International Science Index


Oxidantantioxidant Status in Calves Supplemented with Green Tea Extract


The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of green tea extract on serum oxidant and antioxidant profile, liver and kidney function. 40 Friesian calves are included in this study and allocated into two groups: Group I (n=20) clinically healthy calves showing no clinical abnormalities, not receiving any treatment and served as control; group II (n=20) received green tea extract (GTE) for 30 days. Non-significant changes in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were detected between groups, on contrary, serum creatinine and activities of liver enzymes aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were significantly different between two groups. There were significant increases in the mean values of serum antioxidative parameters (total antioxidant capacity, catalase, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase) in group II. Whereas, the activity of lipid peroxidase significantly decreased in GTE treated calves when compared to control.

[1] Gupta, D. A., Bhaskar, D. J., Gupta, R. K., Karim, B., Jain, A. and Dalai, D. R. Green tea: a review on its natural anti-oxidant therapy and cariostatic benefits. Biol. Sci. Pharm., Res. 2014. 2, 8–12.
[2] Jigisha, A., Nishant, R., Navin, K.and Pankaj, G. Green tea: a magical herb with miraculous outcomes. Int. Res. J. Pharm., 2012. 3, 139–148.
[3] Serafini, M., Del Rio, D., Yao, D. N., Bettuzzi, S.and Peluso, I. “Health benefits of tea”, in Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects, 2nd Edn, Chapter 12, eds I. F. F. Benzie and S. Wachtel-Galor (Boca Rotan, FL: CRC Press), 2011. 239–262.
[4] Steinmann, J., Buer, J., Pietschmann, T. and Steinmann, E. Anti-infective properties of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (ECGC), a component of green tea. Br. J. Pharmacol., 2013. 168, 1059–1073.
[5] Nazifi, S., M. Saeb, N. Ghafari, I. Razeghian, M. Razavi, F. Vosoughi and H. Orangi: Reference values of oxidative stress parameters in adult native Iranian goats. Bulgarian Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 2009. 12: 119-124.
[6] Ishihara, N.; Chu, D.C.; Akachi, S. and Juneja L.R.: Improvement of intestinal microflora balance and prevention of digestive and respiratory organ diseases in calves by green tea extracts. Livestock Production Science, 2001. 68(2):217-229 • March 2001.
[7] Guo Q., Zhao B., Li M., Shen S. and Xin W.: Studies on protective mechanisms of four components of green tea polyphenols against lipid peroxidation in synaptosomes. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1996. 1304, 210±222.
[8] Wang, H., Provan, G. J. and Helliwell, K. Tea flavonoids: their functions, utilization and analysis. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 2000. 11, p. 152-160.
[9] Horzic, D., Komes, D., Belscak, A, Ganic. K. K., Ivekovic, D. and Karlovic, D. The composition of polyphenols and methylxantine in teas and herbal infusions. Food Chem., 2009. 115: 441-448.
[10] Yen, G. C. and Chen, H. Y. Comparison of antimutagenic effect of various tea extracts (green, oolong, pouchong and black tea). J. Food Prot., 1994. 57, 54-58.
[11] Doumas, B. T. and Biggs, H. G. Determination of serum albumin, standard methods of clinical chemistry, Acad, Press. N.Y., 1972. 7: 175-188.
[12] Curtis, E. R., Silverman, L. M., Christensen, R. H. and Tietz N.W. Text book of clinical chemistry, 3rd Ed. C.A.P. 1995. p: 523-524.
[13] Young, D. S. Effect of drugs on clinical laboratory tests, 4th Ed. 1995. P: 3-190 to 3-211.
[14] Rock, R. C., Walker, W. G. and Jenning, C. D. Nitrogen metabolites and renal function. In: Tietz NW, ed. Fundamentals of clinical chemistry. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders” 1987. 669-704.
[15] Koracevic, D., Koracevic, G., Djordjevic, V., Andrejevic, S., Cosic, V. Method for the measurement of antioxidant activity in human fluids. Journal of clinical pathology, 2001. 54 (5), 356-361.
[16] Aebi, H. Catalase in vitro. Methods Enzymol. 1994.105:121–126.
[17] Ruiz-Larrea, M. B., Leal, A. M., Liza, M., Lacort, M. and De Groot, H. Antioxidant effects of estradiol and 2-hydroxyestradiol on iron induced lipid peroxidation of rat liver microsomes. Steroids, 1994.59: 383 – 388.
[18] Beutler, E., Duron, O. and Kelly, B. M. Improved method for the determination of blood glutathione. J. Lab. Clin. Med., 1963.61:882–90.
[19] Paglia, D. E. and and Valentine, W. N. Studies on the quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. J. Lab. Clin. Med., 1967. 70: 158 – 169.
[20] Nishikimi, M., Rao, N. A. and Yagi, K. The occurrence of superoxide anion in the reaction of reduced phenazine methosulfate and molecular oxygen. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 1972. 46 (2):849 – 854.
[21] SPSS, Statistical Package for Social Science, Computer Software, IBM, SPSS Ver. 16.0, SPSS Company, London, UK. 2008.
[22] MacKay, D. L., Blumberg, J. B. The Role of Tea in Human Health: An Update. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 2000.21, 1-13.
[23] Shereen, B. Gad and Doaa, M. Zaghloul. Beneficial Effects of Green Tea Extract on Liver and Kidney Functions, Ultrastructure, Lipid Profile and Hematological Parameters in Aged Male Rats. Global Veterinaria, 2013. 11 (2): 191-205.
[24] Lin, A. M., Chyi, B. Y., Wu, L. Y., Hwang, L. S., and Ho, L. T. The anti-oxidative property of green tea against iron-induced oxidative stress in rat brain. Chinese Journal of Physiology, 1998. 41: 189-94.
[25] Elshater, A. A., Salman, M. A. and Moussa, M. A. Effect of green tea consumption on level of glucose, lipid profile and kidney functions in alloxan induced-diabetic rats Egypt. Acad. J. biolog. Sci. 2008. 1(2): 125 – 134.
[26] Skrzydlewska, E., Ostrowska, J., Farbiszewski, R. and Michalak, K. Protective effect of green tea against lipid peroxidation in the rat liver, blood serum and the brain. Phytomedicine, 2002. 9:232-238.
[27] Abdel-Raheem, I.T., El-Sherbiny, G.A. and Taye, A. Green tea ameliorates renal oxidative damage induced by gentamicin in rats. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2010. 23(1): 21-28.
[28] Papp L.V., Holmgren A., and Khanna K.K: Selenium and selenoproteins in health and disease. Antioxid Redox Signal, 2010. 12:793–5.
[29] Phung O.J., Baker W.L., Matthews L.J., Lanosa M., Thorne A., Coleman C.I. : Effect of green tea catechins with or without caffeine on anthropometric measures: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2010. 91:73–81.
[30] Halliwell, B. and Gutteridge, J. M. C. Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine Oxford: Carendon Press. 1985.
[31] Abdel-Raheim, M. A. M., Enas, A. H. and Khaled, A.,E. Effect of green tea extract and vitamin c on oxidant or antioxidant. Indian J. Clin. Biochem, 2009. 24(3):280-287.
[32] Yokozawa, T., Nakagawa, T. and Kitani, K. Antioxidative activity of green tea polyphenol in cholesterol-fed rats. J Agric. Food Chem., 2002. 50:3549-3552.
[33] Valko M., Leibfritz D., Moncol J., Cronin M.T., Mazur M., and Telser J. : Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol., 2007. 39:44–84.
[34] Ramesh, E. Jayakumar, T., Elanchezhian, R., Sakthivel, M., Geraldine, P. and Thomas P.A. Green tea catechins, alleviate hepatic lipidemic-oxidative injury in Westar rats fed an atherogenic diet. Chem. Biol. Interact. 2009. 180:10–9.
[35] Kumar N, Kant R, and Maurya P.K. : Concentration-dependent effect of (−) epicatechin in hypertensive patients. Phytother Res., 2010. 24:1433–6.
[36] Babu, P. V., Sabitha, K. E. and Shyamaladevi, C. S. Green tea impedes dyslipidemia, lipid peroxidation, protein glycation and ameliorates Ca2+-ATPase and Na+/K+ -ATPase activity in the heart of streptozotocin diabetic rats. Chemico Biological Interaction, 2006.162(2): 157-164.
[37] Basu Arpita, Nancy M. Betts, Afework Mulugeta, Capella Tong, Emily Newman and Timothy J. Lyons. Green tea supplementation increases glutathione and plasma antioxidant capacity in adults with the metabolic syndrome. Nutr. Res., 2013. 33(3): 180–187.
[38] Yokozawa, T., Nakagawa, T., Lee, K. I., Cho, E. J., Terasawa, K. and Takeuchi, S. Effects of green tea tannin on cisplatin-induced nephropathy in LLC-PK1 cells and rats. J Pharm Pharmacol, 1999. 51:1325-1331.