International Science Index


Maize Tolerance to Natural and Artificial Infestation with Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Eggs

Abstract:Western corn rootworm – WCR (Diabrotica virgifera sp.virgifera, Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) is economically the most important pest of maize worldwide. WCR natural population is already very abundant on Serbian fields, and keeps increasing each year. Tolerance is recognized by larger root size and bigger root regrowth. Severe larval injuries cause lack of compensatory regrowth and lead to reduction of plant growth and yield. The aim of this research was to evaluate tolerance of commercial Serbian maize hybrid NS 640, under natural WCR infestation and under conditions of artificial infestation, and to obtain the information about its tolerance to WCR larval feeding in two consecutive years. Field experiments were conducted in 2015 and 2016, in Bečej (Vojvodina province, Serbia). In experimental field, 96 plants were selected, marked and arranged in 48 pairs. Each pair represented two plants. The first plant was artificially infested with 4 mL WCR egg suspension in agar (550 eggs plant-1) in the root zone (D plant). The second plant represented control plant (C plant) with injection of 4 mL distilled water in root zone. The experimental field was inspected weekly. A hybrid tolerance was assessed based on root injury level and root mass. Root injury was rated using the Node-Injury Scale 1-6, during the last field inspection (September – October). Comparing the root injuries on D and C plants in 2015, more severe damages were recorded on D plants (12 plants - rate 5 and 17 plants - rate 6) compared to C plants (2 plants - rate 5 and 8 plants - rate 6). Also, the highest number of plants with healthy roots (rate 1), was registered in the control (25 plants), while only 4 D plants were rated as injury level 1. In 2016, root injuries caused by WCR larvae on D and C plants did not differ significantly. The reason is the difference in climatic conditions between the years. The 2015 was extremely dry and more suitable for WCR larval development and movement in the soil, compared to 2016. Thus, more severe damages appeared on artificially infested plants (D plants). Root mass was in strong correlation with the level of root injury, but did not differ significantly between D and C plants, in both years.
[1] Bermond, G., M. Ciosi, E. Lombaert, A. Blin, M. Boriani, L. Furlan, S. Toepfer, and T. Guillemaud., “Secondary Contact and Admixture between Independently Invading Populations of the Western Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera in Europe,” Plos One7, e50129, 2012.
[2] Bača, F., “New member of harmful entomofauna of Yugoslavia Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae),”IWGO, News Letter, vol. XII (1-2), 21. (1993).
[3] Hummel, H.E., Dinnesen, S., Nedelev, T., Modic, S., Urek, G., Ulrichs, C., “Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte in confrontation mood: simultaneous geographical and host spectrum expansion in southeastern Slovenia,” Mitt. Dtsch. Ges.allg. angew. Ent 16: pp. 127 – 130, 2008.
[4] Baufeld, P and S. Enzian, “Simulation model spreading scenarios for Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) in case of Germany,” Proceedings of the XXI IWGO Conference, Legnaro, Italy. Veneto Agricoltura, pp. 63–67, 2001.
[5] Wesseler J. and Fall E.H., “Potential damage costs of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera infestation in Europe – the “no control” Scenario. Online at MPRA Paper No. 33231, 2010.Accessed on 27/02/2017.
[6] Ivezich, M., Raspudich, E., Majich, I., Tollefson, J., Brmez, M., Sarajlich, A., and Brkich, A., “Root compensation of seven maize hybrids due to Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte) Larval injury,” Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, vol17, no 1, pp. 107-115, 2011.
[7] Ciobanu, C., Şandor, M., Ciobanu, G., Domuţa, C., Samuel, A. D., Vuşcan, A., Chereji, I.: “Research regarding Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte (The Western Root Worm) control in sustainable agriculture,” Romanian Agricultural Research, no 26, pp.79-84, 2009.
[8] Chiang, H. C., “Bionomics of the northern and western corn rootworms,” Annual Reviews of Entomology, 18: 47-72. (1973).
[9] Kahler, A.L., Olnese, A.E., Sutter, G.R., Dybling, C.D., and Devine, O.J., “Root damage by western corn rootworm and nutrient content in maize,” Agron. J. 77, pp. 769-774, 1985.
[10] Gavlovski, J.E., Whitfield, G.H., and Ellis, C.R., “Effect of larvae of Western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Mechanical Root Pruning on Sap Flow and Growth of Corn,” J. Econ. Entomol. vol. 85, no 4, pp. 1434–1441, 1992.
[11] Tollefson J.J., “Evaluating maize for resistance to Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae),” Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, 110 Insectary Bldg., Ames, IA 50011, USA Maydica no 52, pp. 311–318, 2007.
[12] Kiss J, Edwards CR, Berger HK, Cate P, Cean M, Cheek S, Derron J, Festic H, Furlan L, Igrc-Barcic J, Ivanova I, Lammers W, Omelyuta V, Princzinger G, Reynaud P, Sivcev I, Sivicek P, Urek G, Vahala O, - Monitoring of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte) in Europe 1992-2003. In: Vidal S, Kuhlmann U, Edwards CR, eds. Western Corn Rootworm: Ecology and Management, pp. 29-39. 2005.
[13] Gray, M.E., and Steffey, K.L., “Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Larval Injury and Root Compensation of 12 Maize Hybrids: an Assessment of the Economic Injury Index. J. Econ. Entomol. 91(3): 723-740, 1998.
[14] Branson, T.F., “Larval feeding behavior and host plant resistance in maize,” pp.159-182. In J.L. Krysan and T.A. Miller (eds.), Methods for the study of pest Diabrotica. Springer, New York. 1986.
[15] Riedell, W.E., and Evenson, W. E., “Rootworm feeding tolerance in single-cross maize hybrids from different eras,” Crop Sci. no 33, pp. 951–955, 1993.
[16] Szalai, M., J. Kiss, S. Kövér, and S. Toepfer, “Simulating crop rotation strategies with a spatiotemporal lattice model to improve legislation for the management of the maize pest Diabrotica virgifera virgifera,” Agricultural Systems 124: 39-50, 2014.
[17] Spike, B. P. and Tollefson, J. J., “Relationship of root ratings, root size, and root regrowth to yield of corn injured by western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae),” Journal of Economic Entomology, no 82, pp 1760-1763, 1989.
[18] Ostlie, K., and Notzel, D., “Managing corn root worms,” Minnesota Extension Service, University of Minnesota, AG-FO 3281, pp. 1-4, 1987.
[19] Anderson, E. L. “Corn root growth and distribution as influenced by tillage and nitrogen fertilization,” Agron. J. 79, 544–549, 1987.
[20] Baligar, V. C. “Interrelationships between growth and nutrient uptake in alfalfa and corn,” J. Plant Nutr.9, 1391–1404, 1986.
[21] Mengel, D. B., and Barber, S. A. “Development and distribution of the corn root system under field conditions,” Agron. J. 68, 341–344, 1974.
[22] Wiesler, F., and Horst, W. J. “Differences among maize cultivars in the utilization of soil nitrate and the related losses of nitrate through leaching,” Plant Soil 151, 193–203, 1993.
[23] Čamprag, D., “Pojavaištetnost Diabrotica virgifera virgifera nakukuruzu u Vojvodinitokom 1995 i 1996. godinei mere suzbijanja,”Biljnilekar, Volume XXV, br. 1, pp 8–14, 1997.
[24] Bača, F., Lopandić, D., Stojčić, J., Živanović, D., “The results of monitoring Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte in 1998, In Republika Srpska,” “Western Corn Rootworm 98” 3rd FAO WCR/ICP Meeting 4th Meeting of the EPPO and ad hoc Pand and 5th International IWGO Workshop on Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte,” 27-29 October, Rogaska Slatina, Slovenia, Abstract: pp. 21–22, 1998.
[25] Raspudić E., Sarajlić A., Ivezić M., Majić I., Brmež M., Gumze A, “Učinkovitost kemijskoga suzbijanja kukuruznoga moljca u sjemenskomekukuruzu,” Poljoprivreda/Agriculture, 19, pp. 11-15, 2013.
[26] Sivcev, I., Stankovic, S., Kostic, M., Lakic, N., Popovic, Z., “Population density of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte beetles in Serbian first year and continuous maize fields. Journal of Applied Entomology, 133: 430-437. 2009.
[27] Chiang, H. C., Sisson, V. and Rasmussen, D., “Conversion of results of concentrated samples to density estimates of egg and larval populations of the northern corn rootworm,” J. Econ. Entomol.62, 578–583, 1969.
[28] Spencer J.L., Hibbard B.E., Moeser J., Onstad D.W., “Behaviour and ecology of the western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae),” Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 11, 9–27, 2009.
[29] Godfrey, L.D., Meinke, L.J., Wright, R.J., “Field corn vegetative and reproductive biomass accumulation: response to western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) root injury,” Journal of Economic Entomology, 86, pp. 1557–1573, 1993.
[30] Sivčev I., Stankovic, S., Kostic, M., Kljajić, P., Sivčev L. “Harmfulness and control of western corn rootworm,” Biljni lekar, 42 (2-3): 169-177, 2014.
[31] Toth M., Toth V., Ujvary I., Sivčev I., Manojlović B., Ilovai Z., “Sex pheromone trapping of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte in Central Europe,” Novenyvedelem 32(9), 447-452, 1996.
[32] Tančić S., Bača F., Gošić Dondo S. “Seasonal Dynamic of the Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Zemun Polje (Serbia),” Acta Entomologica Serbica, 11 (1/2): 45-50, 2006.
[33] Bale, J.S., G. J. Masters, I.D. Hodkinson, C. Awmack, T.M. Bezemer, V.K., Brown, J., Butterfield, A., Buse, J. C., Coulson, J., Farrar, J. “Herbivory in global climate change research: direct effects of rising temperature on insect herbivores,” Global Change Biology 8:1-16, 2002.
[34] Porter, J., Parry, M., Carter, T. “The potential effects of climatic change on agricultural insect pests,” Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 57:221-240, 1991.
[35] Grozea, I., Stef, R., Carabet, A., Virteiu, A.M., Dinnesen, S., Chis, C., Molnar, L. “The influence of weather and geographical conditions on flight dynamics of WCR adults,” Commun. Agric. Appl. Biol. Sci.75 (3):315-22, 2010.
[36] Spike, P.B., Tollefson, J.J. “Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Larval Survival and Damage Potential to Corn Subjected to Nitrogen and Plant Density Treatments,” J Econ Entomol, 81 (5): 1450-1455, 1988.
[37] Urías-López, M., Meinke, A., Higley, L.J., Leon G., Fikru H.J. “Influence of Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Larval Injury on Photosynthetic Rate and Vegetative Growth of Different Types of Maize,” (2000). Faculty Publications: Department of Entomology. Paper 266. accessed Jun 22, 2017.
[38] Sutter, G. R., J. R. Fisher, N. C. Elliott, and T. F. Branson. “Effect of insecticide treatments on root lodging and yield of corn in controlled infestations of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae),” J. Econ. Entomol.83: 2414 -242, 1990.
[39] Gray, M. E., Steffey, K.L., Oloumi-Sadeghi, H. “Participatory on-farm research in Illinois corn fields: an evaluation of established soil insecticide rates and prevalence of corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) injury,” J. Econ. Entomol. 86: 1473-1482, 1993.