International Science Index


10007679

Measures for Limiting Corruption upon Migration Wave in Europe

Abstract:

Fight against migrant smuggling has been put as a priority issues at the European Union policy agenda for more than a decade. The trafficked person, who has been targeted as the object of criminal exploitation, is specifically unique for human trafficking. Generally, the beginning of human trafficking activities is related to profit from the victim’s exploitation. The objective of this paper is to present measures that could result in the limitation of corruption mainly through analyzing the existing legislation framework against corruption in Europe. The analysis is focused on exploring the multiple origins of factors influencing migration processes in Europe, as corruption could be characterized as one of the most significant reasons for refugees to flee their countries. The main results show that law enforcement must turn the focus on the financing of the organized crime groups that are involved in migrant smuggling activities. Corruption has a significant role in managing smuggling operations and in particular when criminal organizations and networks are involved. Illegal migrants and refugees usually represent significant sources of additional income for officials involved in the process of boarding protection and immigration control within the European Union borders.

References:
[1] Migration policy institute, Human smuggling and trafficking into Europe, 2014.
[2] OECD Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs, Responses to the refugee crisis. Corruption and the smuggling of refugees, 2015.
[3] A.T. Gallagher, F. David, “The international law of migrant smuggling”, Cambridge university press, 2014.
[4] United Nations Office of Drugs and crimes, Corruption and the smuggling of migrants – issue paper, 2013.
[5] United Nations Convention against Corruption, pp 17-19, 2004.
[6] Migration and home affairs, “Irregular Migration and Return” (2015) European commission, http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/home-affairs/what-we-do/policies/irregular-migration-return-policy/index_en.htm
[7] Communication from the Commission, EU Action Plan against Migrant Smuggling (2015–2020), pp 4-8, (COM (2015)285 Final).