International Science Index


Cercarial Diversity in Freshwater Snails from Selected Freshwater Bodies and Its Implication for Veterinary and Public Health in Kaduna State, Nigeria


A study conducted to determine cercariae diversity and prevalence of trematode infection in freshwater snails from six freshwater bodies selected by systematic random sampling in Kaduna State was carried from January 2013 to December 2013. Freshwater snails and cercariae harvested from the study sites were morphologically identified. A total of 23,823 freshwater snails were collected from the six freshwater bodies: Bagoma dam, Gimbawa dam, Kangimi dam, Kubacha dam, Manchok water intake and Saminaka water intake. The observed freshwater snail species were: Melanoides tuberculata, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus globosus, Lymnaea natalensis, Physa sp., Cleopatra bulimoides, Bellamya unicolor and Lanistes varicus. The freshwater snails were exposed to artificial bright light from a 100 Watt electric bulb in the laboratory to induce cercarial shedding. Of the total freshwater snails collected, 10.55% released one or more types of cercariae. Seven morphological types of cercariae were shed by six freshwater snail species namely: Brevifurcate-apharyngeate distome, Amphistome, Gymnocephalus, Longifurcate-pharyngeate monostome, Longifurcate-pharyngeate distome, Echinostome and Xiphidio cercariae. Infection was monotype in most of the freshwater snails collected; however, Physa species presented a mixed infection with Gymnocephalus and Longifurcate-pharyngeate distome cercariae. B. globosus and B. pfeifferi were the most preferred intermediate hosts with the prevalence of 13.48% and 13.46%, respectively. The diversity and prevalence of cercariae varied among the six freshwater bodies with Manchok water intake having the highest infestation (14.3%) and the least recorded in Kangimi dam (3.9%). There was a correlation trend between the number of freshwater snails and trematode infection with Manchok exhibiting the highest and Bagoma none. The highest cercarial diversity was observed in B. pfeifferi and B. globosus with four morphotypes each, and the lowest was in M. tuberculata with one morphotype. The general distribution of freshwater snails and the trematode cercariae they shed suggests the risk of human and animals to trematodiasis in Manchok community. Public health education to raise awareness on individual and communal action that may control snail breeding sites, prevent transmission and provide access to treatment should be intensified.

[1] Otubanjo, O. (2013). Parasites of Man and Animals. Concepts publications Lagos, Nigeria. Pp. 252 – 344.
[2] Okaiyeto, S. O., Danbirni, S., Pewan, S. B., Allam, L; Akam, E. N., Sackey, A. K. B (2011). Strategic treatment of Fascioliasis in an integrated Diary farm in Kaduna state, a clinical experiment. International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances.
[3] Devkota, R., Budha, P. B., Gupta, R. (2011). Trematode cercariae infections in freshwater snails of Chitwan district, Central Nepal. Himalayan Journal of Science,7(9):9-14.
[4] Schmidt, G. D., Roberts L. S (2009). Roberts, S. L., Janoy J. J. (Ed). Foundations of parasitology, (8th Edition). McGraw Hills companies, Higher education: United Kingdom.Pp.201-277.
[5] WHO (2010). Proceedings of the 10th meeting of the Regional Network on Asian Schistosomiasis and other helminthes zoonoses, Wuxi, China. Regional office for Western Pacific, (WPRO), UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank Special Program.
[6] Brooks, D. R., O’Grady, R. T., Glen, D. R. (1985). Phylogenetic analysis of the Digenea (Platyhelminthes: Cercomeria) with comments on their adaptive radiation. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 63:411 – 442.
[7] Cheng, T. C. (1986). The Biology of Animal Parasites. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, London.
[8] Choubissa, S. L. (2010). Snails as Bioindicators for dreaded Trematodiasis disease. JournalofcommunicableDisease, 42(3): 223-226.
[9] Choubissa, S. L. (1986). The Biology of certain Larval Trematodes infecting freshwater snails of Lakes of Udaipur. Unpublished PhD thesis, M. L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur Rajasthan, India.
[10] Choubissa, S. L. (2008). Focus on Pathogenic Trematode cercariae infecting freshwater snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) on tribal region of Southern Rajasthan (India). Journal of Parasites diseases, 32(1):47-55.
[11] Combes, C., Fournier, A., Mone, H., Theron, M. (1994). Behaviours in trematode cercariae that enhance parasite transmission, Patterns and processes. Parasitology, 109:53 -513.
[12] National Population Commission (NPC) (2006). Federal Republic of Nigeria official gazette (2009). Printed and Published by the Federal Government printer, Abuja Nigeria. Volume 96: 30-31.
[13] Opisa, S., Odiere, M. R., Jura, W.G., Karanja, D. M. S., Mwinzi, P. N. M. (2011). Malacological survey and geographical distribution of vector snails for Schistosomiasiswithin informal settlements of Kisumu City, Western Kenya. Parasites and vector, 4:226.
[14] Darnish Bilharziasis Laboratory-World Health Organisation (1978): A field guide to African freshwater snails: West African Species 1: WHO snail identification centre, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
[15] Frandsen, F., Christensen N. O. (1984). An introductory guide to the identification of cercariae from African fresh water snails with special reference to cercariae of trematode species of medical and veterinary importance. Actatropica, 41: 181-202.
[16] Giovanelli, A., Vieira, M. V., Coelho Da Silva, CLPA. (2005). Interaction between the intermediate host of Schistosomiasis in Brazil, Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818) and a possible competitor, Melanoides tuberculata (Muller,1774): A field study. Journal of Molluscan Study 71:7-13.
[17] Duwa, M. R., Oyeyi, T. I. (2009). The role of Jakara Dam in the transmission of Schistosomiasis. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 2(1): 58-63.
[18] Jayawardena, U. A., Rajakaruna, R. S., Ameirasinghe, P. H. (2010). Cercariae of Trematodes in freshwater snails in three climatic zones in Srilanka. Ceylon Journal of Science (Biological Sciences), 39(2): 95-108.
[19] Arshad, G. M., Maqbool, A., Qamar, M. F., Bukhari, S. M. H., Hashmi, H. A., Ashraf, M. (2011). Prevalence and ecology of freshwater snails in some selected districts of southern Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Life and Social Sciences, 9 (1): 17 -20.
[20] Njoku-Tony, F. (2011). Effect of some physico-chemical parameters on abundance of intermediate snails of animal trematodes in Imo state, Nigeria. Researcher, 3(4): 15-21.
[21] Esch, G. W., Fernandez J. C. (1994). Snail – Trematode interactions and parasite community dynamics in aquatic systems: A review. American Mid. Nature, 131: 209 – 237.
[22] Begon, M, L., Haeper, L, Townsend, C. R. (1990). Ecology. Black well publishers, Oxford.
[23] WHO (2004). Helminthosis. Regional office of Western Pacific.
[24] Hiekal, F. A., EL-sokkary, M. Y. (1987). Survey on the larval Trematodes found in the freshwater snails in EdfinaBehera Governorate, Egypt. Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Science, 3(1):127-140.
[25] Gardner, M., Campbell, L. C. (1992). Parasites as probes for biodiversity. Journal of parasitology, 78:596-600.
[26] Smith, N. E. (2001). Spatial heterogeneity in recruitment of larval trematodes to snail intermediate hosts. Oecologia, 127:115-122.
[27] Owojori, O. J., Asaolu, S. O., Ofoezie, I. E. (2006). Ecology of freshwater snails in Opa reservoirs and research farm ponds at ObafemiAwolowo University Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences, 6(15):3004-3015.
[28] Kone, K., Bony, K. Y., Konan, K. F., Edia, O. E., Gnagne, T., Gourene, G. (2013). Freshwater snail dynamics focused on potential risk of using urine as fertilizer in Katiola, an endemic area of SchistosomiasisinIvory Coast, West Africa. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 1(5): 110-115.
[29] Nkwengulila, G., Kigadye E. S. P. (2005). Occurrence of Digenean larva in freshwater snails in Ruvu basin, Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of science, 31 (2).
[30] Ndassa, A., Mimpfoundi, R. (2005). The Mollusca inhabiting rice fields in Northern Cameroon and their role as intermediate hosts for Schistosomes. African Zoology, 40 (2): 223-232.
[31] Yakubu, N.; Galadima, M; and Yakubu, S. E., (2002). Seasonal changes in the distribution and infection rate of Schistosome intermediate hosts in River Kubanni and its tributaries. Bioscience Research Communications, 15(3):207-214.
[32] Oguoma, V. M., Ugorji, N. D., Okolo, K. V., Mbanefo, E. C., Umeh, J. M. (2010). Aquatic snail species of two adjoining rivers in Owerri, Imo state, South Eastern Nigeria. Animal Research International, 7(1): 1125-1127.
[33] Ismail, N. S., Arif, A. M. S. (1993). Population dynamics of Melanoides tuberculata (Thiaridae) snail in a Desert Spring, United Arab Emirates and infection with larval trematodes. Hydrobiologia,257(1):57 – 64.
[34] Sousa, W. P. (1992). Inter-specific interaction of larval trematode parasites of freshwater and marine snails. American Zoologist,32:583-592.
[35] Picard, D., Jousson, O. (2001). Genetic variability among cercariae of the schistosomatidae (Trematode: Digenea) Causing swimmer’s itch in Europe. Parasite, 8:237-242.
[36] Moema, E. B. E., King, P. H., Baker, C. (2008). Cercaria developing in Lymnaea natalensis Krauss 1848 collected in the vicinity of Pretoria, Gauteng Province South Africa. Journal of Veterinary Research, 75: 215-223.
[37] WHO (1999b). Report of the WHO informal consultation of Schistosomiasis control. Geneva December, 1998. WHO/CDS/SIP/99.2
[38] Chitsulo, L., Engela, D., Montresor, A., Savioli, L. (2000). The global status of Schistosomiasisand its control. Actatropica,77:41-51.
[39] Aliyu, A. A., Ajogi, I. A., Ajanusi, O.J., Reuben, R.C. (2014). Epidemiological Studies of Fasciolagigantica in cattle, Zaria, Nigeria using coprology and serology. Scholastic Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, 1(1):13-19.