The Effect of Self-Efficacy on Emotional Intelligence and Well-Being among Tour Guides
The concept of self-efficacy refers to people’s beliefs in their ability to perform certain behaviors and cope with environmental demands. As such, self-efficacy plays a key role in linking ability to performance. Therefore, this study examines the relationships of self-efficacy, emotional intelligence (EI), and well-being among tour guides, who act as intermediaries between tourists and an unfamiliar environment and significantly influence tourists’ impressions of a destination. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is used to identify the relationships between these factors. The results found that self-efficacy is positively associated with EI and well-being, and a positive link was seen between EI and well-being. This study has practical implications, as the results can facilitate the development of interventions for enhancing tour guides’ EI and self-efficacy competencies, which will benefit them in terms of both enhanced achievements and improved psychological happiness and well-being.
 S. C. Chen, C. Raab, C., and S. Tanford, S., “Antecedents of mandatory customer participation in service encounters: An empirical study,” International Journal of Hospitality Management, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 65-75, 2015.
 A. Bandura, “Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change,” Psychological Review, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 191-215, 1977.
 A. Bandura, “Human agency: The rhetoric and the reality,”, American Psychology, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 157-162, 1991.
 R. Wood, and A. Bandura, “Impact of conceptions of ability on self-regulatory mechanisms and complex decision making,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 407-415, 1989.
 S. R. Chesnut, and T.A. Cullen, “Effects of self-efficacy, emotional intelligence, and perceptions of future work environment on preservice teacher commitment,” The Teacher Educator, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 116-132, 2014.
 Z. Jiang, “Emotional intelligence and career decision-making self-efficacy: National and gender differences,” Journal of Employment counseling, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 112-124, 2014.
 S. Bedwell, Emotional judgment inventory: Research manual. Champaign, IL: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, 2002.
 P. Salovey, and J.D. Mayer, “Emotional intelligence,” Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, vol. 9, no.3, pp.185-211, 1990.
 J. D. Mayer, and P. Salovey, “What is emotional intelligence?” In P. Salovey & D. Sluyter (Eds), Emotional development, emotional literacy, and emotional intelligence, (pp 3-31). Basic Books: New York, 1997.
 J. Min, “The relationships between emotional intelligence, job stress, and quality of life among tour guides,” Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research. Vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 1170-1190, 2014.
 D. W. Chan, “Perceived emotional intelligence and self-efficacy among Chinese secondary school teachers in Hong Kong,” Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 1781-1795, 2004.
 S. Tabatabaei, S., N. Jashani, M. Mataji, and N. A. Afsar, “Enhancing staff health and job performance through emotional intelligence and self-efficacy,” Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol.84, pp. 1666-1672, 2013.
 E. N. Gallagher, and D. A. Vella-Brodrick, “Social support and emotional intelligence as predictors of subjective well-being,” Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 1551-1561, 2008.
 A. Priesack, and J. Alcock, “Well-being and self-efficacy in a sample of undergraduate nurse students: A small survey study,” Nurse Education Today, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 16-20, 2015.
 N. Sánchez-Álvarez, N. Extremera, and P. Fernández-Berrocal, “The relation between emotional intelligence and subjective well-being: A meta-analytic investigation,” The Journal of Positive Psychology, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 276-285, 2016.
 D. Goleman, Working with emotional intelligence. Bantam Books: New York, 1998.
 N. Ogińska-Bulik, “Emotional intelligence in the workplace: Exploring its effects on occupational stress and health outcomes in human service workers,” International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 167-175, 2005.
 J. Min, “Guiding the guides: Developing indicators of tour guides' service quality,” Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, vol. 27, no. 9-10, pp. 1043-1062, 2016.
 R. B. DiPietro, and S. J. Condly, “Employee turnover in the hospitality industry: An analysis based on the CANE model of motivation,” Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1-21, 2007.
 J. Min, “A short-form measure for assessment of emotional intelligence for tour guides: Development and evaluation,” Tourism Management, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 155-167.
 A. S. Carvelzani, I. A. Lee, V. Locatelli, G. Monti, and M. A. Villamira, “Emotional intelligence and tourist services: The tour operator as a mediator between tourists and residents,” International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 1-24, 2003.
 Z. Amin, and K. P. Akbar, “Analysis of psychological well-being and turnover intentions of hotel employees: An empirical study,” International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 662-671, 2013.
 H. S. Jung, and H. H. Yoon, “The impact of employees’ positive psychological capital on job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behaviors in the hotel,” International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 1135-1156, 2015.
 L. J. M. Zijlmans, P. J. C. M. Embregts, L. Gerits, A. M. T. Bosman, and J. J. L. Derksen, “The effectiveness of staff training focused on increasing emotional intelligence and improving interaction between support staff and clients,” Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, vol. 59, no. 7, pp. 599-612, 2016.
 J. Vuk, M. E. Anders, C. C. Mercado, R. L. Kennedy, J. Casella, and S. C. Steelman, “Impact of simulation training on self-efficacy of outpatient health care providers to use electronic health records,”. International Journal of Medical Informatics, vol. 84, no. 6, pp. 423-429, 2015.
 Tourism Bureau. Annual report on tourism 2015. Taipei: Tourism Bureau, 2016.
 O. Walter, V. Shenaar-Golan, and Z. Greenberg, Z., “Effect of short-term intervention program on academic self-efficacy in higher education,” Psychology, vol. 69, no. 10, pp. 1199-1215, 2015.
 A. D. Fabio, and L. Palazzesch, “Emotional intelligence and self-efficacy in a sample of Italian high school teachers,” Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 315-326, 2008.
 S. Idrus, T. Alhabji, M. Al Musadieq, and H. Utami, “The effect of psychological empowerment on self-efficacy, burnout, emotional intelligence, job satisfaction, and individual performance,” European Journal of Business and Management, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 139-148, 2015.
 H. Yazici, S. Seyis, and F. Altun, “Emotional intelligence and self-efficacy beliefs as predictors of academic achievement among high school students,”. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 15, pp. 2319-2323, 2011.
 N. Singh, and A. Goel, “Self-efficacy and emotional intelligence among creative professionals: A study on gender differences,”. Learning Community, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 23-31, 2014.
 P. Salovey, and D. Grewal, “The science of emotional intelligence,” American Psychological Society, vol. 14, pp. 281–285, 2005.
 A. Pau, and R. Croucher, “Emotional intelligence and perceived stress in dental undergraduates,”. Journal of Dental Education, vol. 67, pp. 1023–1028, 2003.
 Y. Brunetto, S. Teo, K. Shacklock, and R. Farr-Wharton, R., “Emotional intelligence, job satisfaction, well-being and engagement: Explaining organisational commitment and turnover intentions in policing,” Human Resource Management Journal, vol 22, no. 4, pp. 428-441, 2012.
 C. S. Wong, and K. S. Law, “The effects of leader and follower emotional intelligence on performance and attitude: An exploratory study,” The Leadership Quarterly, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 243-274, 2002.
 R. Schwarzer, and M. Jerusalem, “Generalized Self-Efficacy scale,” In J. Weinman, S. Wright, & M. Johnston, Measures in health psychology: A user’s portfolio, Causal and control beliefs (pp. 35-37). Windsor, UK: NFER-NELSON, 1995.
 L. Lu, “Cultural Fit”: Individual and societal discrepancies in values, beliefs, and subjective well-being,” The Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 146, no. 2, pp. 203-221, 2006.