International Science Index


A Comparison between Reagents Extracted from Tree Leaves for Spectrophotometric Determination of Hafnium(IV)


The main goal of this paper was to make use of green reagents as a substitute of perilous synthetic reagents and organic solvents for spectrophotometric determination of hafnium(IV). The extracts taken from six different kinds of tree leaves including Acer negundo, Ficus carica, Cerasus avium, Chimonanthus, Salix babylonica and Pinus brutia, were applied as green reagents for the experiments. In 6-M hydrochloric acid, hafnium reacted with the reagent to form a yellow product and showed maximum absorbance at 421 nm. Among tree leaves, Chimonanthus showed satisfactory results with a molar absorptivity value of 0.61 × 104 l mol-1 cm-1 and the method was linear in the 0.3-9 µg mL -1 concentration range. The detection limit value was 0.064 µg mL-1. The proposed method was simple, low cost, clean, and selective.

[1] S. Kalyanaraman and T. Fukazawa, “Spectrophotometric determination of zirconium and hafnium with 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol” Anal. Chem., vol. 55, pp. 2239-2241, 1983.
[2] Z. Marczenko, “Spectrophotometric Determination of Elements”; Wiley: New York, 1976.
[3] K. L. Cheng, “Determination of zirconium and hafnium with xylenol orange and methylthymol blue” Anal. Chim. Acta, vol. 28, pp. 41, 1963.
[4] R. Pribil and V. Vesely, “Determination of titanium, iron and aluminium in the presence of each other” Talanta, vol. 10, pp. 383-386, 1963.
[5] M. B. Pasti-Grigs, A. Paszcczynski, S. Goszynski and D. L. Crawford, “Influence of aromatic substitution pattern on azo dye degradability” Appl. Environ. Microbiol, vol. 58, pp. 3605-3613, 1992.
[6] P. T. Anastasia and J. Warner, “Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice” Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1998.
[7] P. T. Anastas and T. C. Williamson, “Green Chemistry: Frontiers in Benign Chemical Synthesis and Processes” Oxford University Press: New York, 1998.
[8] K. Larsen, H. Ibrahim, S. H. Khaw and L. G. Saw, “Gingers of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore; Kota Kinabalu: Natural History Publications”, Borneo, 1999.
[9] C. K. Lim, “Taxonomic notes on Elettariopsis Baker, and new taxa from Peninsular Malaysia & Thailand (J)” Folia Malaysiana, vol. 4, pp. 205-226, 2003.
[10] H. Ibrahim and F. M. Setyowati, “Plant resources of south-east Asia” Backhuys Publisher: Leiden, Netherlands, 1999.
[11] A. Boveiri Monji, E. Zolfonoun, and S. J. Ahmadi, “Application of water extract of slippery elm tree leaves as a natural reagent for selective spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of molybdenum(VI) in environmental water samples”, Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, vol. 91, pp. 1229–1235, 2009.