Vitamin D Deficiency and Insufficiency in Postmenopausal Women with Obesity
Deficiency and insufficiency of Vitamin D is a pandemic of the 21st century. Obesity patients have a lower level of vitamin D, but the literature data are contradictory. The purpose of this study is to investigate deficiency and insufficiency vitamin D in postmenopausal women with obesity. We examined 1007 women aged 50-89 years. Mean age was 65.74±8.61 years; mean height was 1.61±0.07 m; mean weight was 70.65±13.50 kg; mean body mass index was 27.27±4.86 kg/m2, and mean 25(OH) D levels in serum was 26.00±12.00 nmol/l. The women were divided into the following six groups depending on body mass index: I group – 338 women with normal body weight, II group – 16 women with insufficient body weight, III group – 382 women with excessive body weight, IV group – 199 women with obesity of class I, V group – 60 women with obesity of class II, and VI group – 12 women with obesity of class III. Level of 25(OH)D in serum was measured by means of an electrochemiluminescent method - Elecsys 2010 analyzer (Roche Diagnostics, Germany) and cobas test-systems. 34.4% of the examined women have deficiency of vitamin D and 31.4% insufficiency. Women with obesity of class I (23.60±10.24 ng/ml) and obese of class II (22.38±10.34 ng/ml) had significantly lower levels of 25 (OH) D compared to women with normal body weight (28.24±12.99 ng/ml), p=0.00003. In women with obesity, BMI significantly influences vitamin D level, and this influence does not depend on the season.
 N. M. Al-Daghri, F. R. Guerini, O. S. Al-Attas, M. S. Alokail “Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Obesity and Inflammosome Activity,” PLoS One. July 14, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102141.
 L. Gonzalez; G. Ramos-Trautmann; G. M. Diaz-Luquis; C. M. Perez; C. Palacios “Vitamin D status is inversely associated with obesity in a clinic-based sample in Puerto Rico,” Nutr. Res. 2015, vol. 35, pp. 287–293.
 M. Pereira-Santos; P. R. Costa; A. M. Assis; C. A. Santos; D. B. Santos “Obesity and vitamin D deficiency: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Obes. Rev. 2015, vol. 16, pp. 341–349.
 V. Rontoyann, J. Avila, S. Kaul “Association between Obesity and Serum 25(OH)D Concentrations in Older Mexican Adults,” Nutrients, 2017, vol. 9, pp. 92-97.
 L. Samuel; L. N. Borrell “The effect of body mass index on adequacy of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in US adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 to 2006,” Ann. Epidemiol. 2014, vol. 24, pp. 781–784.
 S. Soskic; E. Stokic, E. R. Isenovic “The relationship between vitamin D and obesity,” Curr. Med. Res. Opin. 2014, vol. 30, pp. 1197–1199.
 Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity//Available online: http://www.euro.who.int/ru/health-topics/disease-prevention/nutrition/
 V. V. Povoroznyuk, N. I. Balatska, V. Y. Muts, F. V. Klymovytsky, O. V. Synenky “Vitamin D deficiency in Ukraine: A demographic and seasonal analysis,” Gerontologija 2012, vol. 13(4), pp. 191–198.
 V. Povoroznyuk, P. Pludowski. Defitsyt i nedostatnistʹ vitaminu D: epidemiolohiya, diahnostyka, profilaktyka ta likuvannya (Vitamin D deficiency and deficiency: epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention and treatment), Donetsk, 2014. 262 p. (In Ukrainian).
 M. F. Holick, N. C. Binkley, H. A. Bischoff-Ferrari, et al. “Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline,” J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011, vol. 96(7), pp. 1911-193. DOI: 10.1210/jc.2011-0385.