ma, L. Wang, Y. Jia, Z. Yang, “Arsenic speciation in locally grown rice grains from Hunan Province, China: Spatial distribution and potential health risk”, Sci. Total Environ. vol. 557-558, pp. 438-444, 2016.
[4] A. Shrivastava, A. Barla, S. Singh, S. Mandraha, S. Bose, “Arsenic contamination in agricultural soils of Bengal deltaic region of West Bengal and its higher assimilation in monsoon rice” J. Hazard. Mater. vol. 324, pp. 526-534, 2017.
[5] United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Arsenic, Inorganic; Environmental Protection Agency, Integrated Risk Information System: Washington, DC, USA, 1993; CASRN 7440-38-2.
[6] United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Cadmium; Environmental Protection Agency, Integrated Risk Information System: Washington, DC, USA, 1989; CASRN 7440-43-9.
[7] United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Lead and Compounds (Inorganic); Environmental Protection Agency, Integrated Risk Information System: Washington, DC, USA, 2004; CASRN 7439-92-1.
[8] M. Parengam, K. Judprasong, S. Srianujata, S. Jittinandana, S. Laoharojanaphand, A. Busamongkol, “Study of nutrients and toxic minerals in rice and legumes by instrumental neutron activation analysis and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry”, J. Food Compos. Anal. vol. 23, pp. 340-345, 2010.
[9] P. Cheajesadagul, C. Arnaudguilhem, J. Shiowatana, A. Siripinyanond, J. Szpunar, “Discrimination of geographical origin of rice based on multi-element fingerprinting by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.”, Food Chem, vol. 141, pp. 3504-3509, 2013.
[10] W. Srinuttrakul, A. Busamongkol, “Elemental analysis of brown rice by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis”, Enrgy. Proced. vol. 56, pp. 85-91, 2014.
[11] National Statistical Office and Office of Agricultural Economics of the Kingdom of Thailand 2012 Food insecurity assessment at national and subnational levels in Thailand, 2011, Bangkok, Thailand.
[12] (accessed August 1, 2017).
[13] H. Tsukada, H. Hasegawa, A. Takeda, S. Hisamatsu, “Concentrations of major and trace elements in polished rice and paddy soils collected in Aomori, Japan”. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Ch. vol. 273, pp. 199–203, 2007.
[14] S. Uchida, K. Tagami, I. Hirai, “Soil-to-plant transfer factors of stable elements and occurring radionuclides: (2) Rice collected in Japan”, J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. Vol. 44, pp. 779-790, May 2007.
[15] A. Gonzálvez, S. Armenta, M. de la Guardia, “Geographical traceability of “Arròs de Valencia” rice grain based on mineral element composition”, Food Chem. vol. 126, pp. 1254-1260, 2011.
[16] E. P. Nardi, F. S. Evangelista, L. Tormen, T. D. Saint´Pierre, A. J. Curtius, S. S. de Souza, F. B. Jr. “The use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the determination of toxic and essential elements in different types of food samples”, Food Chem. vol. 112, pp. 727-732, 2009.
[17] J. M. R. Antoine, L. A. Hoo Fung, C. N. Grant, H. T. Dennis, G. C. Lalor, “Dietary intake of minerals and trace elements in rice on the Jamaican market”, J. Food Compos. Anal. vol. 26, pp. 111-21, 2012.
[18] S. Kelly, M. Baxter, S. Chapman, C. Rhodes, J. Dennis, P. Brereton, “The application of isotopic and elemental analysis to determine the geographical origin of premium long grain rice.”, Eur. Food Res. Technol. vol. 214, pp. 72-78, 2002.
[19] FAO-Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Report of the Eight Session of the Codex Committee on Contaminants in Foods, 2014.
[20] EFSA, Dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic in the European population. EFSA Journal 2014, vol. 12(3):3597, 68 pp. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2014.3597
[21] Codex, Codex General Standard for Contaminants and Toxins in Food and Feed. Codex Alimentarius Commission, Rome, Italy, 1995 (Codex Standard 193-1995).
[22] JECFA, Joint FAO/WHO food standards programme Codex Committee on contaminants in foods: Working document for information and use in discussions related to contaminants and toxins in the GSCTFF, 2011, pp. 89.