International Science Index


Hardware-in-the-Loop Test for Automatic Voltage Regulator of Synchronous Condenser

Abstract:Automatic voltage regulator (AVR) plays an important role in volt/var control of synchronous condenser (SC) in power systems. Test AVR performance in steady-state and dynamic conditions in real grid is expensive, low efficiency, and hard to achieve. To address this issue, we implement hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) test for the AVR of SC to test the steady-state and dynamic performances of AVR in different operating conditions. Startup procedure of the system and voltage set point changes are studied to evaluate the AVR hardware response. Overexcitation, underexcitation, and AVR set point loss are tested to compare the performance of SC with the AVR hardware and that of simulation. The comparative results demonstrate how AVR will work in a real system. The results show HiL test is an effective approach for testing devices before deployment and is able to parameterize the controller with lower cost, higher efficiency, and more flexibility.
[1] Synchronous Condensers Application in Low Inertia Systems (SCAPP), 2014. (online). Available:
[2] Phoenix, 2015. (online). Available:
[3] O. Crciun, A. Florescu, S. Bacha, I. Munteanu, and A. I. Bratcu, “Hardware-in-the-loop testing of PV control systems using RT-Lab simulator,” in Proc. 2010 14th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE/PEMC), Ohrid, Sep. 6-8, 2010, pp. 1-6.
[4] K. Song, W. Liu, and G. Luo, “Permanent magnet synchronous motor field oriented control and HIL Simulation,” in Proc. 2008 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, Harbin, Sep. 3-5, 2008, pp. 1-6.
[5] M. S. Almas and L. Vanfretti, “RT-HIL testing of an excitation control system for oscillation damping using external stabilizing signals,” in Proc. 2015 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting, Denver, CO, Jul. 26-30, 2015, pp. 1-5.
[6] Y. Dong, L. Pan, D. Qiu, J. Tian, W. Wang, and W. Li, “Hardware-in-the-loop simulation and test of a control and protection system for MMC-based UPFC,” in Proc. 2016 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, Boston, MA, Jul. 17-21, 2016, pp. 1-5.
[7] M. Rakhshan, N. Vafamand, M. H. Khooban, F. blaabjerg, “Maximum power point tracking control of photovoltaic systems: A polynomial fuzzy model-based approach,” IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, to be published.
[8] L. Meng, S. Yang, L. Wang, Y. Liu, and F. Peng, “Hardware-in-loop test for automatic voltage regulator based on identification model,” in Proc. 2012 15th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE/PEMC), Novi Sad, Serbia, Sep. 4-6, 2012, pp. 2-6.
[9] F. Alvarez-Gonzalez, A. Griffo, B. Sen, and J. Wang, “Real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulation of permanent magnet synchronous motor drives under stator faults,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, to be published.
[10] X. H. Mai, S. K. Kwak, J. H. Jung, and K. A. Kim, “Comprehensive electric-thermal photovoltaic modeling for power hardware-in-the-loop simulation (PHILS) applications,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, to be published.
[11] M. Steurer, C. S. Edrington, M. Sloderbeck, W. Ren, and J. Langston, “A megawatt-scale power hardware-in-the-loop simulation setup for motor drives,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1254-1260, Apr. 2010.
[12] IEEE Std 421.5-2005, “IEEE recommended practice for excitation system models for power system stability studies,” New York, USA, Apr. 2006.
[13] RTDS, “RTDS hardware manual,” Jan. 2009. (online). Available: